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Студенческий документ № 010278 из РГПУ

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

"РЯЗАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ С.А. ЕСЕНИНА"

Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному иностранному языку (английский язык) для студентов неязыковых направлений ОЗО и дистанционной формы обучения

Составители: доц. Сухова Е.Е., доц. Олейник Э.Е., доц. Мамедова А.В., ст.преп. Жаркова Е.Ю., Голодова О.А., Балашова М.В.,Калачева М.В., асс. Варганова Е.С., Горохова Е.С., Самойлова Т.Н.

2014

Предисловие

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов дистанционной формы обучения и студентов-заочников не лингвистических факультетов РГУ имени С.А.Есенина. Оно может быть использовано как для самостоятельной работы студентов, так и на аудиторных занятиях.

Структурно пособие состоит из пяти разделов.

В первом разделе приводятся программные требования по иностранным языкам для студентов дистанционной формы обучения и студентов-заочников (нелингвистические направления). Даются рекомендации по выполнению и оформлению контрольных работ.

Во втором разделе даются контрольные работы по вариантам, состоящие из текстов страноведческого, профессионально-ориентированного и общественнополитического характера и грамматических упражнений.

В третьем разделе представлены образцы профессиональноориентированных текстов с лексическими заданиями для развития и совершенствования навыков профессионально-ориентированного перевода и реферирования текстов.

В четвертом разделе представлены образцы монологических высказываний по бытовой и страноведческой тематике.

В пятом разделе представлены задания по развитию навыков межкультурной коммуникации.

Раздел 1.

Программные требования

Общая цель освоения дисциплины Иностранный язык является комплексной и предусматривает развитие коммуникативной компетентности студентов, позволяющей использовать иностранный язык в профессиональной деятельности; формирование у обучающихся общекультурных компетенций, установленных ФГОС ВПО третьего поколения, повышение их профессиональной компетентности, расширение общего кругозора, способности к самообразованию, повышение уровня общей культуры, культуры мышления, общения и речи; воспитание толерантности и уважения к духовным ценностям разных стран и народов, формирование готовности содействовать налаживанию межкультурных и научных связей, представлять свою страну на международных конференциях и симпозиумах, знакомиться с научной и справочной зарубежной профессионально- ориентированной литературой.

В процессе обучения иностранному языку студенты-бакалавры дистанционной и заочной форм обучения должны овладеть следующими умениями и навыками в основных видах речевой деятельности : Чтение:

* умение читать со словарем тексты страноведческого, общенаучного и профессионально-ориентированного характера ;

* умение читать без словаря тексты, содержащие диалоги по пройденной тематике и ситуациям общения, и тексты, смысловая ситуация которых может служить предметом беседы, высказываний и обсуждения на иностранном или родном языке.

Письмо:

* умение правильно писать слова и словосочетания, входящие

в лексический минимум, определенный программой и кафедрой

иностранных языков; умение с помощью словаря изложить в письменной форме содержание

текста; умение написать аннотацию, реферативное сообщение, деловое письмо.

Письмо используется в течение всего курса в качестве вспомогательного средства обучения при выполнении заданий, а также при переводе и обучении навыкам аннотирования, реферирования. Учебный материал охватывает изученные тексты, речевые образцы, письменные упражнения, образцы деловых писем и т.д. Устная речь:

• умение участвовать в несложной беседе на темы повседневной жизни, учебы,работы и знание речевого этикета;умение выражать свои мысли в устной форме по пройденной тематике с использованием активных грамматических правил, а также по темам, относящимся к учебной и производственной деятельности студента и его специальности в рамках определенной лексики;

• Аудирование:

умение понимать на слух иноязычную речь, в том числе фонозаписи,содержащие усвоенный языковой материал; допускается использование незнакомой лексики, значение и смысл которой раскрывается на основе умения пользоваться языковой и лексической догадкой;

Студенты должны также иметь представление о культурных традициях и правилах речевого этикета в странах изучаемого языка.

Минимум лексического материала составляет 4000 лексических единиц, в данный минимум входит лексика для устной речи - 1100 лексических единиц, включая реплики, клише, типовые фразы - образцы, относящиеся к изучаемым сферам общения и тематике устной речи.

Минимум грамматического материала

Артикль как признак существительного. Формальные признаки существительного, множественное число существительных. Притяжательный падеж существительного. Местоимение. Неопределенные местоимения sоте, апу, по и их производные. Употребление степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий. Числительные (количественные и порядковые). Оборот there is (аге).

Глаголы в Present, Past , Future Simple; Present, Past , Future Perfect, Present, Past , Future Continious. Действительный и страдательный залоги. Модальные глаголы. Различные функции глаголов, to be, to have.Согласование времен. Косвенная речь.

Употребление настоящего времени в значении будущего в придаточном обстоятельственном предложении. Употребление повелительного и сослагательного наклонений. Неличные формы глаголов Infinitive, Gerund, Participle I. Функциональные

разграничения омонимии, функции опе, сложных инфинитивных форм и их соотнесение с формами сказуемого, инфинитива в простой и перфектной формах после модальных глаголов. Структура простого, распространенного и сложного предложения. Сведения о бессоюзном придаточном предложении, об условных предложениях изъявительного и сослагательного наклонений.

Контрольные работы

Контрольные работы носят обучающий характер, являются одной из форм обучения студентов грамматике иностранного языка, способом расширения их словарного запаса. Задача их - контролировать самостоятельную работу студента, одной из форм которой является работа студента над ошибками, сделанными в контрольных работах .Проведение контрольных работ также направлено на выработку у студентов навыков перевода с иностранного языка на русский. Правила выполнения контрольных работ:

1. Контрольные работы предлагаются в нескольких вариантах. Номер варианта указывает преподаватель.

2. На титульном листе напишите свою фамилию, имя, отчество, факультет (институт), курс, направление и профиль подготовки, номер контрольной работы.

3. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно. Текст оформляется в редакторе Word, шрифт Times New Roman, размер шрифта - 14, межстрочный интервал - 1,5.

4.Материал контрольной работы следует располагать на листе по следующему образцу:

Левая страница Правая страница поля Английский текст Русский текст поля

5. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены в той последовательности, в которой они даны в настоящем пособии.

6. Выполненные контрольные работы направляйте для проверки и рецензирования в университет в установленные сроки.

Исправление работы на основе рецензий

После получения проверенной контрольной работы

следует внимательно прочитать рецензию, ознакомиться с замечаниями и проанализировать отмеченные ошибки.

Руководствуясь указаниями рецензента, нужно еще раз проработать учебный материал. Все предложения, в которых были обнаружены орфографические и грамматические ошибки либо неточности перевода, следует исправить и поместить в конце данной контрольной работы.

После того как будут выполнены все указания рецензента и исправлены все ошибки, можно приступить к изучению материала следующего контрольного задания и к его выполнению. Итоговый контроль:

Экзамен, на котором студенту предлагается выполнить следующие задания:

1. Письменная зачетная работа, предшествующая экзамену (перевод на родном языке предложенного текста по специальности, объёмом 1000 печатных знаков)

2. Ознакомление с содержанием профессионально-ориентированного текста на иностранном языке объемом 1500 печатных знаков без использования словаря. Краткое реферирование его содержания с использованием необходимых клише.

Раздел 2.

Контрольная работа № 1

Задания

1. Прочитайте текст, переведите его письменно.

2. Выполните задания после текста.

3. Выпишите из текста 5 существительных, поставьте их во множественное число.

4. Поставьте 2 общих и 4 специальных вопроса к любым предложениям текста.

5. Выпишите из текста все неправильные глаголы, запишите их основные формы, переведите их.

6. Выполните грамматические упражнения.

Вариант 1

"Unwritten Rules" of Great Britain

Good and bad manners make up the social rules of a country. They are not always easy to learn because they are often not written down in books. For example, British women didn't go into pubs at the beginning of this century because it was not considered respectable behaviour for a woman. Now both women and men drink freely is pubs and women are fully integrated into public life. Visitors to Britain are often surprised by the strange behaviour of the inhabitants. One of the worst mistakes is to get on a bus without waiting your turn in the queue. The other people in the queue will probably complain loudly! Queuing is a national habit and it is considered polite or good manners to wait for your turn.

In some countries it is considered bad manners to eat in the street, whereas in Britain it is common to see people having a snack whilst walking down the road, especially at lunchtime. Britons may be surprised to see young children in restaurants in the evening because children are not usually taken out to restaurants late at night. And if they make a noise in public or in a restaurant it is considered very rude. In recent years children are playing a more active role and they are now accepted in many pubs and restaurants.

In recent years smoking has received a lot of bad publicity, and fewer British people now smoke. Many companies have banned smoking from their offices and canteens. Smoking is now banned on the London Underground, in cinemas and theaters and most buses. It's becoming less and less acceptable to smoke in a public place. It is considered rude or bad manners to smoke in someone's house without permission. . Social rules are an important part of our culture as they passed down through history. The British have an expression for following these "unwritten rules": "When in Rome, do as the Romans do". I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What make the social rules of a country?

2. What was respectable behaviour for a woman in 20th century?

3. What do you know about queuing?

4. What do you think about smoking?

5. What is the important part of our culture? II. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов: уважаемый, полагать, ждать, запрещать, разрешение, грубый, очередь

Вариант 2

American Homes American homes are some of the biggest and best in the world. Many have a garage for one or two cars, a big modern kitchen, a living room, and a playroom for the children.

Upstairs there are two bathrooms and three or four bedrooms. Young Johnny sleeps in one room. His sister, Sally, has another. Their parents sleep in the third bedroom. There is another room for visitors.

Some families have two homes. They have one house or apartment in the city or suburbs. They live and work there. But they have another home near the sea or in the mountains. They go to their second home on weekends and for vacations.

Seventy percent of Americans buy the house they live in. They are lucky. But thirty percent cannot buy a house or an apartment. Some of them rent their home from a landlord some landlords are good, but some are not. Windows break, or roofs get old, and the landlord does not always help.

The poorest people live in "public housing" apartments. These apartments are not like rich American homes. People do not like to live in public housing projects. They are afraid of thieves and drug sellers.

Americans who live in towns and cities move often. A family stays in one house for four or five years, and then they move again. Some people move because they have found a new job. Other people move because they want a bigger or a smaller home. In American suburbs, families come and go all the time.

Americans are always trying to make their homes better. They take a lot of time to buy furniture and make their homes beautiful. They buy books and magazines about houses and furniture. They work hard on their homes in the evenings and on weekends.

Americans like to think the United States is a young country, but really it has a long and interesting history. You can see some of its history in the styles of the houses. The lovely pueblo houses of Native American villages, the old pioneer log cabins, the plantation houses in the South, the beautiful colonial homes of the Northeast - they are all a part of American history. They are part of modem America too, because people copy the old styles in new houses. The history lives on. II. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What do American homes look like?

2. How many homes do some families have?

3. Do Americans like to rent their homes?

4. Where do the poorest people live? Do they like to live there? What are they afraid of?

5. Americans who live in towns and cities move often, don't they? Why do they move often?

6. Can you see some of American history in the styles of the houses? II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

Мебель, испугаться, воры, богатый, переезжать, стиль

Вариант 3 California Lifestyles

Why do so many new ideas come from California? It must be something in the air. New lifestyles, new kinds of medicine, new religions, new house styles - so many new things come from California.

Let's talk about bungalows, for example. A bungalow is a simple house of one storey with a yard around it. Bungalows first became popular in southern California around 1900. Thousands of them were built very quickly. The style traveled all over the U. S., and for a long time all bungalows were called "California bungalows".

And now about the Spanish style of house. It's popular in many places now. But it started in California. The old Californian "Spanish Mission" houses have thick adobe walls and round roof tiles. They are cool and comfortable. Inside, there are tiles on the floor, and heavy wooden doors.

Santa Barbara, a favourite Californian vacation town, is famous for its Spanish architecture. The story began in 1925. A big earthquake destroyed many of the buildings. After this disaster, a woman called Pearl Chase worked hard to bring in new laws. All the buildings in Santa Barbara, she said, must be in the Spanish style, with white walls and red roofs. People agreed with her, and Santa Barbara today is one of the prettiest towns in the United States.

Californians love the sun, and their houses show it. The old ranch houses of California copied the mission style. In the centre of the house was an open place, or "patio", with buildings on two or three sides. Californians liked the patio. They liked to live half inside and half outside. New houses today often have patios. People work, cook, sunbathe and talk to their friends on the patio. New modern houses all over the United States have copied the idea of the Californian patio. Some Californian ideas are not so easy to copy. Go up in an airplane, and look down at Los Angeles or San Diego. What are all those blue things next to the houses? That's right. They're swimming pools. Not many people outside California can pay for their own swimming pool in their own backyard.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What new things come from California?

2. When did bungalows first become popular?

3. What is a favourite Californian vacation town?

4. What was in the centre of the old ranch house of California?

5. Why did Californians like the patio?

6. What do people do on the patio?

II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

Idea, favourite, backyard, sunbathe, disaster, comfortable

Вариант 4

New Zealand New Zealand is an island country in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. It lies about 1 600 km southeast of Australia and about 10 500 km southwest of California. New Zealand belongs to a large island group called Polynesia. The country is situated on two main islands - the North Island and the South Island - and several dozen smaller islands. Most of the smaller islands are hundreds of kilometers from the main ones.

Wellington is the capital of New Zealand and Auckland is the largest city. English is the official language of New Zealand and is spoken throughout the country. Many native people speak their own language, Maori, in addition to English. The country once belonged to the British Empire. Today it is an independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations, an association of Britain and a number of its former colonies.

New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. The British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, is the monarch of New Zealand. She appoints a governor general to represent her, but the governor general has little power. The legislation, prime minister, and Cabinet run the national government.

Britain gave New Zealand a constitution in 1852, when it v is a British colony. But through the years the New Zealand legislature has changed almost all its provisions. Today the nation has no written constitution.

The first people who settled in New Zealand were a brown-skinned people called Maoris. They came from Polynesian Islands located northeast of New Zealand. The country was discovered by Europeans in 1642, but they did not start to settle in the islands until the late 1700's. Today, most New Zealanders are descendants of the early European settlers. Maoris make up about 12% of the country's population.

New Zealand has one of the highest standards of living in e world. For many years, the economy of the country depended largely on agriculture. Today agriculture, manufacturing, and service industries are all important to the economy. New Zealand's economy depends on trade with many countries - Australia, Britain, Japan and the United States.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Where is New Zealand situated?

2. What city is the capital of New Zealand?

3. What languages do people in New Zealand speak?

4. What is the official language in New Zealand?

5. Who is New Zealand's head of state?

6. Who runs the national government?

7. Who were the first people to live in New Zealand?

8. What are the main industries of the country?

II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

The Commonwealth of Nations, legislation, provisions, descendants, agriculture

Грамматические упражнения:

1. Напишите по-английски:

55, 112112, 352, 5231, 6198, 1876 г., 1998 г.,2003 г.,21-е мая, 13-е апреля, 15е апреля, 3-еянваря, 2-е марта, 1-е октября, 9 -е февраля.

2. Вставьте нужный артикль:

а) What ... fine day is today!

b) He usually smokes ...cigarettes or...pipe.

c) What do you prefer: ...tea or coffee?

d) I went to ... Ivanovs, but they weren't at home.

e) They met at ... gate of...school.

f) In ...our region of ...country...winter is ... very cold season/

g) ...Large steel bridge joins ...two banks of ... river.

h) ...Rice and ... cotton grow in ...Ukraine now.

i)... People who live in...Canada speak French and...English.

j) Both ... silver and ...gold are metals.

k)...North America is washed by ... Pacific and ...Atlantic oceans.

l) He spent ... summer of 1990 in ...London.

m) ...triangle has 3 sides.

n) ...knowledge is ...power.

2. Вставьте нужную форму глагола to be , обращая внимание на время предложения.. Образуйте 2-мя способами отрицательную форму предложений.

a) There...a lot of my colleagues when I came to my office. I realized I was late.

b) There ...his first article in this magazine.

c) ...there a signature on your letter? It has not been delivered in time.

d) There ...just... a thunderstorm, I think. Everything is wet through.

e) ...there great deal of natural resources in Russia.

f) There ..a lot of sugar in my tea yesterday.

3. Замените выделенные слова местоимениями.

a) My cousin and I help our close friend to cope this problem.

b) Our relatives want to write a letter to my nephew.

c) The man lost the key and asked my brother to help .

d) Her sister will tell your friends about that accident.

e) The firm raises the earnings by means of new technologies.

4. Напишите соответствующие возвратные и притяжательные местоимения.

a) This book is...(моя), not ...(твоя).

b) ...(наша) problem is certainly urgent.

c) You must do it ...( сам), it is ...(твоя) duty.

d) She cannot blame me, she knows...(сама).

e) Those seats are not...( ваши), they are ...( наши)

5. Вставьте нужную форму глагола (времена Present Simple, Present Progressive, Past Simple, Past Progressive, Future Simple, Future Progressive).

a) He (to come) to us if he (to have) time. But I (to doubt) that he (to cope)

with it so quickly.

b) Look! He (to walk) down the street. I ( to see) him from the window.

c) Yesterday they (to prepare) dinner from 3 till 5 and (to be) very tired. They (to fall asleep) early and (to sleep) for some hours.

d) I (to meet) them when I (to walk) down the street last evening. They (to

say) they (to go) home.

e) I (to watch) TV at 10 tomorrow. So I ( not to know) if I (to manage) to

visit your/ f) Why you (not to answer)? You (not to hear) me?

g) Last week he (to buy) a new book. He (to start) to read it at once.

Контрольная работа №2

Задания 1. Прочитайте текст, переведите его письменно

2. Выполните задания после текста.

3. Выпишите из текста 5 прилагательных, образуйте степени сравнение, переведите их.

4. Выполните грамматические упражнения.

Вариант 1

A MODERN STUDENT IN THE ANCIENT UNIVERSITY

Like all British universities, Oxford is a state university not a private one. Students are selected on the basis of their results in the national examination or the special Oxford entrance examination. There are many applicants, and nobody can get a place by paying. Successful candidates are admitted to a specified college of the university: that will be their home for the next three years, and for longer if they admitted to study for a postgraduate degree. They will be mostly taught by tutors from their own college. Teaching is pleasantly informal and personal; an undergraduate (apart from those in the natural sciences who spend all day in the laboratories) will spend an hour a week with his or her "tutor"; perhaps in the company of one other student. Each of them will have written an essay for the tutor, which serves as the basis for discussion, arguments, the exposition of ideals and academic methods. At the end of the hour students go away with a new essay title and a list of books that might be helpful in preparing for the essay.

Other kinds of teaching such as lectures and seminars are normally optional; popular lecturers can attract audience from several faculties, while others may find themselves speaking to two or three loyal students or maybe to no-one at all. So, in theory, if you're good at reading, thinking and writing quickly, you can spend five days out of seven being idle: sleeping, taking part in sport in students clubs, in acting and singing, in arguing, drinking, having parties. In practice, most students at Oxford are enthusiastic about academic life, and many of the more conscientious ones work for days on each essay, sometimes sitting up through the night with a wet towel round their heads.

At the end of three years, all students face a dreadful ordeal: "Finals". The victims are obliged to dress up for the occasion in black and white, and old-fashioned ritual that may help to calm the nerves. They crowd into huge, bleak examination building and sit for three hours writing what they hope is beautiful prose on half-remembered or strangely forgotten subjects. In the afternoon they assemble for another three hours of writing. After three or five days of this torture they emerge, blinking into sunlight and stagger off for the biggest party of them all.

Postgraduates (often just called graduates) are mostly busy with research for their theses, and they spend days in their college libraries or in the richly endowed, fourhundred-year-old Bodleian Library which is one of England's great national libraries.

If a student wants to spend two or three years doing postgraduate study he has two big problems. First, he has to persuade the college of his choice that he is academically better qualified than many other candidates from all over the world; second he has to pay fees and living expenses, and the university recommends not less than $24,000 per annum.

There are very few scholarships. He has to write to the Graduate Admission office, University Offices, Wellington Square, Oxford and ask for Graduate Studies prospectus. His chances of success are small because so many people have the same wish; but surprises do happen. On May 1st every year Oxford celebrates its unique spring festival with choirboys singing a Latin hymn from the top of the beautiful tower of Magdalene College at six o'clock in the morning. Thousands of people gather under the tower to hear them sing, some of them having waited for many hours. It is quite magical. And a tiny group of College fellows stands at the top of the tower with the choirboys in the misty, early morning air, looking over that splendid prospect.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How are students selected at Oxford?

2. Teaching is pleasantly informal and personal, isn't it?

3. With whom does an undergraduate spend an hour a week?

4. What are the other kinds of teaching at Oxford?

5. What does a student do if he wants to spend two or three years doing postgraduate study?

II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

To admit, a these, to argue, to attract, huge, idle, an undergraduate

Вариант 2 The Ancient Universities

Oxford and Cambridge share worldwide fame for scholarship, antiquity, architecture and elegance, and their most outstanding characteristic is the collegiate system. The colleges are self-governing teaching bodies, each electing and paying their own staff ("fellows" or "dons") and selecting their own students (applications are made to colleges, not to the university). Weekly tutorials for individuals or small groups arranged by the colleges are the main teaching method. The university provides lectures- which are optional-and central facilities like labs and libraries. Oxbridge teaching has been hardly touched by the vogue amongst younger universities for a comparative approach to undergraduate studies, and students are still taught analytically, being judged less by what they know than by their critical attitude to what they have discovered. They benefit from comprehensive copyright-deposite libraries, plus good college and departmental libraries, and though terms are only eight weeks long, vacation reading is required. Social life centres largely round the college-based Junior Common Rooms and in neither university is there a central Students Union for all undergraduates, although both now have Student Representative Councils. The famous Oxbridge Unions are primarily private debating societies with some club facilities attached. The colleges, with traditions such as eating in hall and staircase servants, combine an intimate community with a cross-section of university life-but they are segregated and can be claustrophobic. Most students live in colleges, lodgings must be approved by the college authorities, and undergraduates seldom get permission to live in flats.

Nine of the ten new universities were founded in direct response to the enormous increase in demand for higher education. In a complete break with the past they were established as a matter of government policy as|' brand-new, completely autonomous universities. Richly endowed with superb estates (200 acres was regarded as the minimum) by the local author ties which were only too happy to have the prestige of university on their;; doorsteps, the new universities have been able to experiment with every facet and at every stage of their development. So they are all unique in what they teach and the way they teach it and in the philosophy and policy behind their non-academic life. But there are some common threads in their development; faculties composed of heterogeneous collection of highly individualistic departments are, for example, out; schools or boards of studies with integrated development of their sub-disciplines are in. Several have adapted the Oxbridge collegiate system but on the Durham principle (i.e., the university admits students) to create manageable communities in readiness for the day when the university becomes, as it is intended most of them will, very large.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What are the Ancient Universities?

2. The colleges are self-governing teaching bodies, aren't they?

3. What is the role of the famous Oxbridge Unions?

4. What did faculties compose?

5. Do you want to study in one of these universities? II. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов: выдающийся, избирать, основывать, развитие, подход, знаменитый

Вариант 3

OXFORD AS I SEE IT

Being a university professor, I was naturally deeply interested in the system of education in England. I was therefore led to make a special visit to Oxford. Arriving one afternoon at four o'clock I stayed at the Mitre Hotel1 and did not leave until eleven o'clock next morning. The whole of this time, except for one hour spent in addressing the undergraduates, was devoted to a close and eager study of the great university. When I add to this that I had already visited Oxford in 1907 and spent a Sunday at All Souls2 it will be seen at once that my views on Oxford are based upon observations extending over fourteen years.

On the strength of this experience I am prepared to make the following positive and emphatic statements. Oxford is a noble university. It has a great past. It is at present the greatest university in the world: and it is quite possible that it has a great future. Oxford trains scholars of the real type better than any other place in the world. Its methods are antiquated. It despises science. Its lectures are rotten. It has professors who never teach and students who never learn. It has no order, no system. Its curriculum is unintelligible. Yet - it gets there.3

It can hardly be due to anything in the curriculum or program of studies. Indeed, to any one accustomed to the best model in the United States and Canada, the program of studies is frankly laughable. Hardly a single professor at Oxford would recognize a dynamo if he met it in broad daylight.4 The Oxford student learns nothing of chemistry, physics, heat,5 plumbing.

Strange as it may seem to us on this side of the Atlantic,6 there are no courses at Oxford in Housekeeping, or in Salesmanship, or in Advertising, or on the influence of the Press. There are no lectures whatever on Human Behaviour or on the Play of Wild Animals. Apparently the Oxford student does not learn these things.

The comparison shows the peculiar position occupied at Oxford by the Professor's lectures. In the colleges of Canada and the United States the lectures are supposed to be a necessary and useful part of the student's training. Again and again I have heard the graduates of my own college assert that they had got as much, or nearly as much out of the lectures at college as out of athletics or the Banjo and Mandolin Club. In short, with us the lectures form a real part of college life. At Oxford it is not so. The lectures, I understand, are given and may even be taken. But they are quite worthless and are not supposed to have anything to do with the development of the student's mind. "The lectures here," said one Canadian student, "are certainly rotten". Other judgements were that lectures here were of no importance that nobody took them, that they don't matter, that you can take them if you like, and that they do you no harm.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Oxford is a noble university, isn't it?

2. Why does Oxford train scholars better?

3. Does it despise science?

4. What are lectures at Oxford?

5. Does anybody take the lectures there?

II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

Rotten, experience, curriculum, plumbing, unintelligible, judgements

Вариант 4

Moscow University

An important part in the development of higher education in Russia was played by Moscow University which was founded in 1755. It was not by accident that Moscow was chosen as the place for the first Russian University. Moscow was situated in the centre of the country and it was easier for students to come there from all parts of the country, besides, life in the older capital was cheaper than in St Petersburg.

Moscow University was opened on April, 26 (May, 7) 1755 in the three-storied building where the State Historical Museum is situated. But it was too small for the University and several houses in Mokhovaya Street were bought the next year. In 1786 the sum of 125,000 roubles was allotted by the government to build a new University building. It was built by a famous Russian architect Kazakov in Mokhovaya Street.

The University had three faculties: philosophy, law and medicine. The philosophy faculty was considered to be preparatory and study there was obligatory for all students. Philosophical, natural and philological disciplines were studied for 2 or 3 years. Special attention was paid to 'the history of the Russian empire". After finishing the courses at the philosophy faculty, students could choose to study either law or medicine. At the law faculty students were taught civil law, commercial law, military law and law of the sea. Each student could work independently according to an individual plan of studies which was based on the general university curriculum and he could study the disciplines which he had chosen in any order he wished. The University also contained a library, a minerologicaJ museum, a "natural" museum, an anatomical theatre, a chemical laboratory, an astronomical observatory, etc. In accordance with the University Charter debates among students were organized. They were supervised by professors and "all lovers of the arts and sciences" were welcome to these debates. The best students were awarded gold and silver medals at the end of each year. After graduation they were sent abroad to perfect their knowledge.

All lectures were given in Latin. Professor Popovsky who gave lectures on philosophy and. literature was the first to propose giving lectures in Russian stating that "there exists no idea that can't be properly explained in Russian". But lectures in Russian were not allowed until 12 years later in 1767.

The number of students at the University was small. Thus in 1755 there were only 61 students. Later their number gradually began to grow. Now at the University there are 16 faculties where more than 30,000 students are given instruction by about 10,000 teachers. (After "The History of Moscow") I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. When was Moscow University founded?

2. Why was Moscow chosen to be the home of the first Russian University?

3. When was the University opened?

4. What sum was allotted by the government for the new building?

5. What disciplines were studied at the philosophy faculty?

II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

To propose, chemical, curriculum, medicine, in accordance with.

Грамматические упражнения

1.Вставьте модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты (can, may, must, needn't, should, would, to be to, to have to, to be able to) и переведите предложения:

a) He ...explain it to you. He knows this subject perfectly well.

b) I was surprised she ...do it without our help.

c) The train ...arrive at 8 sharp. I know it perfectly well.

d) I hate getting up early, but yesterday I ..., because my exam started at 9 a.m.

e) You ...not stay here! It is very dangerous!

f) -...I leave for a while? I forget to lock the door.

-Yes, you ...But next time you ...be more attentive.

g) He ...not come so early today, the lectures start in the afternoon. But

tomorrow they ...start in the morning.

h) -...you give me a cup of tea, please?

-I ...do it in some minutes....you wait a little?

i) -He ...do it next week, he will be free.

-No, he ...finish it today! We are short of time!

j) You ...study hard to pass your exams well! Everybody tells you about it!

k) The weather is bad. I am not sure, but it ...rain tomorrow.

5. Вставьте нужную форму глагола и переведите предложения(Present

Perfect, Past perfect, Future Perfect).

a) He just (to call) me.

b) I (to know) him for 5 years. We (to get acquainted) before he (to enter) the

university. c) We (to finish) this work by the end of the year.

d) You ever (to meet) him before?

e) ...You (to lock) the door before you (to leave) the house?

f) She (to study) French since last year.

g) When she (to come), they already to cope) with the task.

h) By the end of the month he (to read) this book.

Раздел № 3

Профессионально-ориентированные тексты для перевода и реферирования

Факультет истории и международных отношений

James I (1603-1625)

Elizabeth I named James, the son of Mary Stuart, as her successor on the English throne. At that time James was the king of Scotland, James VI. On hearing the news he rode south to England to be crowned King James I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

James I was never popular with his people. He was not handsome in appearance. He was ugly, awkward, his legs were weak for his body, his speech was not distinct. He used to wear tough clothes because of constant fear to be stabbed in the back. He was cunning, greedy and lazy. On the whole, James I produced an unfavorable impression. On the other hand he was a clever and educated man. He had a habit of expressing his opinion openly. This often led to troubles with Parliament. A French king once said that James was "the wisest fool in Christendom".

James was proud of his high position. He always said that the kings were given a "divine right" to rule by God, and nobody, even Parliament, could tell them what to do.

James often quarrelled with Parliament mostly about taxes. In 1611 James dissolved it and ruled by absolute power until 1621. Then James recalled Parliament, because he needed to raise money for his army. In turn, Parliament demanded the right to control country's foreign affairs.

During this period religious disagreement was acquiring new features. A new movement appeared in Protestantism. The Puritans were those who wanted more preaching and teaching of the Bible and few Catholic ceremonies in church services. They wanted to "purify" t Church. James persecuted both Catholics and Puritans. The famous Gunpowder Plot, when a group of Catholics wanted to blow up Parliament and King James I on November 5, 1605, was the result of such severity. As for the Puritans, they were given a chance to go to America, found settlements and pray to God as they wished. Well-known the story about the ship "Mayflower" with 102 passengers who went America in 1620 and founded a colony named New Plymouth. James I died in Hertfordshire on March 27, 1625.

I.Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What was James I like?

2. Why did James I quarrel with his Parliament?

3. Was he popular with his people?

4. He was cunning, greedy and lazy, wasn't he?

5. When did he die?

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим словам в тексте:

Handsome, appearance, constant fear, cunning, greedy, unfavorable.

The Domestic Policy

Owing to its industrial growth Britain of the 19th century was the most powerful country in the world. It produced more iron than the rest of the world together. It had enough coal and steel for its own needs and could also export it to Europe. British factories produced iron ships, steam engines and different machinery in large quantities. Britain was also a leading producer of woollen and cotton cloth, which was exported to India and other colonies, destroying their local cloth-making industries.

Britain's industry was supported by a strong banking system which developed in the 18th19th centuries.

The conditions of the poor in Britain became better to the end of the 19th century. Wages became twice larger and prices fell by 40 percent. The house conveniences like gas for heating and lighting were available almost in all homes.

The development of the railway brought convenience in the system of transportation. People preferred to go by train rather than by canals, because it was much faster. Many people went to live in the suburbs, because they could easily get to work by train from the suburb house to their working place in the city.

The cities and towns became less overcrowded and cleaner. At the beginning of the 19th century one baby in four died within a year of its birth in cities. The cities were an unhealthy place to live in. In 1832 an outbreak of cholera killed about 31. 000 people.

In the middle of the century the British government began to take measures to supply cities and towns with the proper system of drains and clean water. As the result the life in cities and towns became much better.

All children up to the age of 13 had to go to schools, and study reading, writing and arithmetic. There appeared a lot of public schools, usually for boys, which provided good education for a certain payment.There appeared new types of colleges, called "redbrick" colleges, which mostly prepared workers for Britain's industry.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Was Britain of the 19th century the most powerful country in the world?

2. . It produced more iron than the rest of the world together, did not it?

3. What did British factories produce?

4. What had happened in 1832?

5. What did "redbrick" mean?

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты следующих слов:

suburbs, outbreak of cholera, drains, appear, payment, available

The Irish Problem

In 1920 Ireland was divided into two parts. Northern Ireland belonged to the United Kingdom, as well as it does nowadays. The basic religion in the UK is Protestantism, in

Ireland it is Catholicism. In Ulster, Northern Ireland, there were 67 per cent of

Protestants, the rest were Catholics. Catholics were dissatisfied with their rights. The British government favoured the Protestants and discriminated against the Catholics.

Many Catholics were even unable to vote. In the late 1960s people, both Catholics and Protestants, began to gather in the streets and demand a fairer system. There were several bloody fights in the streets. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) appeared again after a long period of inaction. Catholics demanded withdrawal of the British troops and the unification of Northern Ireland with the Republic of Eire in the south. In the 70s Protestant extremist organizations began a campaign of violence against Catholics. In 1969 in Belfast 97 people were injured during the battles between Catholics and Protestants. On September 8, 1969 a Protestant was killed in clashes. On 14 September 1969 a British soldier was shot dead. On July 21, 1972 fifteen Catholics were killed in a bar by a Protestant extremist bomb.

In August 1971 the North Irish government ordered to arrest the people suspected of terrorism. They arrested 342 Catholics. The IRA responded by more attacks. On January 30, 1972 British soldiers fired into the demonstration of people in Londonderry killing 13 people. This day was called "Bloody Sunday". Since that time London set a direct rule over Northern Ireland, it was the end of the Irish parliament.

Betty Williams and Maired Corrigan organized a Peace Movement in Northern Ireland.

After that the number of killings diminished.

In 1981 ten IRA prisoners starved themselves to death in a hunger strike. In November 1974 a bomb exploded in Birmingham killing 21 people. Then there were explosions in Guilford and Woolwich. So the problem of terrorism was not settled.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. When was Ireland divided into two parts?

2. Were Catholics dissatisfied with their rights?

3. What did the British government do?

4. When were the battles between Catholics and Protestants?

5. Who organized a Peace Movement in Northern Ireland?

II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

To gather, to settle, strike, to suspect, rule, to appear, government

Industrial Revolution

Enclosures (the process of pushing people off their lands and making their lands pastures for sheep, as the result of increased demand for wool) made a lot of people move from villages to towns. There they had to buy food and other things which they had always made themselves when they lived on their own land. The growth of town population caused the increased demand for food and clothes. Goods had to be produced quicker. The invention of various machines made "mass production" possible. Each machine made one simple operation, which caused the "division of labour" among workers.

Meanwhile, the appearance of machines which made the process of production much quicker put many people out of work. The employers treated their workers severely paying them little money and providing them with very bad working conditions. Workers tried to protect themselves against powerful employers joining together into workers' societies. The government banned these unions and the unemployed began to break up the machines which had put them out of work. These people are known as Luddites (by the name of the first person to break up his machine). The government did not support the workers and passed an act which said that breaking of machinery was punishable by death.

The production of good iron and steel in large quantities needed more effective fuel than wood. Britain began to use coal and became the leading iron producer in Europe.

John Wilkinson built the largest ironworks in Britain. He built the first iron bridge over the River Severn in 1779. He made the first iron boats. Wilkinson improved Watt's steam engine using iron and steel for making its parts. He himself was buried in an iron coffin.

British cotton and woollen cloth was popular in Europe. So the process of its production had to be perfected. In 1764 a spinning machine was invented.

In 1785 a weaving machine made the process of cloth-making quicker. One invention led to another and soon various machines could do the work of several people.

Josiah Wedgwood made Britain famous abroad by his high quality china goods. His factory in the Midlands produced fine quality plates, cups, vases and other china goods for home use and for export.

The transportation of these goods was also made cheaper. Many canals were dug between towns; new roads were built which made it quicker and easier to cover long distances by land and by water.

On the whole, industrial revolution caused great economic, social and technological changes in Britain.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Why did a lot of people move from villages to towns?

2. What do the terms "mass production" and "division of labour" mean?

3. Did workers try to protect themselves against powerful employers?

4. The production of good iron and steel in large quantities needed more effective fuel than wood, didn't it?

5. Who built the largest ironworks in Britain?

II. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов:

запрещать, топливо, паровой двигатель, поддерживать, фарфор, копать.

Дополнительны тексты для перевода и реферирования

Text 1.Kew Gardens

Outside London there is the greenest Kew Gardens. That is a botanical garden, with main hothouses. Almost all the exotic plants and flowers can be found there. And you may sit on the grass under a tropical palm-tree or have tea under a tent with beautiful roses and lupins around it. For people who are slaying in London in summer here is a place to go just outside. You only need to catch a bus or a tube and you are in one of the most fantastic gardens in Britain. It is in the south-west of London near the river Thames. Like many other famous places Kew Gardens was associated with Britain's Kings and Queens, especially with Gcorge-III. George-III's grandfather. George-II. used to go to Hempton Court, when he wanted fresh air and a rest from London. Heuipton Court is an old and beautiful palace on the river Thames not far from Kew. George-II was a very badtempered King and he often beat his grandson. For this reason George-III didn't like Hempton Court. He couldn't forget his unhappy childhood there. So he chose Kew as the place where he went for fresh air and a rest from London. George-III was an excellent gardener. His mother started the gardens at Kew. The Royal gardens and botanical center were created by her.

During King George's reign there were many expeditions by explorers and scientists. Botanists went all over the world to look for rare plants. Apart from rare flowers and trees, beautiful lakes and interesting buildings, one of the most fantastic places at Kew is the bluebell wood. In late spring you can walk for half an hour in a wood that is covered completely with a blue carpet of flowers.

Text 2 St. Paul's Cathedral

Everybody coming to London for the first time wants to see St. Paul's Cathedral. It is the third Cathedral with this name which London has had. The two others were burnt down the first - in 1086 and the second - in 1666.

Christopher Wren was an architect who had already built many buildings. Now; in 1675, he stalled on his greatest work. For 35 years the building of St. Paul's Cathedral went on, and Wren was an old man before it was finished. When he was an old man of 90 he was carried here once a year so that he could see his beautiful work.

From far away you can see the huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. The inside of the Cathedral is very beautiful. Inside there is a mixture of wonderful architectural work. After looking around you can climb 263 steps to the Whispering Gallery which runs round the dome. It is called this because if someone whispers close to the wall on one side a person with an ear close to the wall on the other side can hear what is said. Then if you climb another 118 steps you will be able to stand outside the dome and look over London.

In the dome above the windows there are eight frescoes by Sir James Thornhill. They are depicting the life of St. Paul. But not only can you climb up you can also go down underneath the cathedral into the crypt. Many great men including Christopher Wren himself are buried here.

Text 3 Statue of Liberty.

Statue of Liberty is a gigantic statue on Liberty Island. The statue was originally called Liberty Enlightning the world. The statue represents a regal woman drapped in classical robes and wearing a crown with seven spokes. At her feet lie the broken shackles of slavery. In her uplifted right hand she carries a torch and in her left hand she holds a lawbook inscribed July 4,1776 - the day of Declaration of Independence. The figure weighs 225 tons and is 151 feet 1 inch (46,05 metres) high to the top of the torch. The pedestal is 89 feet (27,1 m) high, and the base is 65 (19.8 in) above the level of the bay. making the elevation 305 feet 1 inch (92.99 in) above (he sea level.

At night the statue is floodlit and the torch and crown are illuminated from within.

The Statue of Liberty was a gift of the French people to the United States in commemoration of centennial of American independence The statue was designed by Frederic Auguate Bartholdi. who eoneieved the idea for the work in [874. The nun framework was designed by Gugtave Eiffel, who Liter created the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Money for the statue was raised by Hubs crip I ion from the French people. The figure was built in Paris, disassembled and shipped to New York, where a pedestal had been prepared for it with money raised from the American people. The total cost of the monument approached $ 800.000.

In the decades that followed the statue had a great emotional impact upon the millions of immigrants who sailed past it into the New World in search of opportunity It was regarded warmly by the troops returning from the European front during both world wars. In 1903, Emma Zazarus' sonnet to the .Statue of Liberty. The New Colossus, was inscribed on a bronse plate in its pedestal. In 1924 the statue and island were named a national monument.

Text 4 New Zealand

New Zealand consists of a group of hilly evergreen islands that lie in the Southwest Pacific Ocean.

Polynesians. the ancestors of present day Maoris, settled on these islands in the 1014 centuries. In 1642 the islands were discovered by Abel Yanszoon Yasman the famous Dutch navigator but Maoris refused to allow him to Kind and in 1796 they were explored by Captain James Cook. This was followed by British colonization. Maoris fought desperately, but they were overwhelmed by a superior enemy. Maori Wars ended in 1870. The colony became a dominion in 1907. and is an independent member of the Commonwealth. New Zealand fought on the side of Allies in both world wars. New Zealanders do not miss an opportunity to remind foreigners of a generally little known fact: their country's contribution to the fight against nazi Germany was the greatest of alt the former British dominions.

New Zealand is a capitalist country and its economy, everyday life and politics are dominated by monopoly capital. New Zealand has a climate that lets grass grow green the years round, and New Zealand's dairy industry is considered to be the most efficient anywhere and the export of dairy products is the largest in the world despite the country's small size and population.

New Zealand has begun diversification t role in its economy than farming.

Although sentimental ties to the United Kingdom are strong among older people, many young people feel closer to Australia and the United States.

English is the official and predominant language. Maori is spoken by the native people. The head of the state is Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor - General.

Text 5 Peter I

Tsar Peter I was one of the greatest personalities in Russian history. He was a pre-eminent statesman and an outstanding reformer. He played an exceptional role in Russia's development. He promoted the Russian economy, culture and science, and strengthened the Russian state. Peter I is referred to as a truly great man. Indeed he importance of his work in the progress of our country can hardly be overestimated. Thanks to his energy definite progress was made in practically every field of life. The economy, culture, education of the Russian state, its military strength and its international standing - all altered radically during the reign of Peter I.

At the end of the seventeenth century, at the beginning of his reign, Russia had no industry or trade of any importance; her roads were poorly developed; there was no secular education, there were no schools for specialists, and state management was archaic. Russia had only the rudiments of a regular army, and no navy. She had access neither to the Baltic nor the Black Sea, which could give her convenient avenues of contact with Western Europe.

The international standing of the country was very low. Large European states simply did not take her consideration. A certain balance and the beginning of a rapprochement with Poland alone was established in the second half of the seventeenth century. Her north-western neighbour, Sweden, was still holding territories captured at the beginning of the 17th century, cutting her off from the Baltic sea. In the south, the Crimean Tatars barred Russia from the Black Sea and raided Russian territories every year, plundering the communities, killing the people, driving thousands into slavery, and preventing the economic utilization of Russia's fertile lands. Throughout the seventeenth century the Russian government paid tribute to the Crimean Tatars, but even this did not save the country from the devastating raids. Attempts to strike against the enemy in the Crimea (he campaigns of V.V. Golitsyn between 1687 and 1689) ended in failure. Such was the state of the country when Peter I came to power. All this determined the main tasks of his government.

Peter was aware of Russia's backwardness. He tried to overcome it, and succeeded to a great extent. In his time Russia established secular schools and institutions to train civil specialists and specialists for the army. It was during his reign that a navy was built and a naval academy established. The basis of medical education was laid; a new alphabet was introduced, which facilitated the spread of reading, writing and book-printing. Publishing, mainly of secular literature, became widely developed, and translations of works in various sciences were undertaken. Our country owes the establishment of the Academy of Sciences to peter I. The first Russian newspaper was also founded in his days.

Industry ranging from large metallurgical enterprises and shipyards to textile and silk-marking factories was vigorously established. Altogether approximately 200 major enterprises, some of them quite big, were set up at that time. For instance, more than 10,000 people were employed at the Admiralty shipyards in Petersburg. More than 1,000 people worked at the textile mill in Moscow.

The results of this development of industry were quite impressive: Russia, which formerly imported metal, became an exporter; the army and navy were fully supplied with Russian-made armaments. The purchase of arms in other countries was discontinued in 1712.

Foreign and internal trade were pushed ahead. A system of canals was rapidly created, new towns and ports were built, including St. Petersburg, a major city and port, which was made the capital of Russia.

A better system of regional administration was established. The Sanate was set up as the supreme legislative and executive body; it could even act in the name of the tsar.

Radical reforms were brought into effect in agriculture. Enterprises for processing sheepskin were started, new crops were introduced and resolute measures were taken to conserve forests. All this was carried out in the vigorous and sweeping manner, which was characteristic of Peter I. He personally saw to everything and achieved his objectives by kind words, by orders, and by threats of severe punishment. Not all of his initiatives brought immediate results. Many of his reforms ran up against covert and even overt opposition.

The change in Russia's role and place in international affairs was particularly striking. This came as a result of the growth of her internal strength and led to her development into a great power, which, to quote Pushkin, emerged in Europe "like a ship launched amidst the blows of axes, and the thunder of guns". Peter's first military effort was directed southward, against the Tatars and Turks. Thanks to his successful campaigns of 1695 and 1696 the tatars were pressed back, and several towns and fortresses were taken along the Dnieper, and also Azov, a big Turkish fortress at the mouth of the Don.

Since Russia's allies (Austria, Venice and Poland) did not wish to continue the war against Turkey, Russia was forced to start peace talks, though she had not reached her objective, access to the Black Sea. A major result of the clashes with Turkey and Crimean Khanship at the time of peter I was the annulment of the tribute paid to the Crimean Khanship, which was incompatible with Russia's status of sovereign power. The Tatars also stopped raiding Russian lands.

The successes in the war against Sweden were greater. As a result of the Northern War Russia regained access to the Baltic Sea, built a strong navy and became a mighty naval power in the Baltic. The navy was Peter's favourite child from the very beginning of its construction. He devoted much time and thought to its creation and actually worked on the ships with his own hands. One of the ships at the yards in Petersburg was always built under his personal supervision.

Peter was similarly concerned with the development of Russia's regular army, which gained unfading military glory. He regarded his efforts as "service". In his mature years he wrote the following about himself: "I began by service as a gunner in the first Azov campaign".

Needless to say, Peter I was the son of his time, and his line of action benefited, first of all, the upper classes, while the burdens of war and reform were shouldered by the common people.

The campaigns of V.V. Golitsyn - военные походы князя В.В. Голицина (1687 и 1689) против Крымского ханства, окончившиеся неудачей.

Crimean Khanship - Крымское ханство, татарское феодальное государство, выделившееся из Золотой Орды (XV-XVII вв.)

Admiralty shipyards -Адмиралтейские судостроительные верфи.

in the name of the tsar - именем царя to a great extent - в большой степени

it was during his reign that - именно во время его правления

TASKS 1. Read and translate the text.

2. Make a report about Peter I.

TEXT 6 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE RUSSIAN EDUCATION

In pre-Revolutionary Russia pedagogic theory was far ahead of practice. Many great philosophers, educators and writers struggled to bring light to the backward schools of their country. Among them were Vissarion Belinsky (1811 - 1848) who held that the state must be responsible for educating for all its citizens, and Alexander Herzen (1812 -1870).

Herzen characterised schooling as it existed at that time as "one of the most frightful infringements of human rights". In the 1860's there were such men as Nikolai Chernyshevsky (1825 - 1889) and Nikolai Dobrolybov (1836 - 1861), liberal writers. They though not teachers, wrote much on education. They urged teachers to play attention to the child's natural development, advocated self-activity, fought passionately against corporal punishment, criticised rote learning, and recommended that university education be free.

The great educator of the period, Konstantin Dmitrievich Ushinsky (1824-1870), is in the fullest sense of the word the founder of the Russian primary school and of pedagogical training for teachers. Education, he believed, must be combined with work, and one of the tasks of the school is to teach work skills and love of work. His books on training teachers, administration, and curriculum have contributed greatly to pedagogical theory and practice.

These writers, educators and philosophers, however, were unable materially to affect the Tsarst schools. In fact, some were persecuted or ignored, some exiled.

ЗАДАНИЯ

1.Ответьте на вопросы английского студента:

1) What can you say about the number of institutes and universities in your country?

2) How many people study at higher educational institutions?

3) What are day, evening and correspondence departments for?

4) How do young people enter institutes and universities?

5) Do all school-leavers go on studying?

6) Why are there so many people wishing to enter a higher educational institutions?

7) Which fields of science are more popular among the young people: the exact sciences or humanities? Why?

8) How many exams do students have to take every term? What for are they taken? Are they an indispensable element of studying?

Do you agree with the idea that exams are a matter of luck and one can never be certain about the result?

9) How high are the grants and who receives them?

10) What for are students of senior courses given days - off? 11) In what cases can a student be expelled?

2.Ответьте на вопросы английских студентов о российской системе дошкольного и среднего образования: 1) What do children learn in the day nurseries?

2) Children in pre-school facilities are divided into some age groups, aren't they? What are these age groups?

3) How do the children learn in the nurseries?

4) How many years does the secondary education take?

5) What are the main levels of secondary education?

6) What innovations have been introduced lately?

7) Have you experimented with a five-day week and 40-minute lessons at your school? What do you think about this innovation?

8) When do the Russian school students have their holidays? What are the longest holidays of an academic year?

3. Расскажите группе английских учителей о современном состоянии школьного образования в России.

4. Знаете ли вы о состоянии образования в России до революции?

5. Сколько было школ до революции в вашем регионе?

Тексты для института психологии, педагогики и социальной работы

You Can't Import Psychoanalysis

Recently the field of psychoanalysis has got a big boost in Russia. But Russia hasn't enough trained psychoanalysts, those who were trained under another psychoanalyst and who were recognized as professionals by the International Society of Psychoanalysts. There are only a few of them.

But you cannot import psychoanalysis like any consumer goods. It is tied to ideology, psychology, and the society's cultural patterns. It's no accident that psychoanalysis has yet to emerge in Islamic countries.

Psychoanalysis is unique in its versatility. Practically everyone who works with it finds some way of modifying it. Why did Freud's favourite disciples separate from him? Because they began to expand his discipline in all directions. Carl Jung took on the collective unconscious; Alfred Adler concentrated on the striving for power; Erich Fromm and Erik Erikson moved to sociology. Psychoanalysis stimulates the mind. It spurs diversity.

When a person learns new things about himself, he becomes freer, stronger. Psychoanalysis can bring benefit to anybody and to the people around him.

Psychoanalysis may be sometimes called a "therapy". In those cases where a person senses that something isn't quite right, but can't dig through to the heart of the matter on his own. Consider this. A patient is suffering from high blood pressure, is taking strong medicines, they work for a week or so, but then the pressure is there again. We tried psychoanalytical therapy, and it turns out this person has been gifted verbally from childhood. He becomes intoxicated on his own words. He has perfect diction, a total command of rhetoric. He is talking all the time and can almost never stop to listen. It's practically impossible for him to empathize with other people. Studies have shown that continuous talking causes the body to release certain hormones which raise blood pressure. Such disbalancing of hormonal equilibrium can lead to diabetes, stomach ulcers, or in his case, high blood pressure. I had a devil of a time teaching him to listen to other people. But after treatment, as he himself said, "at least I'm back down to Earth".

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Psychoanalysis is unique in its versatility, isn't it?

2. Does psychoanalysis stimulate the mind?

3. What can psychoanalysis bring to anybody and to the people around him?

4. He becomes intoxicated on his own words, doesn't he?

5. Is it possible for him to empathize with other people? II. Найдите русские эквиваленты:

to recognize, to modify, suffering, benefit, versatility, treatment, devil, blood pressure

How Hard Do Teachers Work?

The stereotypes of teachers exist in the public imagination: the harassed and hardworking sort who burns the midnight oil, and the uncaring and idle who cannot get to his car fast enough at 3.50 p.m.

The truth probably lies somewhere in between these extremes, but nobody knows what the teachers' workload is. People look at their holidays with some envy and assume teachers have an easy job. Teachers argue that they need the breaks to recuperate from the stresses of term-time.

The issue is important because teachers are on strike for extra pay. They claim that they do an extremely onerous job conscientiously but that the Government does not appreciate them.

A recent survey by the National Union of Teachers found teachers in primary and secondary schools working an average of a 47-hour week.

The survey of primary teachers, in 1971, found that their working day was 8.8 hours without breaks during term-time and that they spent three- and-a-quarter hours working each weekend. Secondary teachers were examined in a survey published in 1978. They found that they had an average of 22 minutes a day for lunch, tea and coffee breaks during the teaching day and that they worked an average of an extra three hours a day on top of their teaching.

Their average working day during term-time was 8.4 hours without breaks and they spent four hours on school work at weekends.

Some of the figures showed, for example, comprehensive schoolteachers working extra 80 hours a week and a middle-school teacher claimed to have worked an extra 96 hours.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What are the stereotypes of teachers?

2. People look at their holidays with some envy and assume teachers have an easy job, don't they?

3. Why do teachers need the breaks?

4. Does the Government appreciate teachers?

5. How much time did secondary teachers have for lunch?

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты следующих слов:

to recuperate, imagination, idle, envy, to appreciate, to claim, a survey

inside it looks curiously as it always has, with its surface of pageantry, idleness and sport.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Oxford is older than Cambridge, isn't it?

2. How many members are there at Oxford?

3. Cambridge is more isolated, more theatrical, more scientific, isn't it?

4. What aspects of university life would you expect to be important at Oxford and Cambridge?

5. What is the essential difference between teaching methods at Oxbridge and other British universities?

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты следующих слов:

wealth, to depend on, self-contained, attraction, frolics, curiously, idleness

The Nature of Memory

Human memory depends on a complex mental system. There are three basic memory processes. Encoding transforms stimulus information into some type of mental representation. Encoding can be acoustic (by sound), visual (by appearance), or semantic (by meaning). Storage maintains information in the memory system over time. Retrieval is the process of gaining access to previously stored information. There are three types of memory: episodic memory, semantic memory and procedural memory. Any memory of a specific event that happened while you were present is an episodic memory - such as what you had for dinner yesterday, what you did last summer. Semantic memory contains generalized knowledge of the world that does not involve memory of a specific event. Procedural memory, which involves the skill learning, provides the memory for how to do things - how to ride a bike, read a map, or tie a shoelace. Often a procedural memory consists of complicated sequence of movements that cannot be described adequately in words. For example, the gymnast might find it impossible to describe the exact motions in a particular routine.

Many activities require all three types of memory. Consider the game of tennis. Knowing the official rules or how many sets are needed to win a match involves semantic memory. Remembering which side served last requires episodic memory. Knowing how to lob or volley involves procedural memory.

Memory is full of paradoxes. It is common, for example, for people to remember the name of their first-grade teacher but not the name of someone they met just a minute ago. Like perception, memory is selective. While people retain a great deal of information, they also lose a great deal.

Memory is intimately tied to many other aspects of psychology. Without memory, you would not know how to shut off your alarm clock, take a shower, get dressed, or recognize objects.

Answer the following questions:

1. How many types of memory are there?

2. What are they?

3. What are the basic memory processes?

4. What do many activities require?

5. What is memory tied to?

Improving your memory

Even though some basic questions about what memory is and how it works resist final answers, psychologists know a great deal about how people can improve their memories. People with normal memory skills as well as brain-damaged individuals can benefit from mnemonics, which are strategies for placing information into an organized context in order to remember it. Verbal organization is the basis for many mnemonics. You can link items by weaving them into a story or a sentence or a rhyme.

One simple but powerful mnemonics is called the method of loci (pronounced "lowsigh"), or the method of places. To use this method, first think about a set of familiar locations - your home, for example. Vivid images of interactions or relationships seem to be particularly effective.

When you want to remember more complex material, such as a textbook chapter, the same principles apply. Indeed, you can facilitate your memory for text material by first creating an outline or other overall context for learning, rather than by just reading and re-reading. Repetition may seem effective, because maintenance rehearsal alone tends to be ineffective, no matter how much time you spend on it. In short, "work smarter, not harder".

In addition, spend your time wisely. Distributed practice is much more effective than massed practice for learning new information. If you are going to spend ten hours studying for a test, you will be much better off studying for ten one-hour blocks (separated by periods of sleep and other activity) than "cramming" for one ten-hour block. By scheduling more study sessions, you will stay fresh and tend to think about the material from a new perspective each session. This method will help you elaborate the material and remember it.

Answer the following questions:

1. What way can people improve the memory in?

2. What does the method of loci mean?

3. What are the ways to remember the text?

4. Is repetition effective in studying?

5. What is the basis for mnemonics?

The Nature of Emotion

Everyone seems to agree that joy, sorrow, anger, fear, love and hate are emotions, but it is hard to identify the shared features that make these experiences emotions rather than thoughts or impulses.

Most psychologists in Western cultures tend to see emotions as organized psychological and physiological reactions to changes in our relationship to the world. These reactions are partly subjective experiences and partly objectively measurable patterns of behavior and physiological arousal. The subjective experience of emotion has several characteristics.

1. Emotion is usually transitory; it tends to have a relatively clear beginning and end, and a relatively short duration. Moods, by contrast, tend to last longer.

2. Emotional experience has valence, which means it is either positive or negative.

3. Emotional experience is elicited partly by a cognitive appraisal of how a situation relates to your goals.

4. Emotional experience alters thought processes, often by directing attention toward some things and away from others.

5. Emotional experience elicits an action tendency, a motivation to behave in certain ways.

6. Emotional experiences are passions that happen to you, usually without willful intent.

Subjective aspects of emotions are experiences both triggered by the thinking self and felt as happening to the self. They reveal an individual both as agent and object, both I and me, both the controller of thoughts and recipient of passions.

Objective aspects of emotion include learned and innate expressive displays and physiological responses. Expressive displays - a smile, a frown - communicate feelings to others. Physiological responses - changes in heart rate - provide biological adjustments needed to perform the action tendencies generated by emotional experience.

In summary, an emotion is transitory, valenced experience that is felt with some intensity as happening to the self, generated in part by cognitive appraisal of situations, and accompanied by both learned and innate physical responses. Through emotion, people communicate their internal states and intentions to others, but emotions also functions to direct and energize a person's own thoughts and actions.

Answer the following questions:

1. What is an emotion?

2. What emotions can you enumerate?

3. What do objective aspects of emotion include?

4. What are subjective aspects of emotions?

5. Are emotions transitory?

Testing for Intelligence

Psychologists have not reached a consensus on how best to define intelligence. Working definitions describe intelligence in terms of reasoning, problem solving, and dealing with environment. IQ tests measure some, but not all, of these aspects of intelligence. Let's look at the history of IQ tests.

In 1904 the French government appointed psychologist Alfred Binet to a commission charged with identifying, studying, and providing special educational programs for children who were not doing well at school. As a part of his work on the commission, Binet developed a set, or a battery, of intellectual test items that provided the model for today's intelligence tests. In creating his test, Binet assumed that intelligence is involved in many reasoning, thinking and problem-solving activities. His tests included tasks such as unwrapping a piece of candy, repeating numbers or sentences from memory, and identifying familiar objects. Binet also assumed that children's abilities increase with age. About a decade after Binet published his test, Lewis Terman at Stanford University developed an English version known as the Stanford-Binet. Terman added items to measure the intelligence of adults and revised the method of scoring. Mental age was divided by chronological age, and the quotient was multiplied by 100. The result was called the intelligence quotient, or IQ. Thus, a child whose mental age and chronological age were equal would have an IQ of 100, which is considered "average" intelligence. From this method of scoring came the term IQ test, a name of a widely used test designed to measure intelligence on an objective, standardized scale.

Nowadays in schools the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests are the most popular individually administered intelligence tests. Both includes subtests and provide scores for parts of the tests as well as an overall score. Currently, a person's IQ score reflects how far that person's performance on the test deviates from the average performance by people in his or her age group.

IQ tests are reasonably reliable, and they do a good job of predicting academic success. However, IQ tests assess only some of the abilities that might be considered aspects of intelligence, and they may favor those most familiar with middle-class culture. Nonetheless, this familiarity is important for academic and occupational success.

Answer the following questions:

1. What intelligence tests do you know?

2. What did Binet develop?

3. What is intelligence involved in?

4. What is IQ?

5. What did Terman add to the test?

Psychology and Teaching

One modern trend has been the increasing interest in the psychological enquiries carried out by Piaget and his Swiss collaborators between the nineteen-twenties and the nineteen-sixties. These ingenious studies of the detailed intellectual development of children and adolescents have enriched our conceptions of what human intelligence is, and particularly of its scope and limitations at the different stages of the educational process. Apart from the substantial and excellent account of the Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget (1963) by the American psychologist Flavell, there have been useful English publications such as those of Peel, Lovell and Isaacs. Certain defects and difficulties in Piaget's work have long been recognized. It is a measure of his achievement that the interest of work itself survives such objections. Some of the defects are a certain vagueness and variability in definitions of terms and conditions, a tendency to excessive theoretical elaboration of each limited piece of experimental evidence and a frequent disregard for the virtue of obtaining adequately defined samples of children and quantitative rather than qualitative assessments of their performance. Recognizing these weaknesses, one can go on to consider some of the main positive features of Piaget's developmental psychology.

Intellectual or cognitive development from infancy to adulthood is characterized by the complementary adaptive functions of assimilation and accommodation. Just as we chew and digest items of food, converting something that is not part of us into something that is, so, in the course of development and learning , we assimilate psychologically the impressions that come from the world around, converting them into the personal form of our own experience. Similarly, just as the mouth and other relative parts of the body must accommodate themselves to nature of the food ingested, so the structure of individual experience at many point in time must alter itself to accommodate new experiences that may not fit into the existing structure. Piaget thinks of the cognitive apparatus (whatever it is) as generating its own ability and not just responding to external tensions such as that of hunger. The cognitive apparatus consists of specific structures which emerge in a series of stages and which always illustrate the two aspects of assimilation and accommodation.

The four main stages of the educational process are those of (1) sensory-motor intelligence, (2) preoperational thought, (3) concrete operations, and (4) formal operations. These are not to be identified with any precise chronological ages, but the first would correspond roughly to the period up to about 18 months or two years, the second to the period between 6 or 7 years, the third to the period between 7 and 11 or 12, and the fourth to the period of adolescence. The first period - that of early infancy - has been mapped out in great detail. It is the time when the baby changes from being almost a mere psychological structure governed by reflexes to becoming an embryonic human being interested in exploring his immediate environment. In the second period the infant's range of assimilation and accommodation rapidly expands. One event that symbolizes this period is the child's transition from the limited atmosphere of the family to the wider and more demanding world of the school. The third period, coinciding with the main part of primary schooling, is called the period of concrete operations. Children at this stage can do things like arranging a series of objects in order from the biggest to the smallest or sorting out a mixture of objects (differently coloured blocks, for example) into its separate homogeneous constituents. These and other such responses underlie the various arithmetical relationships which children come to understand and which are typical of this stage of intellectual development. The word "operation" in this context is a technical term used to refer to the intellectual process or structure manifested in the child's overt rational behaviour. In the fourth period - that of formal operations - children move beyond the logic of simple classes and relations and become able to appreciate the more complex relations between propositions. They can now deal with relationships in the abstract without necessary reference to specific details of content. The "centration" effect of earlier years, whereby limited perceptual elements of any situation dominate the child and prevent a complete logical analysis, now becomes weaker. The growing appreciation of "reversibility" (that addition can be undone by subtraction, multiplication by division, and so on) develops into fuller powers of thinking hypothetically about all the possible relationships among severable variables. These new powers are matched by the academic demands of secondary schooling. In algebra, geometry, science, history, and literature there is increasing abstractness and generality - often, indeed, outrunning the capacity of some pupils.

(Psychology and Teaching. After H.S.N McFarland) The Scope of Educational Psychology

Educational Psychology begins with the observations and spontaneous questions of people confronted with certain facts of the world. A student finds that there are more books than he has time to read, that new words and ideas are freely used before understands them, and that new freedoms bring their own problems and responsibilities. He thinks about these problems, discusses them with his fellows, and searches for clues in the comments of lecturers. The wiser learn gradually how to select the best from books, how to note the salient facts and arguments of lectures, how to use reference books, and how to record observations and experiments. They improve, not only by acquiring good techniques of study in the narrower sense, but acquiring deeper insight into their own personalities. They progress, in fact, by solving the problems of their own educational psychology.

Similarly, a young teacher beginning to work with children faces another and wider range of problems in educational psychology. His well-conned knowledge, his carefully prepared lesson, his expectation of how the children will behave - all may be shattered by the infinite variety and waywardness of real children. They may be intellectually incapable of understanding what is taught. They may be bored by the manner of its teaching. They may not have had time to grow accustomed to the new teacher. They may, however, be delighted and respond beyond the novice's most optimistic hope. Whatever happens, and whatever academic level, the teacher cannot avoid the recurrent problems of educational psychology: What can I expect of children of different ages? How widely do children of the same age wary? How far does it depend on their education at home and how far on what they inherit? How can I interest them and make them learn? How do I cope with the dull or backward and with the very bright? What is to be done with naughty children? How do I keep discipline? How wide is the teacher's responsibility? Am I to concern myself with the whole development of the child or can I reject responsibility for the non-scholastic aspects? These are typical of the questions to which educational psychologists have offered answers.

As a separate study, educational psychology belongs to the twentieth century, although is has strong roots going back to J. J. Rousseau in the eighteenth century. And, of course, even before that people could not help having some educational psychology. For centuries learning by heart and discipline by corporal punishment were central principles of educational practice.

(Psychology and Teaching. After H.S.N McFarland)

The Independent

Boys do better when they are taught by men, study finds

By Richard Gamer, Education editor

Boys will perform better in education if they have a male teacher in their primary school, according to research published today. A study of more than 1,000 men reveals almost half of them (48 per cent) cited male primary school teachers as having had the most impact on them during their school life.In addition, 35 per cent said having a male teacher challenged them to work harder at school while 22 per cent said males had boosted their confidence in their own ability.

The research, for the Training and Development Agency - the body responsible for teacher training - comes as the number of males qualifying to teach is at its lowest for five years 23.8 per cent. Only 13 per cent of all primary school teachers are men. The research, carried out by ICM, is backed up by psychologists who point out that - with the growing number of one-parent families where children are brought up by their mother a teacher may be a child's only male role model. Dr Tanya Byron, the clinical psychologist and government adviser, said: "Male primary school teachers can often be stable and reliable figures in the lives of the children they teach."The number of males qualifying to teach was 1.5 per cent down in 2006-07 compared with the previous year. However, with primary school registrations, the figure has been rising by 1 per cent a year to 16 per cent. The TDA is launching a campaign to encourage men to teach. It wants recruits to follow in the footsteps of Simon Horrocks, who quit his job as a supermarket manager to start teaching aged 39. Mr Horrocks, who teaches at Christ Church school in Folkestone, Kent, sold his home to study to be a teacher. He said: "It was when my two sons started school I thought about a switch. I used to spend one day a week in their school. It was a 'road to Damascus experience' and now I come skipping to work in the morning."

Give Russian equivalents for the following words and phrases. Translate from Russian into English:

to be taught; according to research; a male teacher; confidence; to carry out; the number of males qualifying to teach; to do better; government adviser; used to spend; to boost one's confidence.

Find the English equivalents in the text for the Russian words given below: исследование; неполные семьи; воспитывать; учителя начальной школы; учителямужчины; поощрять мужчин работать учителями; клинический психолог; оказывать сильное влияние; начать (проводить) кампанию.

Answer the following questions:

1. When do the boys perform better?

2. What is the Training and Development Agency responsible for?

3. What campaign is the TDA launching?

4. Who has the most impact on boys during their school life? Why is it so?

5. What did the clinical psychologist say?

Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The number of one-parent families is growing.

2. The number of males qualifying to teach is increasing in 2006-07 compared with the previous year.

3. Boys will perform better in education if they have a kind teacher in their primary school.

4. Some people said having a male teacher challenged boys to work harder at school.

5. Most people think male primary school teachers boosted their confidence in their own ability.

BBC Grammars pressed over poor pupils

Grammar schools take relatively fewer bright, poor pupils than schools that do not select by ability, a study says.

Research for the Sutton Trust suggests state schools in England take twice the rate of smart, poor pupils compared to grammar schools. The report also suggests that state faith schools take fewer poorer pupils compared to other state secondaries. The government said the mandatory admissions code introduced last year outlawed unfair admission practices. The researchers based at Durham University analysed the pupil characteristics of every child who began secondary school in England in 2001. They found that about 2% of grammar school pupils were from low income families - on free school meals, compared to 12% of pupils at non-grammar schools. This is largely because those attending grammar schools have to pass an academic test and only one in 20 pupils among the top performing pupils are on free school meals, they said. However, in grammar schools only 2% of the top achievers were on free school meals, compared to 5.5% for non-grammar schools. They also compared the rate of pupils on free school meals at a school with that of the areas from which they drew their pupils. And a large number of non-academically selective state schools were found to be more socially selective than grammar schools. Over half of the state schools deemed most socially selective by the researchers were those that pick pupils on the basis of faith. Some 50 non-grammars appeared to be more academically selective than the least selective grammar school. "How can it be that a non-selective school can have a 30 percentage point difference between the free school meals rate in the area from which it draws its intake and the rate for the pupils it actually enrols in the school," the report asked. Half of these highly selective schools were in control of their admissions policies and half selected pupils on the basis of a faith, it added. Even though they were not ostensibly academically selective, the report said some schools could pick some pupils by "aptitude" for a certain subject such as music, some were effectively "selecting by home postcode" when they became oversubscribed and many were faith schools.

'Creaming off'

Report author Dr Robert Сое said there was no evidence schools were deliberately selecting smarter pupils. But he added: "There are incentives within the system for schools to take the nice pupils rather than the nasty pupils if you want to put it that way. We have to blame the league tables." Faith schools, however, insist they tend to take a higher proportion of pupils from poor backgrounds. The report also looked at the impact the academic selection of grammar schools had on other schools that the grammar pupils could have gone to. In areas where there are large numbers of grammar schools, such as Kent, Medway, Buckinghamshire and Lincolnshire, many schools lose more than a fifth of their potential bright pupils to grammars. Overall it found 35% of non-selective schools lose between 1 and 20% of the pupils they might have had to grammar schools. A further 32% lose between 0 and 1%. This may partly be due to the larger area from which many grammar schools draw their pupils.

Admissions code

Many fill the available places with the pupils who score the highest marks in the entrance examination, paying no regard to where they live. Nationally, some 20% of grammar school pupils come from outside the local authority of the school. But for some local authorities the figure is as high as 75%. Dr Lee Elliot Major, director of research at the Sutton Trust, said the figures suggested that grammars were not enrolling as many academically able pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds as they could do. "More spotlight needs to be focused on ensuring grammars do all they can to reach out to all potential pupils." Chairman of the National Grammar Schools Association Robert McCartney rejected suggestions grammars were not taking enough poor, bright pupils. He said: "You can only get into a grammar school if you subject yourself to an entrance test. Among deprived areas there is a dearth of parents pushing their children's educational aspirations." A Department for Children, Schools and Family spokesman said it did not support academic selection at 11 and that parents could vote to abolish it in their area.

"For non-selective schools, the mandatory School Admissions Code gives children a fair and equal chance of getting into a school of their choice, regardless of background. "It means all admission policies must be fair, clear and objective. We want parents to choose schools not schools to choose parents and the large majority of schools have fair admissions."

Give Russian equivalents for the following words and phrases. Translate from Russian into English:

to take pupils; relatively bright pupils; the rate of pupils; to be more socially selective; to pick pupils on the basis of faith; to become over-subscribed; to draw pupils; pupils from poor backgrounds; an entrance test; deprived areas.

Find the English equivalents in the text for the Russian words given below:

семьи с низким доходом; принимать (зачислять) в школу; "снимать сливки"; вступительный экзамен; местные органы управления; получать высокие оценки; справедливая и одинаковая возможность пойти учиться в школу по своему выбору; отбирать более способных учеников; преднамеренно.

Answer the following questions:

1. What pupils do grammar schools select?

2. What do the pupils attending grammar schools have to pass?

3. In what way could some schools pick pupils?

4. Are there incentives within the system for schools to take the nice pupils rather then the nasty pupils?

5. What did director of research at the Sutton Trust say?

Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. According to the report the state faith schools take fewer poorer pupils compared to other state secondary schools.

2. Only a few non-academically selective state schools were found to be more socially selective than grammar schools.

3. The researchers found that 2 per cent of grammar school pupils were from low income families - on free schools meals, compared to 20 per cent of pupils at nongrammar schools.

4. In some areas many schools lose more than a fifth of their potential bright pupils to grammars.

5. Chairman of the National Grammar Schools Association Robert McCartney didn't reject suggestions grammars were taking enough poor bright pupils.

Testing for the best students (BBC)

A report on fair admissions to higher education advocates common types of entrance tests for universities that do not feel A-levels tease out the best candidates. The interim report from the government-appointed taskforce has been considering the sorts of tests used increasingly already for entry to some law, medicine and veterinary courses. Most colleges at Cambridge University have now adopted a "thinking skills assessment" - faced with a situation where they get so many good applicants they reject 5,000 a year who have at least three A grades at A-level. This is the basis of the BMat (BioMedical Admissions Test) with subject-specific questions for applicants to medical courses. Identifying potential

Cambridge University's director of admissions, Geoff Parks, said it had two main advantages. "The evidence is the tests differentiate amongst a large group of applicants who in many respects look very similar on their paper application," he said. "Secondly there are very strong signs that the test has the ability to identify potential, so that some of the applicants who score very highly on the tests have examination records which don't look quite so good on paper." This might be due to educational disadvantage - they did not attend such a good school. "The tests are very much designed to test skills which are, if you like, inherent in a good student - the ability to think clearly, solve problems, extract the relevant information from a collection of facts. "These are skills which we believe bright kids will have and therefore they will show through even if their examination record's not quite as good." He said they were "very much skills which are useful for study at university".

Robert Harding of the exam board behind the tests, the University of Cambridge local examinations syndicate (Ucles), said he thought the tests provided "as level a playing field as we know how to make". "You can't be trained to do these questions as if you were a performing seal, you really do have to think very hard about the answers." Would-be medical students at Hills Road Sixth Form College in Cambridge, who have taken the tests, tend to agree. They described them as "tough", "very hard" and "challenging" and said they felt under pressure doing them. "Time pressure was the most difficult thing for me," said Antony Brown.

"It definitely wasn't about knowledge, it was more a test of how you work under pressure." But he felt it did make things fairer. "You can't prepare for it, so everyone is even once you start." Christopher Chan said: "It's not really fair to state school pupils if private school pupils can be tutored about it, so it creates a level playing field. "This is fairer to all. They can assess you fairly on the basis of your intellectual ability rather than how well you have been coached."

Give Russian equivalents for the following words and phrases. Translate from Russian into English: to identify potential; to score very highly on the tests; to have examination records; the relevant information; to extract; to work under pressure; to make things fairer; paper application; tough; challenging.

Find the English equivalents in the text for the Russian words given below: главное преимущество; выглядеть очень похожими; недостатки; проверять умения; способность четко мыслить; решать проблемы; недостаток времени; ученики частной школы; ученики государственной школы; быть хорошо подготовленным. Answer the following questions:

1. What has the interim report from the government-appointed taskforce been considering?

2. What advantages does the test have?

3. In what way are the tests designed?

4. How can the applicants answer the questions?

5. What is the most difficult thing to do the test?

Agree or disagree with the following statements: 1. It's possible to identify potential of the applicants with a help of the test.

2. The tests are designed to test only the student's ability to think clearly. 3. It's believed that all bright kids will have good results at their examinations.

4. The applicants and the students can be trained to do the tests.

5. The students have to think very hard about the answers.

The New York Times

It Bears Repeating By Christine Gralow

Two of my preschool students with autism are currently going through stages of repeating their favorite words and phrases over and over again. Both students repeat lines from their favorite children's videos and books - stories and episodes of "Dora the Explorer," "Blue's Clues," and "Max and Ruby." Amanda repeatedly says, "Benny the Bull," who, as I was slow to realize after hearing his name dozens of times one day, is her favorite "Dora" character. She has also memorized many of Benny the Bull's lines from the show, and she repeats them at seemingly random moments. David repeats the word "notebook." At first, I thought he just really liked the word, or that he was proud of himself for learning it. Then, after he began repeating lines from "Blue's Clues," I realized "notebook," came from Joe's "handy dandy notebook" in the show. And lest this excessive repetition be blamed solely on TV and DVD's, one of my former students, who rarely watched TV, repeated her favorite scene from the book "Harold and the Purple Crayon" "moose and porcupine eating pies!"

While the ability to remember and repeat words is an important step in every child's language development, many children with autism tend to repeat words excessively and in socially inappropriate contexts. A child with autism may repeat the same word or phrase hundreds of times a day (which can drive their parents and teachers a little batty). In the autism education field, repeating lines from movies, TV shows and books is known as scripting, or echolalia. (Some people use the terms scripting and echolalia interchangeably, while others distinguish echolalia as repeating words spoken by live people, not in shows.) Scripting was famously portrayed in the film "Rain Man," when Raymond Babbitt, the autistic character played by Dustin Hoffman, memorized and repeated Abbot and Costello's comedic skit, "Who's on First." In the film, Raymond seemed to use scripting to calm himself in stressful social situations. At times, my students appear to script for a similar calming effect; at others, it seems to be meaningless, out-of-control repetition. Despite the many challenges this behavior presents, it is possible for young students with autism to use it in socially appropriate contexts. Encouraging them to do so is one of my goals as a special education teacher. Many of my students have proven themselves capable of memorizing a word or phrase, associating it with a particular emotion or social situation, and then attempting to use the phrase when they encounter a similar emotional or social situation. One of my favorite examples of this is described in Paula Kluth's book, "You're Going to Love This Kid." Kluth tells the story of a boy who said, "Go to hell, lieutenant," when he was upset. The boy was scripting from the film "A Few Good Men" and he correctly associated the phrase with anger. In another case, one of my students memorized the phrase, "Hello, everyone. How are you today?" - one of his teachers often said this when she entered the classroom. One day, when I brought the boy home, he walked into his family's apartment and said, "Hello, everyone. How are you today?" His parents and 1 were floored. At the time, this was by far the most socially meaningful language the boy had ever used. While he had learned the phrase through rote memory, he showed progress in social communication - a skill that children with autism often lack - by correctly associating the phrase with entering a room and greeting people.

One thing I can not do as a teacher is miraculously change the way my students' brains develop or the way they process language. There is clearly something in the brain development and language processing of children with autism that differs from their typically developing peers. Genetic researchers, such as the scientists with the Autism Genome Project, are currently trying to pinpoint the root causes of the disorder. We don't yet have all the scientific answers to what causes autism, and it remains to be seen whether a cure will be developed, or whether a "cure" is something that would be welcomed by those affected by autism. Many parents have told me they would welcome a cure, while many higher-functioning autistic adults are offended by the notion of needing to be cured. In the meantime, there are language development techniques that teachers and parents can use to help children with autism begin to socially connect with their peers and families. One of the programs I learned while training and working with the Center for Autism and Related Disorders is a social questions activity. Using the basic principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), I am able to teach my students to answer questions ranging in difficulty from, "How old are you?" to "What was your favorite part of the book?" While my students typically learn to answer these questions in a rote manner by memorizing the questions and answers, the next step is to take what they have learned through memorization and use it in socially meaningful situations at school.

David, the boy who repeats lines from "Blue's Clues," was able to quickly learn the answers to many socially relevant questions. During snack time at preschool last week, I asked him, "What's your mommy's name?" We had worked on this question, so he quickly answered correctly. Then I asked one of his classmates at the snack table what her mommy's name was, and soon all of the children at the table were telling their friends their mommy's names. We then did the same activity with daddy's names and favorite foods. (Of course, teachers should be sensitive to kids who may not have both parents.) These are the kinds of basic, pre-school level conversations that come naturally to most kids. But David needs to be taught to participate in such conversations in a step-by-step manner.

That's where breaking things down through ABA becomes helpful. While I am not a strict ABA practitioner in the classroom, I do find it helpful to use the basic principles of breaking larger tasks into smaller steps and quickly reinforcing my students for achieving each step. Within ABA, there is a more recently developed model that I use called the Verbal Behavior Approach. This model is especially useful for language development activities.

While I can't get inside David's brain to know for sure what he's thinking, something does seem to click for him when he participates in these kinds of peer conversations at school, and he seems to enjoy them. Being able to use his memorized language with his peers, and hearing that they have different answers to the same questions, does appear to be helping him connect with, them socially. Throughout the pre-school year, our social question activities will become more complex and, step-by-step, we will build up to asking questions and initiating peer conversations. The ultimate goal is for David to begin talking with his peers more spontaneously. Spontaneity in language is difficult to teach, but I aim to give David more opportunities to reach this stage by pushing him beyond his scripted comfort zone. Language issues like this, which can be so exasperating for parents and teachers, do not disappear overnight, but I find it helpful as a teacher to keep in mind that the same strong memorization skills my students use while scripting can be shaped into socially meaningful language.

What's Happening to the Family?

"If you are going to marry one day think of the possible divorce", -those were exactly the words that the mother of a family quite happy in our understanding told her daughter. Alas, nobody can be sure to avoid the divorce at any stage of the married life. Conditions that destroy the family exist too long. With almost total poverty a child can't be afforded by many. Every family having children knows well how much you should pay for clothes, food, kindergarten and now even school. But the financial problem is not the only one. There may be hardly a person who has never faced the problem of living conditions. And the heaven in a nut can't last forever, even if you are with someone you love. A woman is so busy that she simply has no time to communicate at any level except domestic and she is bringing her children up over telephone; these reasons can't but make the atmosphere at home formal. And not all can overcome the pressure which is growing up every year, but no matter who says desperately: "I can't stand it any longer, 1 want a divorce", blaming her husband (or the wife) for all troubles, yet all further problems will fall upon the woman's head. Sometimes women are naive to believe that a man can't leave the children. "He is fond of them". And this may be true. Yet a man is different from a woman, he has no biological need in seeing his child constantly. And when the former wife threatens: "You will never see your child again", wishing to cause repentance and fear she may achieve quite an opposite effect. A man can be boasting with his wonderful grown-up son not seeing him for years without any feelings of loss, but the former wife will call for his paternal feelings in vain when she needs any form of help. Not every man, even very strong and kind is capable for the daily-round deed. Therefore it is not wise to make the man marry just to legalize relations that caused "incidental" pregnancy. The sense of duty will scarcely transform into the feeling of love. And the man will subconsciously feel that he is deceived. Such marriage can hardly be safe.

A child will add to the family happiness only if he is loved and expected by both parents and not a burden for the young family. So a woman should be very prescient when choosing the husband and account the situation when she may be left alone. Where shall I live? Unfortunately many couples for years stay under the same roof after the divorce. There are strong doubts that a man will be generous enough to leave everything including his flat to his wife: he often has no place to go. How to make living? There are women - and many- who do not think of their career after marriage supposing it their husband's duty to support the family. In case of a divorce these women risk to be left without means of subsistence, and sometimes it may be too late to get a new profession.

So a woman has no right to be thoughtless about marriage, because finally in the family she has to fulfill most part of work over the house, to take care of children, to earn the same money as men and in case of divorce even worse troubles fall to her lot. They often say that there are catastrophically many lonely women. That's right, there are a lot of lonely women. But is it actually a catastrophe? Perhaps women who have considered all variants decided that of two evils to be alone is less than together with a child without father or with her former husband in one room?

Has the family died then? Perhaps it will be more proper to say that it has changed in quality though has suffered losses in quantity. And the main reason for this is that a woman has changed. She is not satisfied with the role of a housekeeper. She wants to have a speciality, she does not want to be dependent on another person. She has her own opinion, own hobby, she is interesting. And you may meet a lot of happy families based exclusively on mutual interests and respect. Among these couples there are childless as well but it does not form vacuum in the family because each of them is self-valuable and interesting to the other. As for the question of children - to have or not to have - each family should decide it for itself, jointly. Then even the thought of divorce won't, arise. So whom to marry? Only the -one whose way of thinking is close to yours, a man who is your friend, who respects a woman and personality in you. But for this you have to be such.

Ex. 1 Answer the following questions:

1. What are the chief problems facing the families?'

2. How does a woman often bring up her children?

3. What is the difference between a man and a woman concerning the children? .

4. Do a sense of duty and a feeling of love mean too much for a man? What do you think?

5. What expects a woman in case of a divorce?

6. Must a woman work after the marriage or not? Express your personal opinion.

7. What must a future wife be prepared for?

8. Why do many women remain lonely throughout their life-span?

9. How has a woman changed nowadays?

10. What is it necessary for a family to be happy? Give your own ideas.

11. Whom does the author recommend to marry?

Ex. 2 Discuss in the group the following problems:

1. How to make a family happy.

2. Parental love for children.

3. Divorce consequences.

4. How to overcome loneliness.

5. Solitude means loneliness.

Ex. 3 Explain what it means:

1. The heaven in a nut can't last forever.

2. The family has changed in quality though has suffered losses in quantity.

Ex. 4 Divide the text into logical parts and give a heading to each part.

Ex. 5 Speak on the text.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Give Russian equivalents for:

total poverty; to afford a child; to face a problem; at any level; to bring up; to overcome pressure; to cause repentance and fear; to achieve an opposite effect; paternal feeling; to account the situation; in case of a divorce; to be dependent on; as for.

2. Find in the text synonyms for:

to ruin; to rear; to love; to tell a lie; to look after; to regard; to be pleased; to appear.

3. Combine the following phrases:

to afford for troubles to face for paternal feelings to blame relations to overcome children to achieve pressure to call an effect to be capable money to legalize a problem

to earn for daily-round deeds

Use them in the sentences of your own.

4. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. There is nothing to boast of.

2. He desperately tried to earn some money but in vain.

3. She can't afford children at a given moment being left without means of subsistence.

4. He is capable of overcoming external pressure and consolidates himself quite easily.

5. As for him, this year he has achieved great progress in his investigation.

6. Don't treat your children too hard, try to bring them up with care and love.

7. He is so stubborn, it's useless to call for his paternal feelings.

8. He suffered great losses in his life time.

Single-parent Families

The problems experienced by widows and widowers, divorcees and unmarried parents vary to some extent, although there are common factors. Loneliness is a potential problem for all single parents, and people who are widowed have special burdens in coping with bereavement at the same time as adjusting to life as a single parent.

Other emotional problems for single parents include their feeling of guilt towards their children. Children may feel deprived and express resentment towards the parent with whom they live. This may be caused partly by treatment received from other children at school, or even by tactless comments by teachers. Concern for children can also make it difficult for single parents to form new relationships, since children may feel threatened by the entry of a new adult into their lives.

Single-parent families tend, as a group, to be less well-off than other families. The costs of running a home are not substantially reduced because there is only one adult. Rents, mortgages and heating bills, for example, remain the same. In addition, many two-parent families benefit from having two incomes. Single parents face extra costs for child-care, if they want to work or have a social life.

Even where a lone parent has employment, the family is likely to be less well-off than other families. There are several reasons for this. First, the majority of single parents are women and women tend to earn less than men, despite the existance of equal pay legislation. Second, working often involves paying for child-care. Work is not organised in such a way as to make running a family at the same time an easy task. Even in the best situations - for example, teaching- school holidays do not always coincide, evening meetings are held and all plans, are thrown into chaos if a child is ill.

The problems of working and the limited availability of suitable child-care result in many single parents being forced to rely on income support. These benefits are means-tested and barely provide for existence. Single parents with paid employment are privileged by comparison, since they receive extra tax relief and increased child benefit.

( P.Young. Mastering Social Welfare. London: Macmillan )

EXERCISES TO THE TEXT

1. Read the text. Write some questions about the text to ask your fellow-students. Вe ready to retell and discuss the text in class.

2. Find the following words and word-combinations in the text. Use them in sentences of у our own: to cope with, concern for, to form new relationship, heating bills, income support, to rely on, loneless, single-parent family.

3. Say in one word:

a. putting an end to the marriage by law

b. the loss of a close relative or a friend through death

с kindness in giving help ( money, food, clothes) to poor people who are suffering

d. a person - often but not always a relative - responsible for looking after another

person who cannot look after itself in some or all respects e. a lone with property as security for the debt

f. one who is divorce

Violence in the Family

Newspaper and television reports are full of stories concerning violence on the streets. Yet many violent incidents take place within the home, between people who are close to each other: a woman has more cause to fear her husband than assault by a stranger. It is difficult to know the full extent of violence against wives, since it is probable that many incidents go unrecorded. This may occur because women feel shame or guilt that their marriage has gone wrong. Alternatively, they may fear that telling someone will lead to further attacks or that nothing can be done to help them. Many women feel trapped in a violent marriage because they do not know where seek help, or because the people they have approached have proved unhelpful. Friends and relatives may be the first people to whom a woman turns. Neighbours are often aware of violence, but ideas about privacy, together with fear, result in their being reluctant to intervene in a violent situation.

The following statistics provide no more than indication of the extent of the problem. One study found that 25 per cent of all reported crime was domestic violence, Other studies have estimated that there is severe and repeated violence more than 1 in 100 marriages and that in one in seven relationships there is violenq at some point. A survey of 1000 married women concluded by World in Action found that 28 per cent had been hit by their husbands and a further 5 per cent threatened with physical violence. Amongst women who had been separated or divorced the overall proportion of those either hit or threatened rose to 63 per cent.

Violence in the family is most commonly directed against wives. One survey found 75.8 per cent of assaults involving family members were assaults on the wife in only 1.1 per cent of cases husbands were the victims of marital violence. The particular form of violence inflicted on women obviously varies, but is often of a very serious nature and results in severe injuries, and sometimes death.

( P. Young. Mastering Social Welfare. London: Macmillan)

EXERCISES TO THE TEXT

1. Read the text. Write the key questions about the text to ask your fellow-students. Be ready to discuss the text in class.

2. Find in the text the following word-combinations. Suggest the Ukrainian translation of them: physical violence, separated women, assaults on the wife, violent incidents, to be threatened with physical violence, the victims of marital violence, violence in the family, severe injuries.

Child Abuse

The problem of cruelty to children in the family was first recognized in the 1960s At that time the terms used was 'child battering', although this later changed 'nonaccidental injury' and, more recently, to 'child abuse'. The changes in name have reflected the way the issue has become broader in definition, now including physical injury, emotional damage, neglect and sexual abuse of children. Sexual abuse was rarely mentioned until the late 1970s, but recently has become an issue of major public and professional concern.

Since the 1960s, and especially in recent years, there has been a rapid increase in cases of child abuse. However, it seems likely, that this does not mean there has been a real increase in cruelty, but rather an increase in public and professional awareness which means that more and more cases come to light.

Many different professionals are involved in cases of child abuse. These indicate doctors, both in general practice and in various hospital departments; other health workers such as health visitors and midwives; social workers and child guidance therapists; teachers and other school staff, educational welfare officers and educational psychologists; the police, workers in voluntary organizations such as the NSPCC and perhaps the church. Others who may be involved work in housing departments, the probation service and social security officers. A key issue in dealing with child abuse is effecting liaison between so many people. There are also different ways of seeing the issues and these can prevent people working together effectively. For example, the police may see the achieving of justice for the offending adult as priority , the medical profession may prioritize clinical diagnosis and medical treatment, whilst social workers may be more concerned with a therapeutic approach to the whole family.

(N. Parton. The Politics of Child Abuse. London: Macmillan)

Ex.1 Answer the questions to the text

1. What have the changes in the name of cruelty to children reflected?

2. What child abuse has recently become an issue of major public and professional concern?

3. What is the reason of a rapid increase in cases of child abuse in recent years?

4. What professionals are involved in cases of child abuse?

5. What is a key issue in dealing with child abuse?

6. Why do doctors deal with child abuse?

7. What is a duty of social workers?

8. In what way can lectors and other school staff prevent child abuse? Social services in Great Britain

The present system of social services department has only existed since 1970. The origins of social work can however be traced back to the nineteenth century. Services were originally concerned only with poor people and the only government run provision was the workhouse for the destitute set up under the 1834e Poor Law. There were also a number of charitable organizations to help poor in poverty and need and it was fashionable in the nineteenth century for the middle- and upper-class women to help the poor. Some women took it further and more systematic in their attempts to work with needy people.

The next important development came at the beginning of the twentieth century: when hospitals began to employ "almoners" or social workers. These were initially concerned only with assessing whether the patient deserved and needed free treatment, but soon widened their role. Training courses were set up and in 1920 the Institute of Almoners was established.

After the Second World War, at the time that the Welfare State was being established, local authorities began to provide welfare services for some groups of people. In 1948 Children's Departments were set up to provide services for children deprived of normal home life. The work of these departments was the most professional of local authority social work... The 1946 National Health Service Act gave the local authority the responsibility for maternity and baby welfare, for the after-care of mentally ill people, and for home services for elderly people and some other groups.

Women at work

Nowadays many women work outside the home. There are several explanations for the increased numbers of married women working outside the home. The two World Wars brought women in the areas of work previously considered suitable only for men. Although women were encouraged to give up their jobs when the wars ended, attitudes about the role of women had been challenged. The 1960s was a period of full employment with expansion to areas of work traditionally seen as women's work, for example in service, commercial and administrative sectors of economy. Even with high unemployment rates in later decades, these jobs have not been lost. It is becoming increasingly common with women to have jobs whilst their husbands are unemployed.

Other explanation for the number of women in paid employment include the facts that families are smaller and that people live longer. It is no longer the case that childbearing and child care take up the whole woman's life. On an individual level, women may work outside the home for various reasons. The need of money is obviously a significant factor. Other reasons might include desire for social contact, the need to have an identity other than housewife, a wish to escape from the routines of housework and, for some women the desire to use their skills in a lob which they enjoy.

Women with children are often made to feel guilty about having a job. There is, however, no conclusive evidence proving that marriages or children suffer in a family if both parents are in paid employment.

Services for the elderly

The usual age of retirement in Great Britain is 65 for men and 60 for women. Many people, however, continue to work beyond these ages. Whether they do so or not, they are entitled to state pension from retirement age, however much they earn, and are officially "old age pensioners" or " senior citizens". Most people receive a pension, after contributing to a pension fund during their working life.

People of retirement age are also entitled to a number of other advantages, including reduced charges to some services. For example, they can travel at reduced rates or even free on public transport, do not pay for medical prescriptions, and can buy tickets for concerts, the theatre, etc. at reduced prices.

Many people move to smaller house or flat when they retire and some choose to live in the country or by the sea. It is not usual for retired people to live with their children unless they are able to live independently. When people become too frail to live alone, they are cared for either by relatives or in nursing homes or old people's homes, which are either privately owned or run by local authorities. Many retired people choose to live in 'sheltered housing', i.e. a block of flats or group of small houses specially built for older people, where there is a residential warden.

Welfare services for old people include the 'meals on wheels' service run by volunteers, which supplies hot meals to people living alone, and domestic cleaning and other services provided by local authority social services departments, including the provision of day centers and pensions' clubs.

Schooling in Great Britain

Compulsory education in England begins at the age of 5 when children go to what is called a primary school (the first stage of which is called infant school where children go from 5 to 7; the second stage is called junior school to which children go from 7 to 11).

When they are 11 they transfer to what is called a comprehensive school. In most parts of the country they now replace the old grammar and secondary modern schools. At the age of 11 children used to sit for the 11 plus examinations. The examination consist of IQ test ,measuring the inborn abilities of a child, and not what he has learned at school, an English test and an arithmetic test.

The cleverer children who passed the exam would then be sent to the grammar school which provide education of an academic type and a large number of grammar school children go on to universities; the other children would go to a secondary modern school which give a general education with practical bias.

In comprehensive school teaching is done in mixed ability classes. It means that children of all abilities (less able, more able and average) are put in one class.

The system of "streaming" used here means that children of the same age are put into different groups or "streams" according to the level of there general ability.

At the age of 16 children may choose to leave school and go to work or stay on at school and take exams on an advanced level aimed at university entrance.

Outside the state schools which provide free education there are also fee-paying private independent boarding schools, called public schools. They have the best conditions for giving a first-class education.

Ex.1. Find English equivalents for:

Обязательное образование, начальная школа, общеобразовательная школа, состоять из, врожденные способности, умный, сдать экзамен, обеспечить образование, средняя школа, общее образование, практический уклон, способности, разделение на потоки, усредненный, в соответствии с чем-то, сдавать экзамены, продвинутый, уровень, поступление, государственная школа, обеспечивать, бесплатное образование, платный, школа-пансионат, независимый, условия.

Ex.2. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the stages of primary school?

2. When does compulsory education begin?

3. What does 11 plus examination consist of?

4. What are the other types of secondary schools?

5. What is the aim of 11 plus examination?

6. What are grammar schools aimed at?

7. What education do secondary modern schools give?

8. What system is used in comprehensive schools?

9. What may children at the age of 16 do?

10. What kind of education do public schools provide?

EARLY EDUCATION

"Kindergardern is Too Late" is the title of the book written by Masuru Ibuku, a Japanese educationalist and industrialist. He is profoundly concerned with early education. He proposes that tiny children have the capacity to learn anything virtually while they are tiny. What they learn without conscious effort at two, three or four years of age can only be learnt with great effort or may not be learnt at all in later life. What adults learn painfully children learn joyfully. What adults learn at a snail's pace tiny children learn almost speedily. Adults sometimes avoid learning while tiny children would rather learn than eat. The most difficult things that man undertakes are such things as learning foreign languages, learning to read and learning to play the violin or piano. While these things are mastered with difficulty by adults they can be mastered easily and joyfully by tiny children.

All that is required for tiny children to grow up speaking foreign languages fluently, reading the most complex of languages, doing instant mathematics, swimming, riding horse-back, painting in oils, playing the violin and doing them all masterfully, is that we give our children love (we commonly do),respect ( we rarely do), and joyful exposure to the things we wish them to know.

Is it difficult to imagine that the world would be a richer, saner, safer, lovelier place if all children have mastered languages, arts and basic sciences before they have grown to be teenagers, and could then use their teen years to study semantics, ethics as well as advanced arts and advanced sciences? It is difficult to imagine what the world would be like if tiny children had their burning rage to learn fed and fanned instead of smothered in toys and games.

Ex.1. Find English equivalents for:

Педагог, образование, быть заинтересованным в чем-то, способность, крошечный, осознанный, усилие, выучить, взрослые, радостно, с высокой скоростью, избегать, трудный, иностранный язык, скрипка, овладеть умением, требоваться, вырасти, бегло, умело, уважение, вообразить, искусство, наука, подросток, продвинутый, удовлетворить страсть, вместо чего-то, подавлять. Ex.2. Answer the following questions:

1. What does a Japanese educationalist propose?

2. Who learns without conscious effort?

3. How do adults learn?

4. How do tiny children learn?

5. Who may prefer learning to eating?

6. What are the most difficult things that man undertakes?

7. What is required for tiny children to master the most difficult things?

8. Could the world change if tiny children develop their abilities early?

9. What is the role of the adults?

10. What is your opinion of this approach?

ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

The elementary school provides the bases for all further education. It is a three-year period of study. The tasks of the elementary school are to teach the children to read, write and do sums, to provide an introduction to nature study and the social sciences as well as aesthetic, vocational and physical training (P.T.), to develop the child's power to reasoning. The entire complex of tasks is resolved by the curriculum according to the age-determined abilities of the pupils.

The course of language study includes grammar, reading, spelling, speech development, penmanship and the fundamentals of composition. Reading classes teach children to read aloud, both expressively and quickly, and instill a love for books.

Mathematics provides an instruction on numbers and the four rules of arithmetic, measures of time, length, weights, square measurements and simple fractions. There are elements of plane geometry and an introduction to algebra (symbols, composing formulae).

Elementary nature study provides an introduction to plant and animal life, as well as study of the earth, seas and air. Children learn the geography of their native land, and the fundamentals of anatomy and hygiene. Excursions and their own personal observations of nature make up the regular part of the course. Simple experiments are conducted. Children take part in planting trees and flowers and caring for them.

Art classes include drawing from life and applied art. The aim is to develop their taste and interest in art. There are also talks on great artists and art treasures.

Music classes aim to develop the child's ear to music and a sense of music appreciation.

Physical training is one of the most important elements of all-round development. In elementary school one teacher conducts all the classes. It is the stepping-stone to secondary education.

Ex.1. Find English equivalents for:

Начальная школа, образование, решать задачки и примеры, ознакомление с, трудовое образование, физическая подготовка, логическое мышление, учебный план (программа), возрастные особенности, орфография, развитие речи, каллиграфия, вслух. выразительно, привить любовь к, правило, простые дроби, природоведение, растение, животное, основы, наблюдение, цель, вкус, сокровища искусства, музыкальный слух, всестороннее развитие. Ex.2. Answer the following questions:

1. What does elementary school provide?

2. What is its period of study?

3. What are the tasks of elementary schools?

4. What does the course of language study include?

5. What do reading classes teach?

6. What does mathematics provide?

7. What does elementary nature study introduce?

8. What do art classes include?

9. What is the aim of music classes?

10. What does elementary school prepare children for?

K.D.USHINSKY - THE GREAT RUSSIAN EDUCATOR

K.D.Ushinsky was in the fullest sense of the word the founder of the Russian primary school and pedagogical training of teachers. His works are not only of a historic value today but greatly assist the course of genuinely people's education. Ushinky was born I 1824 in Cernigov gubernia in the family of a well-to-do landowner. He learned very early to study independently and graduated from Moscow University with high honors when he was 20 years old. Despite his youth he was appointed professor of Jurisprudence in Yaroslavl. His lectures were an immediate success. He started criticizing the present educational system in Russsia and was forbidden to teach even in elementary school.

Later he was appointed inspector at Smolny Institute in St.Peterburg. When he became editor of the Journal of the Ministry of Education he completely changed its character concentrating on real problems of teaching, theories of pedagogy and psychology, accounts of educational activity.

He educated children in love and respect for their national literature and Motherland with the help of native language. Ushinsky paid special attention to the development in the pupil of the habit to work.

As he underlined the personal influence of the teacher as en educational force he put forward the idea of setting up teachers seminars to train teachers for their important and responsible work.

Ushinsky was interested in foreign educational systems. In his seven letters

"Pedagogical Travels in Switzerland" he analyzed their merits and defects. These letters are not only valuable educational material but are literary masterpieces of the Russian language.

After coming back to Russia he travelled, lectured, held conferences and continued his research and studies. His death was mourned not only by teachers but by all progressive people in Russia.

Ex.1 Find English equivalents for:

В полном смысле слова, педагогическая подготовка, ценность, воистину, богатый помещик, самостоятельно, закончить с отличием, самостоятельно, несмотря на, быть назначенным, успех, запрещать, даже, полностью, сосредоточиться, педагогика, психология, родной язык, обращать внимание, развитие, навык труда, влияние, важный, ответственный, достоинства и недостатки, ценный, шедевр, исследование.

Ex.2. Answer the following questions:

1. What was K.D.Ushinsky?

2. Are his works only of a historic value today?

3. Why is he called "A teacher of teachers"?

4. What do you know about his origin?

5. What kind of student was he?

6. Why were his lectures an immediate success?

7. Why was he forbidden to teach even in elementary school?

8. In what way did the Journal of the Ministry of Education change its character?

9. What did Ushinsky educate in children and by what means?

10. Why did he set up teachers' seminars?

11. What do you know about his pedagogical travels?

12. Why was his death mourned by all progressive people?

Тексты для физико-математического факультета

INTERNET

Millions of people around the world use the Internet to search for and retrieve information on all sorts of topics in a wide variety of areas including the arts, business, government, humanities, news, politics and recreation. People communicate through electronic mail (e-mail), discussion groups, chat channels and other means of informational exchange. They share information and make commercial and business transactions. All this activity is possible because tens of thousands of networks are connected to the Internet and exchange information in the same basic ways.

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But it's not a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is connected or linked together like a web. You access this information through one interface or tool called a Web browser. The number of resources and services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing extremely fast. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the WWW, and more than half the information that is transferred across the Internet is accessed through the WWW. By using a computer terminal (hardware) connected to a network that is a part of the Internet, and by using a programme (software) to browse or retrieve information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the people connected to the Internet and World Wide Web through the local providers have access to a variety of information. Each browser provides a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from site to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, icon or region of a map. These items are called hyperlinks or links. Each link you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or an audio file somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to know where it is, the browser follows the link.

All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use Internet for recreational purposes. Many TV and radio stations broadcast live on the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put into digital format and stored in a computer, then it's available on the WWW. You can even visit museums, gardens and cities throughout the world, learn foreign languages and meet new friends. And, of course, you can play computer games through WWW, competing with partners from other countries and continents.

Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you what a lot of use and fun it is.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1) What is Internet used for?

2) Why so many activities such as e-mail and business transactions are possible through the Internet?

3) What is World Wide Web?

4) What is Web browser?

5) What does a user need to have an access to the WWW? 6) What are hyperlinks?

II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

Variety, a network, interface, access, retrieve, a graphical interface

SOFTWARE A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software - programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data.

Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a generalpurpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.

Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and applications software.

System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the system programmes is booted or loaded into the computers memory. This software contains inforties. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate a peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in advance about the driver programme which, though, commonly goes along with your device. By installing the driver you "teach" your mainboard to "understand" the newly attached part. However, in modern computer systems the drivers are usually installed in the operating system.

Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one programme to make software interface look more attractive to the user. These class of programmes is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view. II. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is software?

2. In what two basic groups software (programmes) could be divided?

3. What is system software for?

4. What is an operating system - a system software or application software?

5. What is a "driver"?

I. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

1. Mouse 2. CPU

3. Word processor

4. Modem

5. Operating system

6. Scanner 7. Printer

8. Display

Storage hardware

The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and. Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do office filing systems except that it stores data as electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are Hard disk (HDD), floppy disk and CD-ROM.

Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing programs and relatively large amounts of data.

Floppy disk (diskette) - thin, usually flexible' plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and programs. There are two formats for floppy disks: 5.25" and 3.5". 5.25" is not used in modern computer systems because of it relatively large size, flexibility and small capacity. 3.5" disks are formatted 1.44 megabytes and are widely used.

CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) is a compact disc on which a large amount of digitized read-only data can be stored. CD-ROMs are very popular now because of

the growing speed which CD-ROM drives can provide nowadays.

The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer system. Information is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.

Monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing computer data, television programs, etc.

Printer is a computer output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics.

Modem is an example of communication hardware - an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.

Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what the computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several floors of a large office building or can fit on your lap.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is software?

2. What is system software for?

3. What is a "driver"?

4. What is application software?

5. What is application software?

II. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующим словам:

software, operating system, application software, driver, peripheral device

HARDWARE

What is hardware? Webster's dictionary gives us the following definition of the hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical devices composing a computer system.

Computer hardware can be divided into four categories:

1) input hardware

2) processing hardware 3) storage hardware 4) output hardware.

The purpose of the Input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input device is a keyboard. It looks very much like a typewriter. The mouse is a hand held device connected to the computer by small cable. As the mouse is rolled across the mouse pad, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches the desired location, the user usually pushes a button on the mouse once or twice to signal a menu selection or a command to the computer.

The light pen uses a light sensitive photoelectric cell to signal screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner that is used to input graphics as well as typeset characters. Microphone and digital camera can be also used to input data into the computer.

The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit and main memory.

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing activities that

must take place. The design of the CPU affects the processing power and the speed

of the computer, as well as the amount of main memory it can use effectively. With a well-designed CPU in your computer,

you can perform highly sophisticated tasks in a very short time.

Memory is the system of component of the computer in which information is stored. There are two types of computer memory: RAM and ROM.

RAM (random access memory) is the volatile computer memory, used for creating loading, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data;

ROM (read only memory) is nonvolatile, nonmodifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.

The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform that is the faster it works.

I.Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is the Webster's dictionary definition of the hardware?

2. What groups of hardware could be defined?

3. What is input hardware? What are the examples of input hardware?

4. What is mouse designed for? What is a light pen?

5. What is processing hardware? What are the basic types

of memory used in a PC?

6. Can a PC-user change the ROM? Who records the information in ROM?

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим словам:

Dictionary, hardware, electrical device, input hardware, processing hardware, storage hardware, output hardware.

ENERGY FIRM CYBER-DEFENCE IS 'TOO WEAK', INSURERS SAY

By Mark Ward Technology correspondent, BBC News 27 February 2014

Power companies are being refused insurance cover for cyber-attacks because their defences are perceived as weak, the BBC has learned.

Underwriters at Lloyd's of London say they have seen a "huge increase" in demand for cover from energy firms.

But surveyor assessments of the cyber-defences in place concluded that protections were inadequate.

Energy industry veterans said they were "not surprised" the companies were being refused cover.

"In the last year or so we have seen a huge increase in demand from energy and utility companies," said Laila Khudari, an underwriter at the Kiln Syndicate, which offers cover via Lloyd's of London.

The market is one of few places in the world where businesses can come to insure such things as container ships, oil tankers, and large development projects and to secure cash that would help them recover after disasters.

For years, said Ms Khudari, Kiln and many other syndicates had offered cover for data breaches, to help companies recover if attackers penetrated networks and stole customer information.

Now, she said, the same firms were seeking multi-million pound policies to help them rebuild if their computers and power-generation networks were damaged in a cyberattack.

"They are all worried about their reliance on computer systems and how they can offset that with insurance," she said.

Any company that applies for cover has to let experts employed by Kiln and other underwriters look over their systems to see if they are doing enough to keep intruders out.

Assessors look at the steps firms take to keep attackers away, how they ensure software is kept up to date and how they oversee networks of hardware that can span regions or entire countries.

Unfortunately, said Ms Khudari, after such checks were carried out, the majority of applicants were turned away because their cyber-defences were lacking.

"We would not want insurance to be a substitute for security," she said.

What was not clear, she said, was why firms were suddenly seeking cover in large numbers.

Although many governments had sent warnings about the threat from hackers, attackers and hacktivists to utility firms and other organisations running critical infrastructure, none had mandated them to get cover.

"I think what's behind it is the increase in threats and the fact that a lot of these systems were never previously connected to the outside world," she said.

Mike Assante, who helped develop cyber-security standards for US utilities and now helps to teach IT staff how to defend critical infrastructure including power networks, said it was "unfortunately not surprising" that insurers were turning away energy firms. Power generators and distributors had struggled with the complexity and size of the networks they managed, he said. In addition they had found it hard to find and recruit staff with the specialist skills to defend these systems, he added.

"There have been a number of incidents that have caused company leadership to reevaluate their risk and develop strategies to mitigate it," he said in an email to the BBC. Financial pressures and the ability to manage systems remotely was inadvertently giving attackers a loophole they could slip through, said Nathan McNeill, chief strategy officer at remote management firm Bomgar.

Trying to cut costs by linking up plant and machinery to a control centre so they could be managed remotely meant those systems were effectively exposed to the net, he said. "If something has basic connectivity then it will become internet connectivity through some channel," he said.

This left critical infrastructure exposed, he said, because typically the control systems for such hardware was written long before the web age and had only rudimentary security tools.

Known as Scada (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), this software has come under increasing scrutiny by security researchers who have exposed many flaws in it. In addition, added Mr McNeill, it was often very difficult to update the core code in many Scada systems to close loopholes that attackers had slipped through.

Ed Skoudis, who runs "war games" for IT and security staff at many US utilities, said the numbers of attacks on Scada and other control systems was escalating.

Malware was being written just to get at particular vulnerable elements in the infrastructure run by many utilities and manufacturers, he said.

Some attackers were just curious but others were thought to be carrying out reconnaissance in service of some future event.

US power companies had begun sharing information about attacks so everyone knew about all the threats to them, said Mr Skoudis.

"However," he added, "it's surprising no big incident has happened given how weak the infrastructure is. It's very hackable."

Linking to free web content is legal, says EU Court

BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-26187730

14 February 2014 Last updated at 14:50 GMT

Websites can link to freely available content without the permission of the copyright holder, the European Court of Justice says.

The court's decision came after a dispute in Sweden between journalists and a web company that had posted links on its site to online news articles.

A Swedish court had asked the EU court to consider whether this broke copyright law.

The "position would be different" for links that bypass a paywall.

The journalists worked for the Swedish newspaper Goteborgs-Posten and had articles published on the paper's website.

The company Retriever Sverige runs a website that provides links to articles published by other websites.

The journalists argued in the original case that users of Retriever Sverige's website would not know that they had been sent to another website by clicking on the links and therefore had made their articles available without authorisation. They said that because of this they were due compensation.

The case was unsuccessful in the Swedish courts but there was an appeal and the appeal court asked the EU Court of Justice to consider whether copyright law had been broken.

The court had to consider whether by providing links Retriever Sverige had taken part in an "act of communication to the public". Under EU copyright law, authors have the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit any communication to the public of their works.

The court ruled that the law had not been broken because the articles in question were on Goteborgs-Posten's website and therefore already "freely available".

In a statement it said: "The owner of a website may, without the authorisation of the copyright holders, redirect internet users, via hyperlinks, to protected works available on a freely accessible basis on another site."

But they ruled that the "position would be different" if a link led users to material that had purposely been restricted from being freely available - for example if it had been posted on a site that operates a paywall.

"If the decision had gone the other way it would have broken the internet," said Susan Hall, technology lawyer at Clarke Willmott.

"The way we communicate online is predicated on sharing material, whether that's links to Robert Peston on Bank of England interest rates, decisions of the European court or pictures of otters who look like Benedict Cumberbatch," she said.

Goteborgs-Posten told the BBC that it was making no comment on the ruling.

Ex.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases.

To link to freely available content, without permission, the copyright holder, the European Court of Justice, to run a website, to provide links to articles, act of communication to the public, by clicking on the links, to break the internet, to be predicated on sharing material

Ex.2. Give English equivalents for the following phrases:

Закон об авторском праве, нарушать закон, без разрешения кого-либо, ссылаться на новостные статьи, опубликовать на сайте, предоставлять ссылки на статьи, через гиперссылки, доступный без авторизации, ограничивать связь, владелец сайта.

Ex.3. Say whether these sentences are true or false

1. Websites cannot link to freely available content without the permission of the copyright holder, the European Court of Justice says.

2. The court's decision came after a dispute in Denmark between journalists and a web company that had posted links on its site to online news articles.

3. The court ruled that the law had not been broken because the articles in question were on Goteborgs-Posten's website and therefore already "freely available".

4. If the decision had gone the other way it would have broken the internet.

5. The way people communicate online is predicated on sharing material.

Ex.4.Answer the following questions:

1. What is the title of the article?

2. What media resource is it taken from?

3. What events does the article review?

4. What decision do the Swedish courts take?

5. Did the EU Court of Justice rule that the copyright law had not been broken?

Why?

6. What decision would have broken the internet?

7. Is the problem which is raised in this article the urgent one?

8. Do you find this article interesting or dull? Ex.5. Make up a summary of the article.

Russian data tech firms finding U.S. niche by Karin Zeitvogel, RIA Novosti at 10/06/2013 20:45

http://www.moscownews.ru/business/20130610/191599850/Russian-data-tech-firmsfinding-US-niche.html

WASHINGTON - Data technology developed by Russia is fighting Cold War suspicions to compete in American markets, developers said Friday, amid mushrooming revelations about secret U.S. government data surveillance programs.

But that drive to win contracts has no motives other than making money in a free market and is not rooted in Russia's track record of monitoring the communications of its own citizens, as critics are starting to accuse the U.S. government of doing, they said.

"We're who a 22-year-old independent company formed by individuals quit their day jobs and started a new company from scratch," said Alexei Khitrov of the New York office of SpeechPro, a voice biometrics company based in St. Petersburg.

"All of our technology we've developed ourselves, and through hard work and R&D, we've grown into one of the world leaders in the voice recognition market," Khitrov said in a phone interview.

Born in the market, not the gulag

Khitrov said that a story in one online tech journal, claiming that SpeechPro grew out of a company born in the Soviet gulag system, was not true.

"We have no roots in any government agencies anywhere, none of the agencies mentioned in articles that you might have read," he said.

SpeechPro established a presence in the United States for the same reasons all other foreign companies do: because it's a huge market and, for high-tech companies, the birthplace of their industry, Khitrov said.

Rather than building applications that could be used to spy on Americans, it develops voice recognition software that has the potential to make people's online lives easier, like a vocal password to replace the need to type passwords on keyboards.

Another Russian company that has established itself as a solid competitor in the United States is the antivirus software developer Kaspersky Labs.

Kaspersky Labs sells a popular anti-virus program in 200 countries, including the United States, and tracks and exposes cyber-villains around the world.

Last week, a report issued by Kaspersky Labs blew the lid off a massive secret surveillance operation - not by the U.S. government against cellphone and e-mail users, but by a group of "about 50 individuals, most of whom speak Chinese natively and have working knowledge of the English language."

Most of the victims of the extensive cyber-spying operation were in Mongolia, India and Russia, although some were in the United States. Victims included oil companies, scientific research centers and universities, private companies, embassies and military contractors, the report said.

Ex 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases

Data technology, to win contracts to compete in American markets, a voice biometrics company, develop technology, online tech journal, to replace the need to type passwords on keyboards, the antivirus software developer Kaspersky Labs. , cyber-spying operation.

Ex 2. Give English equivalents for the following phrases

Информационные технологии, разработчики, зарабатывать деньги на свободном рынке, популярная (общедоступная) анти-вирусная программа, независимая компания, высокотехнологичная компания, звуковой пароль, научно-исследовательские центры, программное обеспечение, отслеживать преступников в сфере информационных технологий. Ex.3. Say whether these sentences are true or false. .

1. SpeechPro is a 25-year-old independent company formed by individuals.

2. SpeechPro established a presence in the United States for the same reasons all other foreign companies do: because it's a huge market and, for high-tech companies, the birthplace of their industry..

3. SpeechPro roots in government agencies.

4. Another Russian company that has established itself as a solid competitor in the

United States is the antivirus software developer Kaspersky Labs

5. Most of the victims of the extensive cyber-spying operation were in China.

Ex 4 .Answer the following questions

1. What is the title of the article?

2. What media resource is it taken from?

3. What is the main idea of the article?

4. What events does the article review?

5. What niche does SpeechPro, a voice biometrics company find in American markets?

6. What is another Russian company that has established itself as a solid competitor in the United States?

7. How many countries buy a popular anti-virus program developed by Kaspersky Labs?

8. Do you find this article interesting or dull?

Ex.5.Make up a summary of the article.

UK SPIES 'INTERCEPTED WEBCAM IMAGES OF YAHOO USERS'

British spy agency GCHQ intercepted webcam images from millions of Yahoo users around the world, according to a report in the Guardian.

Yahoo denied prior knowledge of the alleged programme, describing it as a "completely unacceptable" privacy violation.

According to leaked documents, sexually explicit images were among those gathered - although not intentionally.

In a statement GCHQ has said all of its actions are in accordance with the law.

The operation, which was called Optic Nerve and was aided by the US National Security Agency, is alleged to have stored images between 2008 and 2010. In one sixmonth period in 2008, images from 1.8m users were gathered.

The report originated from documents leaked by whistleblower Edward Snowden. It suggested that sexually explicit content would be captured by the system.

"Unfortunately ... it would appear that a surprising number of people use webcam conversations to show intimate parts of their body to the other person," it read.

"Also, the fact that the Yahoo software allows more than one person to view a webcam stream without necessarily sending a reciprocal stream means that it appears sometimes to be used for broadcasting pornography."

"We were not aware of nor would we condone this reported activity," Yahoo said in an emailed statement.

"This report, if true, represents a whole new level of violation of our users' privacy that is completely unacceptable and we strongly call on the world's governments to reform surveillance law consistent with the principles we outlined in December.

"We are committed to preserving our users' trust and security and continue our efforts to expand encryption across all of our services."

A statement from GCHQ said it would not comment on matters of intelligence, but added: "All of GCHQ's work is carried out in accordance with a strict legal and policy framework which ensures that our activities are authorised, necessary and proportionate, and that there is rigorous oversight, including from the secretary of state, the interception and intelligence services commissioners and the Parliamentary Intelligence and Security Committee.

"All our operational processes rigorously support this position."

Wikipedia wants you to hear voices

By Doug Gross, CNN

January 27, 2014 -- Updated 1712 GMT (0112 HKT) | Filed under: Web CNN.com

(CNN) -- Thanks to digital media, future generations will probably have no trouble hearing Arnold Schwarzenegger say "I'll be back" or James Earl Jones, as Darth Vader, telling Luke that he's his father.

Now, Wikipedia wants to give other notable people the same treatment.

The crowd-sourced online encyclopedia wants to add audio clips of people who are the subjects of articles on the site, "so that Wikipedia's readers know what they sound like and how to correctly pronounce their names."

The brainchild of Wikipedia editor Andy Mabbett, the Wikipedia Voice Intro Project (WikiVIP) was announced this weekend. It asks people who are the subject of articles to upload audio clips, about 10 seconds long, of them speaking. The clips will be added to their pages.

In the early going, the project has a distinctly British feel to it.

Writer and actor Stephen Fry was approached by Mabbett and became one of the first celebrities to lend his voice. In his Wikipedia biography, an audio link now appears after his name.

"Hello. My name is Stephen Fry. I was born in London, and I've been in the entertainment business since, well, I suppose about 1981," he says in the recording.

Volunteers have also identified more than 300 clips from the BBC they'd like to use. The British network is reviewing the clips and has uploaded more than half of them, according to the announcement. Examples include Tim Berners-Lee, the English computer scientist credited with inventing the World Wide Web, and Burmese opposition politician Aung San Suu Kyi.

People who are the subjects of articles and willing to participate are asked to e-mail project volunteers. Wikipedia also is seeking volunteers to help transcribe the recordings, as well as to encourage article subjects to participate.

Ex.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases

The crowd-sourced online encyclopedia ,to add audio clips, the subjects of articles on the site, the brainchild of Wikipedia editor, to be announced, to have a distinctly British feel to something, to become one of the celebrities, volunteers, the British network, to encourage article subjects to participate.

Ex.2. Give English equivalents for the following phrases

Благодаря цифровому носителю, будущие поколения, не иметь проблем, редактор Википедии, детище редактора, добавить аудио-клипы, правильно произносить имена, идентифицировать более 300 клипов, изобрести Всемирную информационную сеть, принимать участие.

Ex.3. Say whether these sentences are true or false

1. The crowd-sourced online encyclopedia wants to add audio clips of people who are the subjects of articles on the site, "so that Wikipedia's readers know what they sound like and how to correctly pronounce their names."

2. Thanks to digital media, future generations will probably have no trouble hearing Arnold Schwarzenegger say "I'll be back''.

3. Volunteers have identified more than 400 clips from the BBC they'd like to use.

4. The brainchild of Wikipedia editor Andy Mabbett, the Wikipedia Voice Intro Project (WikiVIP) was announced 2 weeks ago.

5. People who are the subjects of articles and willing to participate are asked to email project volunteers

Ex.4.Answer the following questions:

1. What is the title of the article?

2. What media resource is it taken from?

3. What is the main idea of the article under review?

4. The crowd-sourced online encyclopedia wants to add audio clips of people who are the subjects of articles on the site, does not it?

5. What project is the brainchild of Wikipedia editor Andy Mabbett?

6. Who is asked to upload audio clips?

7. Do you find this article interesting or dull? Why?

TOP STORE HITS BACK AT "WARDROBING" FRAUD

An upmarket chain of U.S. department stores has taken action to stop people buying expensive clothes, wearing them once and then returning them for a refund. About 65 per cent of U.S. retailers reported they have been victims of this practice, known as "wardrobing". This form of "return fraud" costs the retail industry an estimated $8.8 billion a year. The store, Bloomingdale's, has started attaching large, black, hard-tohide tags to the bottom of dresses that cost over $150. The garment cannot be returned if the tag is missing. This means anyone thinking they can have a "free dress rental" might have to think again. The tag means they would be advertising the fact at their party that they are wardrobing.

Retail analyst Hitha Prabhakar explained how serious wardrobing was, saying: "What people don't realize is that it's an illegal process." Wardrobing has become such a problem that Bloomingdale's has decided to risk annoying and potentially losing customers in an effort to deter it. They have, in effect, let go a little of the sales mantra that "the customer is always right". Some Bloomingdale's customers believe the tags make them feel dishonest, while others think it's a long overdue solution to unscrupulous shoppers. The National Retail Federation said: "It's a delicate balance of loss prevention and good customer service, and the relationship has to be handled with appropriate finesse."

1. MATCH THE FOLLOWING SYNONYMS FROM THE ARTICLE.

1. upmarket a. discourage

2. refund b. deception

3. fraud c. unlawful

4. garment d. tricky

5. think again e. outfit

6. realize f. luxury

7. illegal g. understand

8. deter h. reimbursement

9. delicate i. skill

10. finesse j. Reconsider

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. How many times do 'wardrobers' wear clothes before getting a refund?'

2. How many retailers are effected by wardrobing?

3. How much money do stores lose because of wardrobing?

4. What needs to be on a dress to get a refund at Bloomingdale's?

5. What might a tag on a dress mean at a party?

6. What did an analyst say people don't understand about wardrobing?

7. What is Bloomingdale's risking losing?

8. What sales mantra is mentioned in the article?

9. How do some customers believe Bloomingdale's is making people feel?

10. What kind of balance is loss prevention and customer service?

ALEXANDER MCQUEEN FASHION LABEL TO LIVE ON

The luxury goods maker PPR has announced it will continue with the Alexander Mc Queen fashion label. It was uncertain what would happen to the brand after the death of its designer Alexander McQueen on February 11th. PPR is the world's third largest manufacturer of luxurious goods. It's chairman Francois Henri Pinault said: "The trademark Alexander McQueen will live on. This would be the best tribute that we could offer to him." The British label is part of the Gucci fashion group. It has 11 boutiques and employs 180 people worldwide. The top stores are in London, New York and Milan. Many celebrities love Alexander McQueen's designs, including Nicole Kidman, Penelope Cruz and Rihanna. Pop star Lady Gaga often wears his creations in her music videos.

The British fashion designer was born Lee Alexander McQueen in East London in 1969. He was the son of working class parents but became one of the fashion world's leading lights. He took his own life in his London apartment, leaving a suicide note. People close to him believe he never recovered from the death of his mother in early

February. McQueen graduated with a Master's degree in fashion at London's most prestigious fashion school, Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design. He soon made a name for himself worldwide and very quickly became the chief designer at Givenchy. He won the British Designer of the Year award four times. He will be remembered for his unconventional designs and for his fashion shows being unforgettable experiences.

1. MATCH THE FOLLOWING SYNONYMS FROM THE ARTICLE.

1. announced a. continue

2 uncertain b. got over

3. live on c. top

4. tribute d. made public

5. creations e. out of the ordinary

6. working class f. praise

7. leading g. unclear

8. recovered h. reputable

9. prestigious i. works of art

10. unconventional j. poorer

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. What did you think when you read the headline?

2. What springs to mind when you hear the word 'fashion'?

3. Are you fashionable? Why do you think so?

4. Who's your favourite fashion designer and why?

5. What is the use of fashion?

6. What kind of people make good fashion designers?

7. What do you think of the fashion world (designers, models, catwalks...)?

8. What do you know about Alexander McQueen?

9. What pressures are fashion designers under?

10. Are the fashions in your country the best in the world?

HAIRDRESSERS TOP JOB SATISFACTION POLL

Have you noticed that every time you go for a perm or a trim that hairdresser is always very chatty? The reason they are so happy is that most of them love their jobs. This is according to a survey conducted by the City & Guilds of London Institute, which asked 1,200 workers about their job satisfaction Forty per cent of hairdressers are very happy in their jobs, while civil servants, social workers and architects are the unhappiest workers. None of the top ten positions in the Happiness Index included office jobs. The happiest workers were those who used their hands. In second place were religious ministers, followed by chefs, beauticians and plumbers. The survey showed that people who can run their own business and be self-employed are happiest. Desk workers came very low on the happiness scale. Teachers didn't seem to be too happy either - only 8% said they enjoyed their work. There wasn't a figure for English teachers, although their job satisfaction is probably very high. English teachers also smile a lot and generally love their jobs. City and Guilds advised workers to start every day positively, chat to colleagues, and brighten the workplace with personal photographs and flowers.

1. MATCH THE FOLLOWING SYNONYMS FROM THE ARTICLE:

1. trim a. carried out 2. chatty b. position 3. conducted c. number 4. satisfaction d. decorate 5. civil servants e. ranking 6. index f. haircut 7. place g. contentedness 8. run h. talkative 9. figure i. operate 10. brighten j. government workers 2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. What is your dream job?

2. Would you like to be a hairdresser?

3. What's most important to you when choosing a job?

4. Would you prefer to work with your hands or use your head?

5. If you ran your own business, what would you do?

6. What are the pros and cons of being self-employed?

7. How about working overseas?

8. Do you think teaching English is easy / stressful?

9. What is the best way to enjoy your work?

10. Do you want to go far in your career? How far?

UNUSUAL FASHION GETS YOU MORE RESPECT

Researchers at the Harvard Business School claim that people who do not follow "normal fashion" get more respect from others. Doctoral student Silvia Bellezza and two of her colleagues examined how we view the social status and competence of people who do not conform to "normal" ways of dressing. They discovered that the more outlandishly people dress, the more respect they get. Participants in the research considered others who had a "weirder" fashion to be more unique. Researchers said that rather than think badly of someone scruffily dressed, many people believe that dressing down is a sign of confidence. Ms Bellezza said: "If you're willing to deviate, there are upsides."

Bellezza conducted a number of experiments to test how people reacted to nonconformity. In one, people in different types of clothes shopped at expensive boutiques in Milan. One group wore casual sports clothes, while the other donned expensivelooking outfits. The sales assistants assumed the ones in the sports gear were the bigger spenders. In another test, students rated an unshaven, T-shirt-clad professor above an academic wearing a suit and tie. Bellezza says high-profile entrepreneurs who dress down may be responsible for changing our perceptions. In particular, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg's wearing of hoodies and the late Steve Jobs' trademark jeans, sneakers and polo neck tops.

1. MATCH THE FOLLOWING SYNONYMS FROM THE ARTICLE.

1. claim a. evaluated

2 colleagues b. untidily

3. view c. wore

4. scruffily d. carried out

5. upsides e. co-workers

6. conducted f. understanding

7. donned g. assert

8. rated h. deceased

9. perception i. look at

10. Late j. Benefits

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. Where do the researchers who conducted this survey work?

2. What kind of student is Silvia Bellezza?

3. What do more outlandishly-dressed people get?

4. What did people think about others with a "weirder" fashion?

5. What is dressing down a sign of?

6. What did researchers test people's reactions to?

7. Who thought people dressed in sportswear were bigger spenders?

8. What did an unshaven professor wear?

9. Who might be responsible for changing our perceptions?

10. What did the article say Mark Zuckerberg wore?

RUSSIAN FOLK COSTUME

Economic, social and cultural changes in 18th-century Russia promoted by Peter I had a great impact on the country's everyday life. This was observed first of all in the strict reglamentation of people's dress. In 1700 a decree was issued on the compulsory wear of the West European costume by all except the peasants and the clergymen. The rules of European fashion became obligatory for the Russian nobility.

European dress was to become a norm for Russian society, a trend that made gradual progress, breaking its way through ages-old folk traditions. And indeed in the first half of the 18th century West European fashions, springing from the acknowledged fashion centre in Paris, were already adopted by Russia's privileged classes.

Among peasants the Russian folk costume retained its attributes up to the early 20th century. From this point of view the Russian folk costume commands special interest as a national costume. It comprises the traditional forms of peasant dress, the specifics of ornamentation, and manner of wearing it along with other original features. The Russian merchant class and petty bourgeoisie adhered to the Russian style of dress throughout the 18th and 19th cc. finding it difficult to accept European novelties.

Needlework, lace, and ornamental weaving incorporated in the Russian folk costume as well as the costume ensemble proper are all remarkable examples of highly traditional national art.

VOCABULARY NOTES

social and cultural changes - социальные и культурные преобразования to promote - продвигать, содействовать, поощрять great impact - большое влияние first of all - прежде всего a decree was issued - был издан указ compulsory a - обязательный to wear - носить одежду

obligatory a - обязательный, необходимый for Russian society - для русского общества gradual progress - постепенный прогресс (развитие)

Russia's privileged classes - привилегированные сословия России among peasants - в крестьянской среде

Russian folk costume - русский народный костюм to retain - удерживать, сохранять the early 20th century - начало ХХ в. from this point of view - с этой точки зрения original features - самобытные черты Russian merchant class - русское купечество petty bourgeoisie - мещане, мелкая буржуазия to accept - принимать, признавать

European novelties - европейские новшества needlework n - вышивка lace n - кружево ornamental weaving - узорное ткачество remarkable examples - замечательные образцы

traditional national art - традиционное национальное искусство

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Answer these questions:

1. Did the rules of European fashion become obligatory in Russia?

2. What was observed in the strict reglamentation of people's dress?

3. What decree was issued in 1700?

4. What can you say about original features of peasant dress?

5. When were West European fashions adopted by Russia's privileged classes?

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents for the following English word combinations:

had a great impact; cultural changes; everyday life; first of all; people's dress; the West European costume; the rules of European fashion; Russian society; gradual progress; privileged classes; Russian folk costume; as a national costume; it comprises; traditional forms; peasant dress; manner of

wearing; original features; Russian style of dress; throughout the 18th and 19th cc.; European novelties; as well as.

Ex. 3. Find English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:

экономические, социальные и культурные преобразования; связанные с деятельностью Петра I, русский быт; регламентация одежды; был издан указ; обязательное ношение в России костюма западноевропейского образца; вековые традиции народа; тем не менее; привилегированные сословия России; в крестьянской среде; русский костюм; народный костюм; самобытные черты; русское купечество и мещане; вышивка; кружево; узорное ткачество; в русском костюме; костюмный ансамбль; замечательные образцы.

TRADITIONAL RUSSIAN COSTUME

The traditional Russian costume was noted for its straight-cut freely flowing lines. The cut was based on the width of the homespun or purchased fabric and accounted for the archaic style of traditional Russian garments: the considerable length of the dress, and especially the long- sleeved women's shirts, worn in some districts. General features included the nature of the decor and the manner of wearing garments intended to produce a "multi-layer" costume ensemble, consisting of several garments worn one over the other. All these peculiarities of the peasant garments reflected the original nature of the Russian costume which had retained its main features from the times of Ancient Rus.

The Russian women's costume was based on the "sarafan" (a kind of sleeveless dress). The "sarafan" ensemble became widespread in Russia at the turn of the 18th century and comprised a shirt, "sarafan", belt, and apron. This costume was especially typical of the northern and central regions penetrating with time into the other parts of Russia where it ousted the local traditional dress. In the 18th century it was already associated with the Russian national costume. The "sarafan" was a daily attribute of peasant womenfolk and urban women belonging to the merchant, petty- bourgeois and other sections of the population.

The festive costume of the northern and central provinces was accentuated with pearl earrings and ornaments of golden and silver needlework and mother-ofpearl fixed into the plait.

VOCABULARY NOTES

homespun fabric - домотканая ткань purchased fabric - покупная ткань

freely flowing lines - свободно падающие линии одежды to cut - резать, кроить

long-sleeved shirts - рубахи с длинными рукавами considerable length of the dress - значительная длина одежды traditional Russian garments - традиционная русская одежда

"multi-layer" costume ensemble - "многослойный" костюмный ансамбль to reflect - отражать Ancient Rus - Древняя Русь sleeveless dress - платье без рукавов

at the turn of the 18th century - на рубеже XVII-XVIII вв. belt n - пояс apron n - фартук, передник

to penetrate - проникать, пронизывать to belong - принадлежать, относиться urban a - городской

festive costume - праздничный костюм

population n - население pearl earrings - серьги из жемчуга mother-of-pearl - перламутр

plait n - коса из волос

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Answer these questions:

1. What was the traditional Russian costume noted for?

2. What was the cut based on?

3. What did the peculiarities of the peasant garments reflect?

4. What was the Russian women's costume based on?

5. When did the "sarafan" ensemble become widespread in Russia?

6. What can you say about the festive costume?

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents for the following English word combinations:

the traditional Russian costume; the width of the fabric; the archaic style; traditional Russian garments; general features; the nature of the decor; the manner of wearing garments; a "multi-layer" costume ensemble; main features; Ancient Rus; the Russian women's costume; a kind of sleeveless dress; the "sarafan" ensemble; the other parts of Russia; the local traditional dress; a daily attribute; peasant womenfolk; urban women; petty-bourgeois; other sections of the population; the festive costume;

central provinces; pearl earrings; golden needlework; silver needlework; mother-of-pearl.

Ex. 3. Find English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:

ширина полотнища домотканой или покупной ткани; традиционная русская одежда; большая длина рукавов; значительная длина одежды; в некоторых районах; общие черты; "многослойный" костюмный ансамбль; особенности крестьянского костюма; самобытный характер одежды; рубаха; пояс; передник; северные и центральные губернии; крестьянки; городские мещанки; купчихи; другие группы населения; праздничный северный костюм; серьги, низанные из жемчуга; украшения в косу, расшитые золотосеребряной нитью, перламутром.

NATIONAL FOLK DRESS

The earliest samples of national folk dress included festive costumes with "sarafans" of printed silken fabrics manufactured in Russia in the late 18th century. Their characteristic feature were oblique gores inserted between the sides of two straight widths in the front and one central width in the back. The "sarafan" had a long row of buttons in front and was suspended on wide straps. This type became known as the oblique-gore "sarafan".

Another type was a simple affair of straight widths of cloth gathered in the front under a binding, having no buttons and also suspended on straps. It was known as the straight-cut or round "sarafan". The oblique- gore and straight-cut "sarafans" were genetically linked with ancient- Russian garments such as the "telogreya" (padded jacket) and "nakladnaya shubka" (outer coat). These diverse "sarafan" cuts could be observed in the 19th and early 20th cc. in different provinces of Russia.

"Sarafans" of silken fabrics printed with lavish flower bouquets and garlands were ornamented with golden galloons and metallic lace; silver or gilt buttons formed a decorative pattern along the seams. Such "sarafans" were worn with white shirts ("sleeves") of lawn or muslin heavily embroidered in chain-stitch with white thread, or with silken shirts. These festive "sarafans" and shirts were dearly valued and worn with care on holidays and handed down.

"Sarafans" were girdled at the waist with narrow belts having long loose ends. In different localities this attire was supplemented with a short "sarafan" - like garment - "epanechka", also made of silken manufactured fabric and decorated with golden galloon.

On cold days a long-sleeved jacket - "dushegreya" - gathered in the back into tubular folds was worn. Its cut differed from the traditional style and was close to that of civil-type clothes.

The festive "dushegreya" was made of silken fabric or velvet and embroidered with golden thread. In Russia's northern provinces the silk "sarafan" was worn with a head-dress decorated with needlework, pearls, golden and silver threads and mother-of-pearl plaques. These materials were also used for pectoral ornaments.

VOCABULARY NOTES

folk dress - народная одежда

printed silken fabrics - шелковые узорные ткани characteristic feature - характерная черта oblique gores - косые клинья сарафана

in the front - спереди in the back - на спине to suspend - вешать, удерживать wide straps - широкие лямки сарафана festive costume - праздничный костюм

ancient-Russian garments - древнерусская женская одежда lavish flower bouquet - пышный букет metallic lace - металлическое кружево

silver or gilt buttons - серебряные и позолоченные пуговицы along the seam - вдоль шва

to hand down - передавать по наследству

pearl n - жемчуг; жемчужина tubular fold - трубчатая складка close a - близкий

civil-type clothes - городская одежда velvet n - бархат

golden thread - золотая нить head-dress - головной убор needlework n - вышивка, шитье

mother-of-pearl plaques - колотый перламутр

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Answer these questions:

1. What did the earliest samples of national folk dress include?

2. What "sarafans" were worn?

3. What fabrics were "sarafans" made of?

4. What head-dress was worn with the "sarafan"?

5. What was worn on cold days?

6. What shirts were worn with "sarafans"?

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents for the following English word combinations:

national folk dress; festive costume; printed silken fabrics; in the front; a long row of buttons; wide straps; ancient-Russian garments; in the 19th and early 20th cc.; in different provinces of Russia; silken fabrics; golden galloons; silver or gilt buttons; festive "sarafans"; were worn with white shirts; silken shirts; festive shirts; were dearly valued; were worn with care on holidays; at the waist; a short "sarafan"; decorated with golden galloon; on cold days; a long-sleeved jacket; its cut differed from the traditional style; civil-type clothes; was embroidered with golden thread; the silken "sarafan" was worn with; a headdress decorated with; mother-of-pearl plaques; these materials were also used for.

Ex. 3. Find English equivalents for the following Russian phrases from the text:

народная одежда; праздничная одежда; праздничный костюм; праздничный сарафан; шелковые узорные ткани; ткани русской фабричной работы; косые клинья, вставленные по бокам двух прямых полотнищ ткани; спереди сарафан застегивался на длинный ряд пуговиц; сарафан удерживался широкими лямками; "косоклинный" распашной сарафан; "прямой" или "круглый" сарафан; древнерусская женская одежда; эти разновидности кроя сарафана; сарафаны из шелковых тканей; ткани с пышными букетами и гирляндами; сарафаны украшались золотым галуном; вдоль швов; сарафаны носили с белыми рубахами; белые рубахи из линобатиста и кисеи; богато расшитые тамбурным швом; "сарафанные" ткани с букетами; праздничные сарафаны и рубахи высоко ценились; сарафаны подпоясывали узким поясом; короткая нагрудная одежда- епанечка; шелковая фабричная ткань; в холодные дни с сарафаном носили душегрею; покрой душегреи был близок к городской одежде; праздничную душегрею шили из шелковых тканей или бархата; в северных губерниях России; к костюму с шелковым сарафаном надевали головной убор; головной убор, украшенный шитьем речным жемчугом, золото-серебряными нитями, колотым перламутром; этими же материалами расшивали нагрудные украшения.

WEDDING AND FESTIVE HEAD-DRESS

Wedding and festive head-dress worn in northern and central provinces in the 18th - 19th cc. boasted a variety of forms and reflected local peculiarities, and age and social distinctions.

According to an ancient custom common to all eastern Slav peoples a strict distinction was observed between the head-dress and hair-style of maidens and married women. Maidens wore their hair loose or made into a single plait. A married woman wore two plaits and was not allowed to uncover her hair in public. Hence the form of the head-dress: one covering the entire head for married women, and one leaving the hair open for maidens.

One of the most common type of festive head-dress was the

"kokoshnik", a kind of rigid cap worn with the "sarafan". 18th - early 19th century "kokoshniks" were masterfully decorated with pearls, meshwork of pearls and mother-of-pearl plaques, golden and silver needlework, coloured foil and decorative stones. The head-dress was treasured in the family and handed down, and was an integral element of a well-off bride's dowry. The "kokoshniks" boasted a variety of original forms, from those of a crescent or a peak topped with a "knob", to small flat hats covering the ears, all of them reflecting local customs and aesthetical ideas.

Holiday and wedding head-dress was worn with a shawl.

VOCABULARY NOTES

head-dress n - головной убор

wedding head-dress - свадебный головной убор festive head-dress - праздничный головной убор to boast - хвастать to reflect - отражать variety n - разнообразие

local peculiarities - местные особенности age distinctions - возрастные различия social distinctions - социальная принадлежность ancient custom - древний обычай

head-dress of maidens - девичий головной убор

head-dress of married women - головной убор замужней женщины hair-style - прическа

common a - общепринятый, обыкновенный rigid cap - плотная твердая шапочка coloured foil - цветная фольга to treasure - высоко ценить

well-off bride's dowry - приданое зажиточной невесты integral element - неотъемлемая часть костюма flat hats - плоские шапочки crescent n - полумесяц hats covering the ears - шапочки с ушками

aesthetical ideas - эстетические представления

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Answer these questions:

1. What did wedding and festive head-dress reflect?

2. What distinction was observed between the head-dress of maidens and married women?

3. What can you say about the hair-style of maidens and married women?

4. What was the most common type of festive head-dress?

5. Was the head-dress treasured in the family?

6. What can you say about original forms of "kokoshniks"?

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents for the following English word combinations:

wedding head-dress; festive head-dress; central provinces; in northern provinces; in the 18th - 19th cc.; a variety of forms; local peculiarities; age and social distinctions; according to; ancient custom; Slav peoples; a strict distinction; the form of the head-dress; the most common type of festive head-dress; a kind of rigid cap worn with the "sarafan"; "kokoshniks" were decorated with pearls; golden and silver needlework; decorative stones; a well-off bride's dowry; wedding head-dress was worn with a shawl.

Ex. 3. Find English equivalents for the following Russian phrases from the text:

свадебный головной убор; праздничный головной убор; девичий головной убор; головной убор замужней женщины; прическа; носить волосы распущенными; заплетать волосы в одну косу; заплетать две косы; головной убор, покрывающий волосы; головной убор, оставляющий волосы открытыми; кокошники были украшены плетеным жемчугом; кокошники украшались перламутровыми поднизями; форма полумесяца; островерхие кокошники; плоские шапочки с ушками; местные традиции; эстетические представления.

Тексты для факультета русской филологии и национальной культуры

Jules Verne

Jules Verne was born in 1828 in the seaport of Nantes,' France. As a child he was greatly interested in travel and exploration. He continued to show this interest throughout his life as a writer of adventure stories and science fiction. He also wrote several books on history and geography.

His heroes travelled in balloons, steam tanks, rocket ships, submarines* and electric autos.

These inventions may not seem surprising today, but Jules Verne predicted these wonders over one hundred years ago, when man travelled by horse and carriage. But Verne made all his inventions believable because he explained them with accurate scientific details.

Verne's first book 'Tive Weeks in a Balloon", was published in 1863. It made him famous. The following year he wrote "A Journey to the Centre of the Earth", and the year after that came "From the Earth to the Moon". All in all he wrote over one hundred books and stories.

When Jules Verne died in 1905, many of the inventions he had predicted had already become realities. He was the man who many people said 'Invented the future".

Another giant of science fiction, H.G. Wells, wrote the following about

Jules Verne and his own work:"My stories have been compared with the work of Jules Verne and journalists often called me the English Jules Verne. As a matter of fact there is no literary resemblance whatever between the inventions of the great Frenchman and my fantasies. His work was about actual possibilities of invention and discovery. He wrote and believed and told that this or that thing could be done which was not at that time done. Many of his inventions have "come true", but stories of mine are exercises of imagination in a quite different field.

In this type of story the interest lies in their non-fantastic elements and not in the invention itself.

Ответьте на вопросы:

1. In what way are Wells' stories different?

2. Do you agree that works of Verne and Wells belong to two different categories of science fiction?

3. Do you think that an element of fantasy necessarily makes a book a work of science fiction?

4. Did science fiction appear at the end of the last century or did it actually appear several centuries ago?

5. Was "Gulliver Travels" a science fiction book?

Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим словам:

Exploration, science fiction, adventure story, balloon, steam tank, rocket ship, submarine, invention, accuracy, resemblance.

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

Robert Louis Stevenson, the nineteenth-century Scottish writer, is well known for his book 'Treasure Island". Many generations of children have read it and enjoyed it. He wrote a large number of other stories, essays and poems - including, of course, 'The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde". This story appeared in 1886 and has 'fascinated people ever since.

In the story, Dr Jekyll discovers a special liquid which changes a person's character completely. Normally, Dr Jekyll is kind, intelligent and "civilized". When he drinks the liquid, he changes into Mr Edward Hyde. Mr Hyde is brutal and violent; he represents the bad side of human nature. At first, Dr Jekyll can change back into his usual character quite easily. (He simply drinks more of the liquid, and Mr Hyde becomes Dr Jekyll again.) But gradually it becomes more difficult to do this. The brutal and violent character takes over.

The story was very popular with readers - it was an early science fiction success. It was adapted for the theatre soon after it appeared.

There have also been a lot of film versions - the earliest in 1908, and others in 1910,1911,1913,1920,1931,1941,1970.

So Robert Louis Stevenson's early fiction story has fascinated readers, theatergoers and cinemagoers since 1886. In fact, the names Jekyll and Hyde have become an expression in English. As the Longman Modern English dictionary says: "Jekyll and Hyde, A person having two conflicting personalities, one good and the other evil". (From "Modern English") Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Robert Louis Stevenson was the nineteenth-century Scottish writer, was not he?

2. What do you think about Stevenson's idea?

3. What is he well known for?

4. How do you understand it? Suggest your own plots for a science fiction story and discuss them.

5. When did the story 'The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" appear?

Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим словам: Поколение, открывать(о достижении) , жидкость, жестокий, выражение

A. CONAN DOYLE

(1859-1930)

With the words "Elementary, my dear Watson . . ."", the most famous detective of all time, Sherlock Holmes, starts to explain a crime to his friend, Dr. Watson. That phrase has now entered the English language.

Sherlock Holmes first appeared in a book called 'Study in Scarlet'. He became famous in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes', first published in the 'Strand Magazine'. After that came a whole series of books about him: 'The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes', 'The Return of Sherlock Holmes', The Hound of the Baskervilles', and many others. Many thousands of the Sherlock Holmes books are still sold every year.

Who.invented Sherlock Holmes? Arthur Conan Doyle was his inventor. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Scotland, of Irish parents. He was a doctor. In 1882 he moved from Scotland to England, to Southsea near Portsmouth, to set up a practice. One of the doctors he worked for, Dr. Joseph Bell, was the model for Sherlock Holmes's friend, Dr. Watson. Conan Doyle's medical knowledge was a great help to him in his detective stories.

Conan Doyle started the fashion of the detective story. Today the fashion goes on - with Simenon's Inspector Maigret stories and the stories of other writers.

And what sort of man is Sherlock Holmes? We learn a lot about him from the stories in which he appears. He has a thin face and intelligent eyes. He speaks when he has something to say. He smokes a pipe (he has a collection of them). He plays the violin. He lives at 221 'B' Baker Street in London.

If you go to London, you will not be able to find 221 'B' Baker Street. But instead, you can go to a pub called "The Sherlock Holmes' in Northumberland Street (near Trafalgar Square). In that pub there is a room like Sherlock Holmes's room at 221 'B' Baker Street, as described in Conan Doyle's stories. I.- Read the text and answer the questions: 1) What was Con an Doyle?

2) What fashion did Conan Doyle start?

3) When did Conan Doyle create his famous character, Sherlock Holmes?

4) What was Watson?

5) Will you be able to find 221 'B' Baker Street, when you arrive in London?

II. Найдите английские эквиваленты к следующим словам:

Знаменитый, изобретать, знание, создавать, трубка, скрипка, описывать.

Marquez Wins Nobel Prize

Colombian novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez has won the 1982 Nobel prize for literature, the Swedish academy announced in Stockholm.

It said his novels and short stories combined fantasy and reality to describe the life and conflicts of his continent.

Garcia Marquez, 54, has achieved unusual international success with his novel in Spanish "One Hundred Years of Solitude" which has been translated into many languages and sold millions of copies.

His other works include "Autumn of the Patriarch" and short novels "No One Writes to the Colonel" and 'The Evil Hour".

Garcia Marquez was born in 1928 in the small northern Colombian town of Aracataca, in a tropical region between mountains and the Caribbean.

He was sent to Rome in 1954 on an assignment for a newspaper, and has since lived abroad - in Paris, New York, Barcelona and Mexico.

He is only the 16th writer from outside Europe to win the prize since it was first awarded in 1901.

His novel "One Hundred Years of Solitude", published in 1968, tells the story of an imaginary Latin American village called Macondo.

It is partly a political work and partly an allegory of life in Latin America where backward, isolated villages exist only a few hours away by air from modern cities.

He is the fourth Latin American and first Colombian to win the Nobel literature award. (From a newspaper report)

Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Has Colombian novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez won the 1982 Nobel prize for literature?

2. What did his novels and short stories combine?

3. What has been translated into many languages and sold millions of copies?

4. When was Garcia Marquez born?

5. When did he publish "One Hundred Years of Solitude"?

Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим словам:

Announce, success, assignment, award, publish, imaginary, isolated village.

ST. XENIA'S FAITHFULNESS TO GOD

St. Petersburg in the late eighteenth century may not have been so noisy and populous as it is today, but even in those times it could hardly have been called a quiet island of saving peace. All the more does the image of blessed Xenia appear strange against the background of the capital's bustle and vanity. This seems to have been forgotten by the woman living in the noisy streets of a large city, determined to live her life only according to the Gospel commandments, regardless of all human opinion. Dressed in men's clothing, calling herself by the name of her dead husband, Andrei Feodorovich- could the blessed one really expect understanding and sympathy from those around her? Or, perhaps she intentionally wished to increase her podvig [ascetic labor] through her endurance of humiliation from others? If so, then everything went right according to plan from the very beginning. In summer and winter, in cold and heat the saint wandered for entire days around St. Petersburg; and evil people, especially street urchins, often mocked and laughed at her. However, people around her soon began to notice that in her words and actions there was profound hidden meaning. And when the blessed one began to be respected as a clairvoyant, no sooner would she appear on the streets and markets of the city than everyone who knew her would offer her their services. Regardless of season or weather, every single night blessed Xenia would go to the field and pray until dawn. Here, in her words, God's presence was "more distinct". This is even more perplexing-why would the saint return to the capital? Why didn't she remain continually in the place where it was so good for her to abide with God?

Of course, the answer to this question lies along the borderline of rational forms. It is hard to fathom it through reason alone. However, the Christian heart differs from the unbelieving heart precisely in the fact that it does not reject truths that cannot be fathomed by reason. And this recognition of the strength of the soul capable of acting contrary to reason brings us closer to understanding the saint's podvig.

Roman Savchuk Translation by OrthoChristian.com 06 / 06 / 2014 http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/ Give equivalents to the following words:

quiet - спокойный clairvoyant - прозорливый pray - молиться perplexing - странный blessed - блаженная

Answer the following questions:

What did Blessed Xenia look like?

How did people treat her?

Where did she go to pray till dawn?

Why did she do so?

Did she return to the capital afterwards?

THEOTOKOS AND SAINTS

The Orthodox Church believes death and the separation of body and soul to be unnatural-a result of the Fall of Man. They also hold that the congregation of the Church comprises both the living and the dead. All persons currently in heaven are considered to be saints, whether their names are known or not. There are, however, those saints of distinction whom God has revealed as particularly good examples. When a saint is revealed and ultimately recognized by a large portion of the Church a service of official recognition (glorification) is celebrated.

Pre-eminent among the saints is the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos ("God-bearer"). In Orthodox theology, the Theotokos is the fulfillment of the Old Testament archetypes revealed in the Ark of the Covenant (because she carried the New Covenant in the person of Christ) and the burning bushthat appeared before Moses (symbolizing the Theotokos' carrying of God without being consumed). Accordingly, the Orthodox consider Mary to be the Ark of the New Covenant and give her the respect and reverence as such. The Theotokos was chosen by God and she freely co-operated in that choice to be the Mother of Jesus Christ, the God-man.

The Church regards the bodies of all saints as holy, made such by participation in the Holy Mysteries, especially the communion of Christ's holy body and blood, and by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit within the Church. Indeed, that persons and physical things can be made holy is a cornerstone of the doctrine of the Incarnation, made manifest also directly by God in Old Testament times through his dwelling in the Ark of the Covenant. Thus, physical items connected with saints are also regarded as holy, through their participation in the earthly works of those saints. God himself bears witness to this holiness of saints' relics through the many miracles connected with them that have been reported throughout history since Biblical times, often including healing from disease and injury.

Give equivalents to the following words:

Theotokos - Пресвятая Богородица Old Testament - Ветхий Завет Orthodox - православный saints' relics - мощи святых saints - святые угодники

Answer the following questions:

Whom does the congregation of the Orthodox Church comprise?

Who is pre-eminent among the saints?

Why are physical items connected with the saints regarded as holy?

What happen when a saint is officially revealed?

What is the result of the Fall of Man?

ORTHODOX CHURCH (BUILDING)

The church building has many symbolic meanings; perhaps the oldest and most prominent is the concept that the Church is the Ark (as in Noah's) in which the world is saved from the flood of temptations; therefore, most Orthodox Churches are rectangular in design. Another popular configuration, especially for churches with large choirs is cruciform or cross-shaped or what is called the "Greek-cross." Architectural patterns vary in shape and complexity, with chapels sometimes added around the main church, or triple altars; but in general, the symbolic layout of the church remains the same. Each church is created with specified qualifications based on what the apostles said in the Bible. These qualifications include how big the temple should be.

The Church building is divided into three main parts: the narthex (vestibule), the nave and the sanctuary (also called the altar or holy place). The narthex is where catechumens and non-Orthodox visitors were traditionally asked to stand during services. It is separated from the nave by "The Royal Gate". On each side of this gate are candle stands (menalia) representing the pillars of fire that went before the Hebrew people escaping from Egypt.

The nave is where most of the congregation stand during services. Traditionally, men stand on the right and women on the left. This is for a number of reasons: (1) Considering the family unit of past centuries the husband was dominant; thus, standing the same distance from the altar, equality is emphasised. (2) The idea of separating the sexes was inherited from the Jewish tradition of doing so within synagogues (3) Separation of sexes also followed the practice of choirs in which different levels of voice are placed in groups to facilitate harmony.

In general, men and women dress respectfully, typically wearing their "Sunday best" to enter the church. Often, women cover their heads as prescribed by Paul (1 Cor. 11:13). Children are considered full members of the Church and stand attentively and quietly during services. There is often a choir area at the side or in a loft in back. In addition to the Choir, a Chanter is always present at the front of the church to chant responses and hymns that are part of the Divine Liturgy offered by the Priest. There is usually a dome in the ceiling with an icon of Christ depicted as

Ruler of the Universe

(Pantocrator).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodox_Church

Give equivalents to the following words: The Ark - Ковчег sanctuary - алтарь narthex - притвор catechumens - оглашенные nave - неф

Answer the following questions:

What symbolic meanings does the church building have?

What are the main three parts it is divided into?

What is the narthex?

What is the nave?

What are the reasons for the differences in places for men and women in the chuch?

HISTORICAL REFERENCEOF ST. JOHN THE THEOLOGIAN

MONASTERY.PART 1

St. John the Theologian Monastery is one of ancient Russian cloisters, a multicolored pearl of Ryazan region.

The historical legend traces its foundation to the end of the 12th century or to the beginning of the 13th century when monks first came to this place. They were preachers of God's word. They brought a wonderworking icon of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian. It had been painted by an orphan boy in Byzantium in the 6th century. The icon became the main sanctity of St. John the Theologian Monastery.

December 1237 the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian defended his cloister from Tartar-Mongol invaders. The cruel khan and his warriors were frightened by the vision of the Holy Apostle. Baty-khan stopped all the attempts to demolish the monastery and left his gold seal at the wonderworking icon. This seal was kept by the monks for 416 years. In 1653 it was taken from the icon to gild the big stoup.

In the 16th century and in the first half of the 17th century the monastery experienced numerous invasions of the Crimean Tartars but still revived. In the 16th century there was made an attempt to remove the monastery to a safer place, to "Zasechnaya cherta" under the protection of Russian frontier troops. However the icon of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian which was taken by the conventual community to the new place moved back itself and the monks returned to the monastery after it.

Till the middle of the 17th century all the buildings in the monastery were wooden.

http://www.obitel-bogoslov.org/

Give equivalents to the following words:

Monastery - монастырь Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the

Cloister - обитель Theologian - Святой Апостол и

Monk - монах Евангелист Иоанн Богослов

Preacher - исповедник

Answer the following questions:

When did monks first come to the place of the present day cloister?

What did they bring with them?

How did the Holy Apostle defend his cloister?

What happened in the16th and in the17th cc.? Did the holy icon return to its place?

Historical Reference of St. John the Theologian monastery. Part 2

After the enactment of the decree issued by Empress Catherine the Great dated

1764 which concerned secularization of church or monastery lands or reserves the monastery of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian as well as many other Russian cloisters began to fall into decay. The period of new spiritual and economic prosperity began for it in the second half of the 19th century. In 1860 David Ivanovich Khludov, a hereditary honorary citizen, a merchant belonging to the top guild purchases a county seat not far from the cloister. He became the main benefactor of the monastery. Hieromonk Vitaly (Vinogradov) was appointed Father Superior of the cloister on the 22nd of March 1865. The monastery itself turned into a coenoby.

Hieromonk Vitaly who further became a hegumen and an archimandrite ruled over the cloister for half a century and died in 1915 being about 100 years old. The number of monks in the conventual community increased in the period of his administration and counted over 100 people.

Many wonderful acts of God were shown through the icon of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian and numerous wonderful recoveries took place at the Holy Spring situated near the monastery, near the ancient monastery caves. In 1931 the brethren of the cloister headed by Father Superior Archimandrite Zosima (Musatov) who was advanced in years at that time were arrested and sentenced to various exile terms in Kazakhstan. The monastery itself was closed and abolished. On the eve of the closure the ancient wonderworking icon of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian disappeared from the cloister. It has not been recovered yet.

The monastery was given back to the Russian Orthodox Church in the autumn of 1988. Archimandrite Abel (Makedonov) became the Hegumen of the cloister. The restoration of the ruined monastery began at that time. http://www.obitel-bogoslov.org/

Give equivalents to the following words:

Hegumen - игумен монастырь

Hieromonk - иеромонах Wonderworking - чудотворный

Coenoby - общежительный Brethren - братия

Answer the following questions:

When did the cloister begin to fall into decay?

Who was David Ivanovich Khludov?

What did he do for the monastery?

When were the brethren arrested and sent to Kazakhstan? When did the restoration of the cloister begin?

History of journalism

Newsletters contained news that was written for merchants, businesspeople, and politicians during the seventeenth century. The newsletters exchanged sporadic information about friends abroad or in other colonies between people with common interests. This created an organized circulation, which eventually led to the development of the newspaper.

Pamphlets were published papers that dealt with public questions, while ballads were accounts written in verse. These were distributed in public houses, coffeehouses, and taverns. Such information was printed on broadsides, meaning it was printed on one side of a single sheet. These sheets were sold on the street for a few pence.

Journalism's popularity and influence in the political process emerged at about the same time as the European discovery and colonization of North America. Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1467) created the first moveable type press in 1455, yet it was not until Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) sailed from Spain in 1492 that the printing press was popularized in Europe. Columbus wrote many letters describing his discoveries of the "Indies." In 1620, around the time the Mayflower landed at Plymouth, the first "coranto," or pioneer newspapers, appeared for sale in the streets of London. The first printing press was imported to America in 1639. Over the next forty years, journalism became established in England with the first newspaper, the Weekly News.

In England, the popularization of such materials represented the first clash between government and journalism, with authors and importers of imported books being subject to censorship and harsh prosecutions as well as other impediments, such as high taxes. Undeterred by those punishments, the business of journalism grew. It is estimated that between 1640 and the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, more than 30,000 political pamphlets and newspapers were issued. The beginnings of journalism also coincided with the rise of political parties in England. Political groups realized that if they could get endorsements from newsletters and pamphlets, their interests would be more easily disseminated to the public. This eventually led to the partisan press in both the United Kingdom and America. (cited from the article of Lydia Miljan in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008 http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/journalism.aspx#2) Give equivalents to the following words:

Journalism - журнализм Restoration - восстановление

Popularity - популярность Distribute - распределять

Punishment - наказание Answer the following questions:

What did the newsletters contain?

What led to the development of the newspaper?

When did Journalism's popularity and influence in the political process emerge?

What did Johannes Gutenberg create?

What was the name of the first newspaper in England?

History of journalism

The first continuous American newspaper began publishing in Boston on April 24,

1704. It was founded by the city's postmaster, John Campbell, and was called the Boston News-Letter. It carried news from London journals and focused on English politics and foreign wars. Local content was limited to the arrival of ships, deaths, sermons, political appointments, storms, crimes, and misadventures.

The modern newspaper progressed over the next 200 years, evolving from the broadsheets and pamphlets to weekly sheets and eventually the daily press.

Notable figures in the early days of newspapers include Benjamin Franklin (1706- 1790), who, with his brother James, published the New England Courant. Seeking new sales, Franklin established the publishing tradition of letters to the editor. Initially Franklin himself wrote letters under pseudonyms to create controversy and arouse interest in his own editorials. The first daily newspapers tended to be highly partisan. This partisan press eventually was replaced by the penny press.

Economies of scale figure prominently in the evolution of newspapers. As presses became larger, the need for greater capital also increased. Those with the most capital were able to secure larger presses and larger audiences, thereby pushing out of business the small, independent producers and creating larger, more standardized formats. The larger scale of the modern newspaper helped develop the craft and techniques of journalism. Tenants of modern journalism are objectivity, the inverted pyramid, and other conventions of standardized writing. The formatting of news in specific ways, such as the inverted pyramid, means that the most important information, the five Ws (who, what, when, where, and why), are placed at the start of the story. This allows readers to find the most important facts quickly. It also means that if the story has to be edited because of space limitations, the last paragraphs are easily cut without losing the main story elements and without the need to rewrite the story.

(cited from the article of Lydia Miljan in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008 http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/journalism.aspx#2) Give equivalents to the following words:

Develop - развивать Establish - основывать

Standardize - стандартизировать Editorials - периодика

Limitation - оганичение

Answer the following questions:

When did the first continuous American newspaper began publishing?

Where did it began publishing?

Who founded it?

What are the five Ws?

What are they necessary for?

NEWSWIRES AND JOURNALISM

As competition increased, so did the need to be the first to break the news. Many technological advances in the nineteenth century facilitated news-gathering competition. These included the steamship, the railroad, and the magazine telegraph. The telegraph proved to be the most efficient means of conveying information over long distances, and the newspaper helped to popularize and ensure its success. While the telegraph was a boon for the speed of news, it was also expensive.

The first newswire, AgenceHavas, was started in 1835 by Charles-Louis Havas (1783-1858), considered the father of the press agency. Havas translated material from abroad for the French national press. In 1940 the company was taken over by the state. Twelve years later the first North American press agency was created, starting with an agreement between the publishers of the Journal of Commerce and the New York Herald. In 1848 the Associated Press (AP) was founded at a meeting of ten men representing six New York newspaper publishers. They pooled their efforts in collecting international news. Horace Greeley (1811-1872), the founding editor of the New York Tribune, was also a founder of the AP. Having a news wire license would mean a great deal to future newspaper barons because it would ensure their success against competitors who did not have access to the wire. By October 1851 the German-born Paul Julius Reuter (1816-1899) was transmitting stock market quotes between London and Paris over the Calais-Dover cable. His agency, which eventually became known as Reuters, extended its service to the whole British press and to other European countries. Other news wires that emerged were the United Press Association, set up by E. W. Scripps (1854-1926), U.S. Newswire, and Bloomberg, whose focus remains business news. Most countries have some form of newswire service. Newswires helped move newspapers away from partisan declarations. To be a successful news agency, one had to have many subscribing newspapers. The ability to get the story meant stripping the copy of its editorial content and focusing on the facts.

(cited from the article of Lydia Miljan in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008 http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/journalism.aspx#2) Give equivalents to the following words:

International - международный

Emerge - возникать

Transmit - передавать

Agreement - соглашение

Declaration - заявление

Answer the following questions:

What did many technological advances in the nineteenth century facilitate? What proved to be the most efficient means of conveying information over long distances?

What helped to popularize and ensure its success?

Who is considered the father of the press agency? Who was the founder of Reuters?

MODERN INNOVATIONS: RADIO, TELEVISION, CABLE, AND THE

INTERNET Newspaper journalism began to wane in popularity as other communication technologies emerged. Radio had a unique ability to transmit wire information directly to the public. This challenged newspapers, which feared they would lose their influence. Initial attempts by newspapers to prevent radio from taking over journalism included blocking radio from receiving newswire stories. Nonetheless, there was little to prevent radio stations from reading the news from competing newspapers. When limiting information to radio did not work, newspapers tried to discredit radio journalism by claiming that radio could not uphold the ideals of objectivity, could not provide public service, or was bad for democracy. All these issues were resolved when AP lifted its ban on radio in 1939, allowing radio to compete with newspapers.

Just as radio challenged and changed the nature of journalism, so too did television news. Not only was information equally available, but television news provided better pictures than newspapers with the timeliness of radio. The focus on images in television news changed the nature of journalism, with images reigning paramount over content. From 1950 to the 1980s television news was the most popular means by which the public received information on current events. Television's success was in part due to the ease of receiving the information as well as the visual nature of the medium.

The popularization of the Internet has blurred the lines of journalism and public comment. The Internet not only allows for on-demand news, which traditional media have adopted, but it also allows for individuals not normally considered journalists to present their interpretations of current affairs. The Web log, or blog, is a Web site on which individuals write their views on any subject. Blogs have been associated with breaking publication bans, providing critical commentary on accepted journalistic stories, and popularizing certain political interests. Just as challenges to newspapers were discredited as not being proper journalism, traditional journalists also question and try to discredit blogs. The current definition of journalism disavows blog writers in that they do not typically write for commercial interests.

(cited from the article of Lydia Miljan in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008 http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/journalism.aspx#2) Give equivalents to the following words:

directly - прямо challenge - бросать вызов receive - получать reign - править

interpretation - интерпретация Answer the following questions:

What happened to newspapaer journalism when other communication technologies emerged?

What a unique ability did radio have?

How did newspapers try to discredit radio journalism?

What did the popularization of the Internet do?

What does the current definition of journalism say about blog writers?

Тексты для естественно-географического факультета

OXIDATION Oxygen in the air has a great tendency to combine with other elements or compounds, especially at high temperatures. When this combination occurs oxidation is said to take place. Chemists do not only use the term oxidation for reactions in which oxygen is being added to a substance. Sometimes this term is applied to certain reactions in which oxygen does not play any part whatsoever. Oxidation has been extended to all reactions in which electrons are removed from a substance.

Coke consists almost entirely of carbon. It does not combine with oxygen at ordinary temperatures, but it will do so provided the temperature is high enough. When combined with the oxygen of the air the carbon is converted to carbon dioxide gas. At the same time energy is released which makes itself apparent in the form of heat and light. It is for this reason that coke is used as a fuel. When the burning begins, excess heat energy is given out, some of which being used to keep the temperature of the element so that it remains burning. "Burning" involves the combination of elements with oxygen. Hydrogen gas burns to give steam and, for example, sulphur produces sulphur dioxide on burning.

Several metals will burn when heated in air giving out heat and light. Magnesium, for example, emits a bright white light but other metals do not release so much energy when combined with oxygen on heating. They merely glow.

Combination with oxygen will take place in some cases without using heat. Rusting of iron is brought about by air in the presence of water. Rusting might be called a slow, flameless combustion.

Yellow phosphorus is a dangerous substance for it has a low ignition temperature. It should be stored under water, because, when it is brought into contact with air it immediately bursts into flame without being heated.

Many compounds will burn, especially those which contain carbon and hydrogen. Wood has been burnt ever since man had knowledge of fire; petrol is burnt in the internal combustion engine.

We know oxidation processes to be very important in living organisms as well.

Both animals and plants need oxygen in order to live. The cells of which living things are made require energy to perform their functions and this energy is released from food materials by "burning" them. Actually this involves a series of complex chemical reactions which are oxidation.

I. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is oxygen?

2. What does coke consist of?

3. In which cases will oxygen take place?

4. Is yellow phosphorus a dangerous substance?

5. Where is petrol burnt?

II. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов:

Flameless, combustion, ignition, internal, to heat, to release

THE AIR AROUND US

Although we cannot see it, there is air all around us. If you move your hands in front of your face, you can feel the air moving as your hand pushes through it. Blow on your hand and you will feel the air coming out of your mouth. We could not live without air. We take it into our bodies blowing it out again through our noses and mouths. Air is everywhere and it gives life to every living thing. When air moves, we call it "wind".

When we say that a bottle is empty and has nothing in it, that is not really true, for the bottle is full of air. Push it under water and you will see the air coming out of it as the water goes in.

Although we cannot see it, air has some strength. For example, it stops a piece of paper from falling as quickly as1 a piece of wood. Hold a piece of wood in your left hand and a small piece of paper in your right hand and drop them together. The wood will fall quickly, but the paper will fall much more slowly. The two pieces, dropped together, will fall on the ground at different times. This is because it was more difficult for the paper to push through the air than for the piece of wood. But if you put the paper on the piece of wood and drop them again they will fall together and reach the ground at the same time, because the wood pushes the air out of the way2 and the paper falls as quickly as the wood does. This shows us that falling things must push their way3 through the air.

This is very useful to airmen. When an accident happens to an airplane in the air, such as the airplane catching fire, the airman can jump out and can fall slowly to the earth by his parachute. The airman held by a parachute does not fall quickly to the ground, he goes down slowly.

Airplanes can fly because of the strength of the air. Airplanes are bigger and heavier than motor cars. How, then, can they keep up in the air without falling?

The answer is this: as the engine pulls the airplane through the air, the air presses on the under part4 of the wings and this holds up the airplane. When an airplane starts from the ground, first of all5 it runs on its wheels like a motor car, going more and more quickly. When the speed is great enough6, the pressure of the air under its wings lifts it off the ground and it rises like a bird.

Air is a gas. Things called 'solids' keep the same shape when you put them in a vessel. A piece of wood or a stone do not take the shape of the vessel. Things, called 'liquids' do not keep their shape in a bottle or a cup. They take the shape of the bottle or the cup, but they keep their size. Put some water into a bottle or a cup and it will take the shape of the bottle or the cup. Air is not a solid, for it changes its shape. And it is not a liquid because it changes its size as well. That is why we say it is a gas.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What do we call "wind"?

2. Has air any strength?

3. Why does not the airman held by a parachute go down slowly?

4. Why can airplane fly?

5. What is air?

II. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующим словосочетаниям:

to push out of the way, first of all, great enough, under part, engine pulls

CRYSTALS

Speaking about crystals one often imagines something beautiful, perfect and rare. In reality, however, practically all solid bodies around are crystals. The exceptions are plants, animals, water and the atmosphere.

Till recently, crystallography was regarded as "the most dreary, the most difficult and the most useless of sciences". Today crystallography is one of the most important of natural science, rich in practical achievements, having deep philosophical content. It is closely related to mathematics. By now several thousand inorganic and over five thousand organic crystal structures have bean studied.

Not long ago only X-rays1 were used for structural analysis. The latest development in the field of crystal structure analysis is the method of neutron diffraction which is comming into wide use.

Crystals offer a simple way for transforming one kind of; energy into another, for instance, by using the action of light to obtain an electric effect, or to achieve optical effects by mechanical action. It is possible to illuminate a crystal with red light and make it emit green rays. In fact, in modern technology all the instruments that can emit energy are built around crystals.

Of special interest is research into the strength of crystals. All metals and alloys constitute a collection of variously placed tiny crystals. The more perfect the crystals, the higher the strength of the metal. This means that by special methods it is possible to obtain crystals of required strength.

Already now we know how to grow very thin crystals, which have a diameter of a few microns only and possess extraordinary high tensile strength2 (1200 - 1300 kilograms per square milimetre).

Now it is necessary to grow artificially not only the crystals that do not exist in nature, but those that do exist but are scarce. Rock crystal, for instance, which has a vast range of technical and optical applications is grown at factories in a quantity far larger than that obtained by mining.

Ruby crystals, too, have numerous applications. Artificial rubies and sapphires go into all watches and other instruments. Ruby rods form the core of lasers.

Having received a few dozens of crystals from nature, technology is now producing something like a thousand different varieties. The future of crystals and their application in industry is full of great promise.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What are crystals?

2. What science is crystallography closely related to?

3. What is the latest development in the field of crystal structure analysis?

4. Is it possible to emit green rays and how?

5. Is the future of crystals full of promise?

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

to emit, ruby rods, neutron diffraction, to obtain, alloys, scarce, to constitute

THE FUTURE OF THE EARTH

What does modern science have to say about the future development and fate of the earth? Any prediction, of course, can be no more than a speculation Astrophysicists who have been studying the development and the life cycles of typical stars have accumulated enough information to make trustworthy predictions about the future of the sun.

At some time in the future the hydrogen supply of the sun will begin to run low. It might be concluded that this will cause a slow but steady decrease of the intensity of solar radiation. However, this will not be the case. Paradoxically, a star increases its emission of light when its hydrogen supply is being reduced. The sun in the far distant future will not become hotter, but will substantially expand.

It is not difficult to imagine what will happen when the increasing solar radiation gradually affects the earth.

First, the oceans will evaporate; the water vapour, together with the atmosphere, will escape into space. Then, the temperature of the surface will rise until the surface materials again assume the liquid state. Life on earth will have-terminated by that time.

The next step in the development of the sun will occur suddenly, within a few days or weeks, the sun will change into a completely different type of star, a white dwarf'. It will be a sphere no bigger than the earth, with almost the same mass. The sun will still be able to hold all its planets in their orbits. In fact, the planets, including the earth, will survive this cosmic catastrophe without any significant change in their orbital parameters. As the sun is transformed from a red giant into a white dwarf, its total luminosity will again decrease substantially. It is quite possible that the sun will then continue to shine for some further billions of years, with a brightness much like the present.

These thought have stimulated a great deal of speculation. It is not impossible that at that time a second act in the history of life on earth will start anew. When the solar radiation on earth has gradually been reduced, the earth's crust will resolidify, and volcanic activity will persist sufficiently to give our planet a new atmosphere - and even a new ocean. The new atmosphere and the new ocean may have a lifetime of several billion years. So, there will be a chance for life to develop. Thus the fantastic story of life on earth might repeat itself.

All these events, if they occur at all, are mostly of academic interest only. They will not directly influence the fate of mankind. There is, however, the chance that, in the less distant future, other events and changes of earth will threaten mankind - for instance, natural catastrophes, such as floods or earthquakes. They occurred in the past, and they will surely occur in the future. I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Will the hydrogen supply of the sun begin to run low?

2. When does the star increase its emission?

3. It is not difficult to imagine what will happen when the increasing solar radiation gradually affects the earth, is it?

4. Will the sun be able to hold all its planets in their orbits?

5. Will there be a chance for life to develop?

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты следующих слов:

to conclude, dwarf, an earthquake, to resolidify, speculation, prediction

Ecololgy Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

1. Ecology studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. The habitat of an organism can be described as the local abiotic factors such as climate and ecology, in addition to the other organisms and biotic factors that share its environment.

2. One reason that biological systems can be difficult to study is that so many different interactions with other organisms and the environment are possible, even on the smallest of scales. A microscopic bacterium responding to a local sugar gradient is responding to its environment as much as a lion is responding to its environment when it searches for food in the African savanna. For any given species, behaviors can be co-operative, aggressive, parasitic, or symbiotic. Matters become more complex when two or more different species interact in an ecosystem. Studies of this type are within the province of ecology.

3. Ecological systems are studied at several different levels, from individuals and populations to ecosystems and the biosphere. The term population biology is often used interchangeably with population ecology, although population biology is more frequently used when studying diseases, viruses, and microbes, while population ecology is more commonly when studying plants and animals. As can be surmised, ecology is a science that draws on several disciplines.

Завершите утверждение согласно содержанию текста.

Due to variety of interactions between organisms and the environment ...

control of the micro environment of a plant

much oxygen and carbon dioxide to speed up biomass growth the use of substrate

to be wetted with aerosol of nutrient solution

Aeroponics Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

1. Aeroponics is a system wherein roots are continuously or discontinuously kept in an environment saturated with aerosol of nutrient solution. The method requires no substrate and entails growing plants with their roots suspended in a deep air or growth chamber with the roots periodically wetted with a fine mist of atomized nutrients. Excellent aeration is the main advantage of aeroponics.

2. Aeroponic techniques have proved to be commercially successful for propagation, seed germination, seed potato production, tomato and leaf crops production. Since inventor Richard Stoner commercialized aeroponic technology in 1983, aeroponics has been implemented as an alternative to water intensive hydroponic systems worldwide. The limitation of hydroponics is the fact that 1 kg of water can only hold 8 mg of air, no matter whether aerators are utilized or not.

3. Another distinct advantage of aeroponics over hydroponics is that any species of plants can be grown in a true aeroponic system because the micro environment of an aeroponic can be finely controlled. The limitation of hydroponics is that only certain species of plants can survive for so long in water before they become water-logged. The advantage of aeroponics is that suspended aeroponic plants receive 100% of the available oxygen and carbon dioxide to the roots zone, stems, and leaves, thus accelerating biomass growth and reducing rooting times. Unlike hydroponically grown plants, aeroponically grown plants also will not suffer transplant shock when transplanted to soil, and offers growers the ability to reduce the spread of disease and pathogens.

Завершите утверждение согласно содержанию текста. Aeroponic way of plant growing doesn't require ... control of the micro environment of a plant

much oxygen and carbon dioxide to speed up biomass growth the use of substrate

to be wetted with aerosol of nutrient solution

Ecology Services in Ireland

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания.

Ecology Services Ireland is an independent ecological consultancy providing a range of ecological surveys to suit the needs of the clients.

Ecology Services Include: -Habitat Surveys; -Habitat Mapping (ArcGIS); Protected Species Surveys; -Bat Surveys; -Badger Surveys; -Otter Surveys. Reptile Surveys;-Amphibian Surveys; --Bird Surveys; -Surveys for EIA; -Desktop Studies & Research; -Other Ecological Services; -Dust Monitoring; -Biological and Chemical Water Quality Testing; -Noise Surveys.

When is an ecological survey required?

A planning authority may require an ecological survey to provide information on the ecological value of a site or the presence of protected species. The aim of these surveys is to discern how a proposed development might affect the existing flora and fauna on the site. These developments may include housing estates, road works, wind farms, quarries, hotels, golf courses, landfills, cemeteries, or other projects. Ecology Services Ireland provides surveys, reports and mapping tailored to suit the needs of each project.

Ecology Services Ireland maintains working relationships with selected associates who have experience in the fields of Environmental Impact Assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment and other ecological services.

It is advisable for ecological concerns to be addressed as early as possible in a proposed project that is likely to affect the ecology of a site. This considerably lowers the chances of any costly delays and means that mitigation can be incorporated at the design stage of the project. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What do the ecology services Ireland provide?

2. What kinds of surveys do the Ecology Services fulfil?

3. What does the ecology survey include?

4. What institutions give assistance to ecology services in Ireland?

5. Why is it advisable to be addressed for ecological services as soon as possible?

Community and environment

Прочитайте и переведите текст

The application of the concepts from plant and animal ecology to the human community carried with it the implication that the community was essentially a natural phenomenon, which meant that it had developed independently of plan or deliberation. From this it was a short, though uncritical, step to the interpretation of human ecology as a study of the biotic or subsocial aspect of human social organization (Park 1936), a view that was elaborated at some length by Quinn (1950). Not only did the subsocial characterization convey an excessively narrow concept of social organization, but it posed an operational problem for which there was no workable solution.

A somewhat different definition of human ecology, which ignored any reference to the cognitive level of events, was enunciated by McKenzie ([1924] 1925, pp. 63-64), whose formulation of the subject as a study of the spatial and temporal relations of human beings, affected by the selective, distributive, and accommodative forces of the environment, was widely accepted as authoritative. Although McKenzie's definition inspired a large amount of fruitful research effort, it had the unfortunate effect of concentrating attention almost exclusively on spatial distributions and correlations. In consequence, many promising implications of ecological assumptions were neglected.

Hawley, in attempting to restore a conceptual continuity with plant and animal ecologies, advanced the view of human ecology as the study of the form and development of the human community (1950, p. 68). Community, in this connection, is construed as a territorially localized system of relationships among functionally differentiated parts; human ecology, then, is concerned with the general problem of organization conceived as an attribute of a population-a point of view that has been shown to be consistent with a long-standing sociological tradition (Schnore 1958). Although the emphasis is centered on the functional system that develops in a population, it is not intended to exclude concern with spatial and temporal aspects; rather, these aspects are regarded as useful dimensions for the measurement of organization.

A further step in making the orientation of human ecology explicit within the larger context of general ecological theory was made by Duncan (1959, pp. 683-684), who described four principal variables of human ecology-population, organization, environment, and technology-that constitute an ecosystem. In other words, while any one of the four may be treated as a dependent variable for certain purposes, it is also reciprocally connected with each of the other variables. The virtue of this perspective lies in the range of problems it opens to the student of human ecology. Yet it seems unlikely tin various eco-logical studies, although hat that advantage can be fully enjoyed without a clear notion of how organization is constituted.

Тексты для факультета физической культуры и спорта

Association Football

Footboll has been called the most popular game in the world, and it certainly has a great many fans in Britain. But do you know the English terminology.

Association footboll (or soccer) is the game that is played is nearly all countries. A team is composed of a goalkeeper, two backs, three hall-backs and five forwards. There is another game called rugby football, so called because it originated at Rugby, a well-known English public school.

In this game the players may carry the ball. There is also an American kind of football, different from the other two. The captain of the team is usually the oldest or best player.

Association football, or soccer, remains one of the most popular games played in the British Isles. Every Saturday from late August until the beginning of May, large crowds of people support their sides in football grounds up and down the country, while an almost equally large number of people play the game in clubs teams of every imaginable variety and level of skill. Over the last 20 years though,the attendance at football matches has fallen away sharply. This is because of changing lifestyles and football hooligans. As violence at and near the football grounds in creased, there was an ever increasing tendency for people to stay away, leaving the grounds to football fans.

After serious disturbances involving English supporters at European Cup Finals in Brussels in 1 985 which led to the deaths of 38 spectators, English clubs were withdrawn from European competitions for the 1985-1986 season by the Football Association. Today, many people are only interested in football because of the pools and the chance of winning a lot of money. The Cup Final at Webrniey remains, though, an event of national importance. Here is a drawing of a football field, or "pitch", as it usually called.

The football pitch should be between 50 and 1 00 metres wide.lt is divided into two halves by the halfway line. The sides of the field are called the fouchlines. In the middle of the field there is a centre circle and there is a goal at each end. Each goal is 8 metres wide and between 2x and 3 metres high. In front of each goal is the goal area and the penalty area.There is a penalty spot inside the penalty area and a penalty are outside it. A game of football usually lasts for one and a half hours. At half-time, the team change ends. The referee conrols the game, the aim of each team is obviously to score as many goals as possible. It both teams score the same number of goals, or it neither team scores any goals at all, the result is a draw.

Final of the football competition takes place every May at the famous Wembley stadium in London. Some of the best-known clubs in England are Manchester United, Liverpool and the Arsenal. In Scotland either Rangers, Celtic or Aberdeen usually win the cup of the championship.

I.Прочтите и переведите интернациональные слова:

Match, rugby, football, goalkeepes, hooligan, club, association, metres, penalty, referee, goal.

II. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What game has been called the most popuias in the world?

2. Do you know the sport termonology well or badly?

3. Where is soccer player of this game?

4. How are the players of this game?

5. Why was rugby given this name?

6. What is the difference between football and rugby?

7. Who is usually chosen as a capitain in an American rugby team?

8. When is football played in Great Britain?

9. Why has the attendance at football matches fallen away?

10. What do people want to get at football matches now?

Wimbledon- an Unusual Club

People all over the world know Wimbledon as the center of lawn tennis. But most people do not know that it was famous for another game before tennis was invented. Wimbledon is now a part of Greater London. In 1 874 it was a country village, but it had a railway station and it was the home of the All-England Croquet Club. The Club had been there since 1 864. A lot of people played croquet in England at that time and enjoyed it, but the national championship did not attract many spectators. So the Club had very little money, and the members were looking for ways of getting some. "This new game of lawn tennis seems to have plenty of action and people like watching it," - they thought. Shall we allow people to play lawn tennis on some of our beautiful croquet lawns?"

In 1875 they changed the name of the Club to the "All-England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club", and that is the name that you will still find in the telephone book. Two years later, in 1877, Wimbledon held the first world lawn tennis Championship (men's singles). The winner was S. W, Gore, a Londoner. There were 22 players, 200 spectators, each paid one shilling. Those who watched were dressed in the very latest fashion the men in hard top hats and long coats, and ladies in dresses that reached to the ground! The Club gained 1 0 pounds. It was saved.

Wimbledon grew. There was some surprise and doubt, of course, when the Club allowed women to play in the first women's singles championship in 1 884. But the ladies played well even in long skirts that hid their legs' feet. The Wimbledon Championship begins on the Monday nearest to June 22, at a time when England often has its finest weather.

It is only because of the tennis that people like to go there. When the weather is good, it is a very pleasant place to go there. The grass is fresh and green, the players wear beautiful white clothes, the spectators are dressed in the latest fashion, there are cool drinks in the open air cafes next to the tennis court. Millions of people watch the contests on TV.

80 years ago, Mr. E. Goode of Putney, South London went to the chemist's to buy some aspirins. In the shop he almost forgot about his tablets as he stood looking at the rubber mat on the counter. It had given him fantastic new idea. He paid for his aspirins and the rubber mat. Then he rushed home, cut the rubber met to the right shape and size and stuck it to his plain wooden table tennis bat. The thin layer of rubber helped him put a very fast spin on the ball. When he became the English champion, everyone started coping him, putting rubber layers on their bats, and soon Mr. Goode's clever idea completely changed the style and speed of table tennis. Table tennis was first invented in England in about 1 880. At first the game had several strange names: Gossima, Whiff Whaff and Ping Pong. It wasn't until 1926 that the International Table Tennis Association was formed with international championship and rules. One of the rules was that the rubber linings each side. Although the game was invented in England British players don't have much chance in international championship. It is the Chinese with their fantastic speed and power who win almost every title. They often use a pen holder grip, not the "shake-hands" technique popular in Europe and the States. This style is athletic and they often play standing several meters away from the table. Table tennis looks more like gymnastics when Chinese start playing with the ball flying over the net at speed over 150 kilometers per hour. I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What sports do you go in for?

2. Do you like lawn-tennis?

3. Do you know any best tennis players?

4. Whom do you admire and support?

5. Is lawn-tennis popular in our country?

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим словам: lawn tennis, championship, spectator, rubber mat, tennis bat.

American sports

Americans are fond of reading and talking about sports. Usually several pages of a daily paper are devoted to discussing sports events and games which are carried on television and radio. People get around to talk about outstanding players and games, the current prospects for teams in the season ahead. The subject of sports is as inexhaustible as the enthusiasm of its lovers.

Sports in America take a variety of forms: organized competitive struggles; athletic games, played for recreation anywhere; and hunting and fishing. Most sports are seasonal. Some sports are called spectator sports, as the number of spectators greatly exceeds the number playing in the game. Other sports are called participant sports, drawing a crowd of odd-lookers only special occasions, such as tournaments. Some sports are commercial and professional, with players who are paid for their participation and with audiences who pay for the tickets to watch.

Baseball is the most popular sport in America. It is played throughout the spring and summer and professional baseball teams play well into the autumn. Not only boys, high school and college teams play baseball in the spring, but it is played by grown men as amateurs and by professionals organized into major and minor leagues. Every autumn there is the World Series, a play-off for the professional championship between the two top-ranking teams of the nation, one of the winner of the National league competition and the other of the American league. Heroes in baseball are talked about and remembered as perhaps in no other sport.

Football is the most popular sport in the autumn. The game agitated as a college sport. It is still played by almost every college and university in the country, and the football stadiums of some of the largest universities seat as many as 80 thousand people. The student spectators are led in cheering for their teams by trained, uniformed student cheerleaders, many of whom are pretty girls.

There are professional football teams in all main cities of the country. Their players are almost always former college football players. While college football games are usually played on Saturday afternoons, professional football games are customarily played on Sunday afternoons or evenings.

Basketball is the witer sport in American schools and colleges. Many Americans prefer it to football because it is played indoors throughout the winter and because it is a faster game. It is very popular with high schools, state-wide high school tournaments are held yearly. Professional basketball teams exist, but they do not attract many fans.

Other spectator sports include wrestling, boxing and horse racing.

I. Выпишите и переведите основные виды спортивных соревнований в США.

II. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Sport in America takes a variety of forms, does not it?

2. What is baseball?

3. When do Americans play baseball?

4. What is the game played by almost every college and university in the country?

5. When is basketball played in America?

A letter from England about favourite sports in Britain

You ask me about sports in Britain. It's rather difficalt to describe the subject in a short talk. Well, speaking in general, sport is an important part of the Englishman's daily life. But of all sports at least two have won the greatest popularity among Britons: these are football (which is, unlike in Russia, played in winter) and cricket (played in summer).

1 can't but mention also Rugby, a kind of English football in which the players use their hands for carrying the ball. This game is played by teams of 1 5 men with an oval ball.

Other sports such as golf, tennis, bowling, horse-racing are also very popular in England. Young people go in for traditional athletics - running, jumping, rowing, swimming, boxing and so on. But those who take to motoring, hunting or fishing continue with these sports even in middle age and on.

In Scotland where there are good conditions for winter sports, skiing and climbing have attracted the enthusiasm of thousands, particular^ in recent years.

What is golf? In short, the game consists of hitting a hard little ball and then walking after it. There are nine or eighteen holes made in the ground about a hundred yards from each other. Around each hole there's a smooth flat lawn. You hit the ball from hole to hole and the player who reaches the last hole with the fewest strokes wins the game.

Bowling is also a great fun. The ground for it is rather large - half a tennis court. The game is usually played indoors. You are given a big heavy wooden ball, the size of a child head with a hidden handle in it. You take this ball by the handle, take very careful aim and send it rolling along a special track to beat the nine pins at the end of it. On the face of it, the game seems very easy - you take a ball and through it, but actually it takes a little practice, because at first the ball will never go straight.

And now 1 want to tell you about contests between "the Blues". Ail undergraduates who represent their universities are known as "Blues". They are described as having been awarded their "Blue" and to signalize the fact they wear blue jackets called blazers, light blue for Cambridge and dark blue for Oxford. Journalists frequently refer to Cambridge crews and teams as ''the Light Blues" and Oxford players as "the Dark Blues". The Boat Race arouses, however, a far wider interest among the masses than other contests between Light and Dark Blues. The Boat Race is a London festival. By what strange process the thousands of Londoners, who watch it decide whether to support Oxford or Cambridge or, as they invariably say, whether to "be" Oxford or Cambridge must remain forever a mystery. It is curious that the Boat Race is the one and only occasion when the existence of the two older Universities makes itself known to ordinary folk.

Britain enjoyes the reputation of a sporting nation, but stif, to the public at large sport means in the first place being a fan or a backer.

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What kinds of English sport can't you play, because you have no even a slightest idea of them?

2.What English games would you like to play with your friends?

3. Do you know any students' sport competitions in our country?

4. Have you taken part in any of them?

II. Перечислите виды спорта, упомянутые в тексте и переведите их.

Тексты для факультета социологии и управления

Dell tries to crack South America

John Barham examines the US computer maker's strategy for expansion using a Brazilian base

Dell Computers, the Texas-based computer-maker that was among the pioneers of online ordering, is preparing to attack the difficult Latin American market.

Soon, Dell will start making computers at a new factory in the small, southern Brazilian city of Eldorado in its first manufacturing venture in South America. Within a few hours' flying time of Eldorado lie four of the continent's main metropolitan regions - Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, San Paulo and Santiago - which generate about half the region's wealth and where most of the computer using populace is concentrated. Dell hopes to serve all these markets - including more distant regions in northern Brazil and the Andean countries - from Eldorado.

According to Dell's plan, aircraft from Miami will land at 3 nearby international airport carrying computer components that will be sent straight to Dell's factory. Together with parts delivered from suppliers in Brazil, they will be assembled to order, packed and delivered to consumers across the continent.

The challenge for Dell is not only to mount an effective marketing campaign to educate customers about online ordering, it must also manage a complex logistics system and deal with the problems of unreliable road and air transport networks. And it must operate in half a dozen volatile Latin countries, with unpredictable governments and consumers as well as well-established competitors.

Dell could not afford to ignore the South American market much longer. It currently exports computers to a few Latin American countries such as Mexico and Colombia, but has never sold to markets in Argentina or Brazil. Latin American consumers last year bought 5 million PCs and demand is growing at 15 per cent a year. Growth is likely to remain strong for some time to come: in Brazil, the region's largest market, only 3-4 per cent of the population owns a PC.

Dell is not the first company to view South America as a single market. For a decade Ford and Volkswagen and many other multinational companies have operated in the region's main countries as if they formed one integrated market. That was a natural reaction to falling import tariffs and consolidation of the Mercosur customs union linking Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. However, the distances, the red tape and the animosities between national governments often make fulfillment of this strategy difficult.

Dell decided to locate in Brazil because it is the region's biggest market and because the government gives computer companies substantial tax incentives as part of its plan to develop local high technology industries. If Dell meets Brazilian local content criteria and attains agreed production volumes, its products are considered to be 100 per cent locally made and automatically gain duty-free access to Mercosur countries.

However, there is little Dell can do about the internal transport networks in Brazil or the bureaucracy in neighboring countries. Although roads, air transport and delivery systems are tolerably efficient in south eastern Brazil and parts of Uruguay, Chile and Argentina. Dell may still find it is struggling to co-ordinate operations and sales over a vast region. ("Leader. International Management"

Business English. Adrian Pilbeam, Financial Times)

Tasks. 1. Answer the questions.

Is the writer generally positive about Dell's chances of success in its South American venture?

Why has Dell decided to attack the South American market?

Based on the information in the text, which country is the odd one out, and why?

a) Colombia b) Argentina c) Brazil d) Paraguay e) Uruguay Why has Dell chosen to locate its manufacturing plant in Brazil?

2. Which of the following 'challenges' facing Dell are mentioned in the article?

a) unreliable transport networks

b) poor productivity

c) political instability

d) high inflation

e) large distances

f) high import tariffs

g) terrorism h) well-established

i) competitors 3. Mark these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text, find the part of the text that gives the correct information.

a) Dell will sell only in the big cities.

b) Dell already sells computers in South America.

c) The company also produces PCs in Mexico.

d) It plans to import all the components it needs.

e) Ford and Volkswagen have been operating in South America for some years.

f) Considering South America as a single market is not an easy strategy.

g) To meet 'local content criteria' Dell must use a certain percentage of components produced locally.

h) Dell hopes to sell its computers duty-free in many countries.

i) Delivery systems in Brazil are better than in other parts of South America.

Case study: Ford and Honda

Haig Simonian on two car groups' different routes to the global market.

Rising costs and the worldwide spread of shared tastes in car styling have prompted the industry's giants to exploit global economies of scale. But rivals such as Ford and Honda have approached the task very differently.

Ford is one of the world's earliest multinationals. Its first foreign production unit was set up in Canada in 1904 - just a year after the creation of the US parent. For years Ford operated on a regional basis. Individual countries or areas had a large degree of autonomy from the US headquarters. That meant products differed sharply, depending on local executives' views of regional requirements. In Europe the company built different cars in the UK and Germany until the late 1960s.

Honda, by contrast, is a much younger company, which grew rapidly from making motorcycles in the 1950s. In contrast to Ford, Honda was run very firmly out of Japan. Until well into the 1980s, its vehicles were designed, engineered and built in Japan for sale around the world.

Significantly,however. Honda tended to be more flexible than Ford in developing new products. Rather than having a structure based on independent functional departments, such as bodywork or engines, all Japan's car makers preferred multi-disciplinary teams. That allowed development work to take place simultaneously, rather than being passed between departments. It also allowed much greater responsiveness to change.

In the 1990s both companies started to amend their organizational structures to exploit the perceived strengths of the other. At Ford. Alex Trotman, the newly appointed chairman, tore up the company's rulebook in 1993 to create a new organization. The Ford 2000 restructuring programme threw out the old functional departments and replaced them with multi-disciplinary product teams.

The teams were based on five (now three) vehicle centres, responsible for different types of vehicles. Small and medium-sized cars, for example, are handled by a European team split between the UK and Germany. The development teams comprise staff from many backgrounds. Each takes charge of one area of the process, whether technical, financial or marketing-based.

Honda, by contrast, has decentralized in recent years. While its cars have much the same names around the world, they are becoming less, rather than more, standardized. 'Glocalisation' - a global strategy with local management is the watchword. Eventually the group expects its structure will comprise four regions - Japan, the US, Europe and Asia-Pacific which will become increasingly selfsufficient.

Two reasons explain Honda's new approach. Shifting to production overseas in the past decade has made the company more attuned to regional tastes. About lm of Honda's 2.1m worldwide car sales last year were produced in the US. A further 104,000 were made in the UK. No other manufacturer has such a high proportion of foreign output.

Honda engineers also reckon they can now devise basic engineering structures which are common enough to allow significant economies of scale, but sufficiently flexible to be altered to suit regional variations. The US Accord, for example, is longer and wider than the Japanese version. The European one may have the same dimensions as the Japanese model, but has different styling and suspension settings.

Both Ford and Honda argue their new structures represent a correct response to the demands of the global market. Much of what they have done is similar, but intriguingly, a lot remains different. ("Leader. International Management" Business English. Adrian Pilbeam, Financial Times)

Tasks.

1. Say which of these statements apply to Ford and which to Honda.

now has a strategy of decentralization

now works in multi-disciplinary teams for car design and development has always worked in multi-disciplinary teams produces more cars abroad than in its home country used to be very decentralized used to be very centralized has divided the world into four regions designs and develops all its small cars in Europe

has always been flexible and able to respond to change

According to the ideas in the text, why do car companies now need to have a global strategy?

2. How did the two companies change their strategies?

3. These phrases summarize the main idea of each paragraph of the text. Match each phrase with the correct paragraph. one reason for changes in Honda's strategy

Honda's original strategy Ford's new strategy conclusion Honda's new strategy Ford's original strategy

the advantage of Honda's original strategy

introduction paragraph Ford's new strategy in detail

another reason for Honda's new strategy

Doing the business

Roisin Ingle hears how efficient management structures are vital for success

The need for a solid structure within all business entities is 'absolutely fundamental', according to Ms Angela Tripoli, a lecturer in Business Administration at University College Dublin. Organizational structure concerns who reports to whom in the company and how different elements are grouped together. A new company cannot go forward without this and established companies must ensure their structure reflects their target is markets, goals and available technology.' Depending on their size and needs there are several organizational structures companies can choose from. Increasingly though, in the constantly evolving business environment, 'many firms are opting for a kind of hybrid of all of them'.

The most recognizable set up is called the functional structure where a fairly traditional chain of command (incorporating senior management, middle management and junior management) is put in place. The main benefit of this system is clear lines of communication from top to bottom but it is generally accepted that it can also be a bureaucratic set up which does not favor speedy decision-making.

More and more companies are organizing themselves along product lines

where companies have separate divisions according to the product that is being worked on. In this case the focus is always on the product and how it can be improved.'

The importance for multinational companies of a good geographic structure, said Ms Tripoli, could be seen when one electrical products manufacturer produced an innovative rice cooker which made perfect rice - according to western standards. When they tried to sell it on the Asian market the product flopped because there were no country managers informing them of the changes that would need to be made in order to satisfy this more demanding market.

The matrix structure first evolved during a project developed by NASA when they needed to pool together different skills from a variety of functional areas. Essentially the matrix structure organizes a business into project teams, led by project leaders, to carry out certain objectives. Training is vitally important here in order to avoid conflict between the various members of the teams. During the 1980s a wave of restructuring went through industry around the globe. This process, known as delivering, saw a change in the traditional hierarchical structures with layers of middle management being so removed. This development was driven by new technology and by the need to reduce costs. The overall result was organizations that were less bureaucratic.

The delivering process has run its course now. Among the trends that currently influence how a company organizes itself is the move towards centralization and outsourcing. Restructuring has evolved along with a more 'customer centric' approach that can be seen to good effect in the banks. They now categorize their customers and their complex borrowing needs into groups instead of along digit product lines. Another development can be seen in larger companies, which too are giving their employees more freedom to innovate in order to maintain a competitive edge. Ms. Julia MacLauchlan. Director of Microsoft's European Product Development Centre in Dublin said the leading software company had a very flat organizational structure. 'There would not be more than around seven levels no between the average software tester and Bill Gates,' she said. Microsoft is a good example of a company that is structured along product lines. In Ireland, where1,000 employees work on localization of the software for all Microsoft's markets, the company is split up into seven business units. Each unit controls the localization of their specific products while working closely with the designers in Microsoft's Seattle Headquarters.

It works, said Ms MacLauchlan, because everyone who works in the unit is "incredibly empowered'. 'Without a huge bureaucratic infrastructure people can react a lot more quickly to any challenges and work towards the company's objectives.'("Leader. International Management" Business English. Adrian

Pilbeam, Financial Times)

Tasks. 1. Match these nouns as they occur together in the text.

product teams target objectives

borrowing lines project units delivering company country process business markets software needs company managers

2. Use an appropriate phrase from Exercise 1 to complete each sentence.

Banks need to be fully aware of their customers'.....................

Silicon Valley is full of .....................

Many companies are now organized along....................., in which each division is responsible for a group of products.

A matrix organization groups people into.....................

Some companies are divided into different....................., often also called profit centres.

A multinational company will often have a number of.....................in charge of activities in different parts of the world.

3. Match these terms with their definitions.

business entities (line 2) focusing on the customer rather than the product

setup (line 25) new, original innovative (line 51) companies

flopped (line 55) something that makes you better than other companies

outsourcing (line 90) did not succeed, failed

customer centric (line 91) structure competitive edge (line getting external companies to do work for your

102) company

Global Careers

Ideally, it seems a global manager should have the stamina of an Olympic runner, the mental agility of an Einstein, the conversational skill of a professor of languages, the detachment of a judge, the tact of a diplomat, and the perseverance of an Egyptian pyramid builder. And that's not all. If they are going to measure up to the demands of living and working in a foreign country, they should also B have a feeling for the culture; their moral judgment should not be too rigid: they should be able to merge with the local environment; and they should show no signs of prejudice.

Thomas Aitken According to Colby Chandler, the former Chief Executive of Kastman Kodak Company, "these days there is not a discussion or a decision that does not have an international dimension. We would have to be blind not to see how critically important international experience is.' International companies compete with each other for global executives to manage their operations around the world. Yet what it takes to reach the top of a company differs from one country to the next. For example, whereas Swiss and German companies respect technical creativity and competence. French and British companies often view managers with such qualities as 'mere technicians'. Likewise, American companies value entrepreneurs highly, while their British and French counterparts often view entrepreneurial behavior as highly disruptive. Similarly, whereas only just half of Dutch managers see skills in interpersonal relations and communication as critical to career success, almost 90 per cent of their British colleagues do so.

Global management expert, Andre Laurent, describes German, British and French managers' attitudes to management careers as follows:

German managers, more than others, believe that creativity is essential for career success. In their mind, successful managers must have the right individual characteristics. German managers have a rational outlook; they view the organisation as a co-ordinated network of individuals who make appropriate decisions based on their professional competence and knowledge. British managers hold a more interpersonal and subjective view of the organizational world.

According to them, the ability to create the right image and to get noticed for what they do is essential for career success. British managers view organizations primarily as a network of relationships between individuals who get things done by influencing each other through communicating and negotiating.

French managers look at organizations as an authority network where the power to organize and control others comes from their position in the hierarchy. French managers focus on the organization as a pyramid of differentiated levels of power. They perceive the ability to manage power relationships effectively and to "work the system' as critical to their career success.

As companies integrate their operations globally, these different national approaches can send conflicting messages to success-oriented managers. Subsidiaries in different counties operate differently and reward different behaviors based on their unique cultural perspectives. The challenge for today's global companies is to recognize local differences, while at the same time creating globally integrated career paths for their future senior executives.

There is no doubt the new global environment demands more, not fewer, globally competent managers. Global experience, rather than side-tracking a manager's career, is rapidly becoming the only route to the top. But in spite of the increasing demand for global managers, there is a potentially diminishing interest in global assignments, especially among young managers. A big question for the future is whether global organizations will remain able to attract sufficient numbers of young managers willing to work internationally. ("Leader. International Management" Business English. Adrian Pilbeam, Financial Times)

Tasks.

1. Which of these statements gives the best summary of the text:

a. A successful global manager needs many qualities.

b. The qualities required to become a top manager differ from country to country.

c. Many young managers are not interested in a global career.

2. Mark these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text.

Find the part of the text that gives the correct information.

a. International experience is essential if you want a global career.

b. Subsidiaries of global companies use the same criteria when promoting managers.

c. The demand for global managers is increasing.

d. Young managers want to work internationally.

3. Different qualities for career success are described for different cultures and nationalities. Match the qualities from the list below to the nationalities mentioned in the text:

o good communication skills British o technical creativity o ability to network o professional competence o entrepreneurial skills

o knowing how to work within a hierarchical structure o good interpersonal skills

4. Which national group considers communication and interpersonal skills to be more important

- the British or the Dutch?

5. According to Andre Laurent, German, British and French managers see organizations as different kinds of networks. What words does he use to define these networks in each case?

Lowest cost isn't always the answer

Lower tariffs and new markets opening to foreign investment have complicated the decision about how manufacturing should be organized, says Nikki Tail

Visit any western toy superstore, and most of the basic products will say 'Made in China' or, perhaps, Malaysia or Indonesia. Until, that is, you reach the Lego section. Suddenly, the boxes are more likely to identify Denmark, Switzerland or the US as the country of origin.

It might seem logical that a global company, selling into a multitude of country markets and measuring its market share in global terms, should place production facilities wherever costs are lowest. But Lego, the privately-owned Danish company, has for years concentrated its manufacturing in Europe and the

US, arguing that this best satisfies design and quality requirements. For Lego

the notion of cost is only a small part of the production picture.

So how does a global company go about organizing its manufacturing network? The decision has become more complicated over the past two decades due to a number of factors. On the one hand, trade barriers across much of the world have declined sharply. Simultaneously, a range of new markets - notably in Asia and Eastern Europe - has opened to foreign investment.

This has made global production much more possible. But it has also reduced the need for many overseas plants. Markets that previously demanded local production facilities - because tariff levels made importing far too expensive - can now be supplied from other counties

Plainly, in this newly-liberalized environment, basic manufacturing costs do become more significant. But there are limits to a purely cost-driven approach. Many companies have built their current production structure through acquisitions over a number of years, rather than in a planned way.

Another problem is that costs themselves can be subject to rapid change, making today's Indonesia, for example, tomorrow's Hong Kong. This adds a further dimension to any global company's investment decision-making. The reality is that manufacturing businesses also need to think: how quickly can we pull the- plug?

Some companies have addressed this issue through what is called the 'part configuration' model. This involves selecting a number of regional manufacturing bases which are viewed as longer-term investments, and augmenting them with lower-skilled assembly plants, which can more easily be moved between markets.

The availability of suitable employees also needs to be examined when investment decisions are being made. There may be close links between manufacturing and product innovation and if too much focus is put on low-cost assembly operations, product innovation tends to suffer.

Perhaps the hottest topic is to be a producer at all. Outsourcing of production to other suppliers gives a company more flexibility, and fits well with a global strategy. A business may be better placed to supply differentiated products into different regional markets, and it can probably adjust more swiftly to changing cost considerations. These operational advantages come in addition to the financial benefits of outsourcing, such as lower capital employed.

But there can be pitfalls. Perhaps no company exemplifies the outsourcing trend better than Nike, the sports shoe group. On paper, its strategy of subcontract losing the production of its shoes to local factories looks eminently sensible. But these arrangements have turned into a public relations disaster in recent years, as human rights campaigners have complained of 'sweatshop' conditions in many of the Asian plants producing Nike products. Lack of ownership, it seems, does not bring freedom from responsibility. ("Leader. International Management" Business English. Adrian Pilbeam, Financial Times) Tasks.

1. Read the text on the opposite page about how global companies organize their production and answer these questions.

• Where are most simple toys manufactured and why?

Why does Lego do things differently?

What is the reason for a global company to have a 'part configuration' model?

According to the text, what are the advantages and disadvantages of 'low-cost assembly plants'?

• What are the operational advantages of outsourcing?

2. Mark these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text. Find the part of the text that gives the correct information.

The main reason to have overseas plants is to be close to local markets.

A lot of plants are now being located in Eastern Europe.

Imports to many markets are now cheaper.

The number of overseas plants is increasing.

Cost is the main factor in choosing the location of a foreign plant.

Outsourcing production to subcontractors gives a company more

flexibility

What Is a Human Resource?

William R. Tracey, in The Human Resources Glossary defines Human

Resources as: "The people that staff and operate an organization". Human Resources is also the organizational function that deals with the people and issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, and training. A Human Resource is a single person or employee within your organization. Employees in this job function, as professional human resource managers, direct the work of professional staff. The employee, under general or administrative supervision, works within general methods, procedures, and exercises considerable independent judgment to select proper courses of action. The work requires knowledge of the policies, procedures, and regulations of personnel management and human resources development programs, and supervisory techniques, personnel policies, and procedures.

A Human Resources generalist, manager, or director plays a wide variety of roles in organizations. Depending on the size of the organization, these HR jobs may have overlapping responsibilities. In larger organizations, the HR generalist, manager, and director have clearly defined, separated roles in HR management. These roles bring progressively more authority and responsibility in the hands of the manager, then the director, and ultimately, the Vice President who may lead several departments including administration.

HR directors, and occasionally HR managers, may head up several different departments that are each led by functional or specialized HR staff such as the training manager, the compensation manager, or the recruiting manager.

Human Resources staff members are advocates for both the company and the people who work in the company. Consequently, a good HR professional performs a constant balancing act to meet both needs successfully.

Tasks.

1. Answer the questions:

1. What is HR? 2. What does it deal with?

3. What is the job function of HR managers?

4. What does this work require?

5. Do HR managers have separated roles in HR management in larger organizations?

6. What may HR directors head?

2. True and false.

1. A. Muller defines Human Resources as: "The people that staff and operate an organization".

2. A Human Resource is a single person or employee.

3. A Human Resources generalist, manager, or director plays one important role in organizations.

4. In larger organizations, the HR generalist, manager, and director have clearly defined, separated roles in HR management.

5. HR directors, and occasionally HR managers, may head up more than 3 different departments.

Text 7: The Changing Human Resources Role

The role of the HR professional is changing to fit the needs of today modern, fast changing organizations. In the past, because the original HR personnel functions were often provided by accounting, the HR role was focused on administrative tasks such as paying employees, administering benefits, and keeping track of sick and personal days off.

But, a more comprehensive approach to the management of people in the organization was needed. Programs and processes that systematically hired employees, retained employees, and dealt with all aspects of talent management evolved in the best organizations.

HR professionals are now leading the charge. They are developing systems and processes within the organization that address the strategic needs of the business. So, what was once the task of hiring employees is now the process of team-based hiring of the best possible talented employees who are recruited via methods that range from employee referrals to social media sourcing.

The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of this developing, changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, resilient, quick to change direction, and customer-centered. They recognize that organizations will vie for talent in coming years. This recognition brings about the need for employee oriented workplaces.

Within this environment, the HR professional, who is respected by line managers and consequently, whose talents are utilized by managers, is responsible for new roles. They are.

a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate a change mentor.

At the same time, especially the HR Generalist, still has responsibility for the day-to-day employee problems and complaints, employee benefits administration, often payroll, and employee paperwork, especially in the absence of an HR Assistant.

Depending on the size of the organization, the HR manager has responsibility for all of the functions that deal with the needs and activities of the organization's people including these areas of responsibility.

Recruiting Hiring

Training

Organization Development

Communication Performance Management

Coaching Policy Recommendation

Salary and Benefits

Team Building Employee Relations

Leadership When you ask the question, what does the HR manager, generalist or director do, as you can see, the answer is a lot. The role bears responsibility for all of the processes and systems related to people in an organization. The HR professionals must develop the skills of their managers and their organization to do these activities well. The job of the HR professional is a constant challenge as HR staff balance many roles and activities in support of their organizations. Tasks.

1. Answer the questions:

1. What was HR role focused on?

2. Why did it change?

3. What is the role of HR now?

4. What are the main functions of HR manager now?

5. What are its main responsibilities?

6. Why does the role of HR manager differ?

HOW TO BREAK INTO A CAREER IN HUMAN RESOURCES

Many people are eager to start a career in Human Resources, as it is a fastgrowing field with many lucrative opportunities. Career analysts expect the number of HR jobs to increase in the projected future and the annual income is above the national average. For these reasons and more, you are probably wondering how to start an HR career of your own. You will find some useful information below that will guide you through the process.

There are HR professionals with a wide variety of educational backgrounds. However, many HR positions require candidates with a minimum of a four-year degree. A bachelor's degree in human resources, personnel or some other related subject will offer the best training for an HR career. This is not to imply that current HR professionals without degrees are unsuccessful. Many HR professionals have developed successful careers in Human Resources without degrees.

If you would like to pursue a managerial position or specialized career in HR, some schools offer business degrees that are more focused on a certain area of human resources. Whether you pursue a general HR degree or a more specialized practice within HR, you should be sure to take courses that cover topics such as management, recruitment, training and compensation.

In addition to a college degree, many professionals will have the opportunity to seek certification in certain HR disciplines. In fact, large companies will sometimes offer workshops and classes that broaden an existing professional's HR skills. By completing a professional certification course, you can increase your earning potential. Examples of certifications include the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) or Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR).

If you are already working in an entry-level HR position, earning a certification could help boost your career. Likewise, it could help you transition from a different department to an HR position.

Finding a position within the HR industry is similar to finding any other kind of job. There are many online resources for jobseekers, such as About.com's Job Search, Monster, and CareerBuilder. In addition to those general career sites, however, there are online job board resources that are more specific to the HR field.

Some businesses will first look for candidates within the company. Keep this in mind if you are currently working for a large company and wish to enter the HR department.

More candidates for HR jobs are finding their way into HR careers via professional networking and online social networking sites these days, too. If you're still a student, or just out of college, an internship in an HR department can provide the relevant experience you need for your HR job search.

Just like any other profession, finding a career in HR is easiest for those with a college degree in the field and /or professional certification. But, people with related majors in such areas as business, sociology, psychology, and social sciences are also considered, especially for more entry level jobs. There are many HR positions available and there will be more opportunities in the future. With the proper training and some diligent job seeking, you can join other HR . Tasks.

1. Answer the questions:

1. Why do many people are eager to start a career in Human Resources 2. What are the basic requirements for HR candidate?

3. Where can you get HR bachelor degree?

4. Where can you find a position within the HR industry?

5. What is the easiest way to find a career in HR?

Personnel management

Personnel management also known as Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued. The terms "human resource management" and "human resources" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense, HRM means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement.

The function of personnel managers include:

Career development

Job analysis Labour management relations

Personnel evaluation

Personnel placement

Personnel promotion

Personnel recruitment

Personnel selection

Personnel termination Its features include:

Organizational management

Personnel administration

Manpower management

Industrial management

Synonyms of HRM such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, and administrating their work-life needs. So if we move to actual definitions, Torrington and Hall (1987) define personnel management as being: "a series of activities which: first enable working people and their employing organisations to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and, secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilled").

While Miller (1987) suggests that HRM relates to: ".......those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which are related to the implementation of strategies directed towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage"

Tasks.

1. Answer the questions:

1. What is personnel management?

2. What terms have replaced the term personnel management?

3. What does HRM mean?

4. What do functions of personnel manager include?

5. What are its features?

6. What are the main definitions of personnel management?

2. Choose one of the functions of personnel management. Make the oral report

Academic theory of HR management

The goal of human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively.

The basic premise of the academic theory of HRM is that humans are not machines, therefore we need to have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the workplace. Fields such as psychology, industrial engineering, Legal/Paralegal Studies and organizational psychology, industrial relations, sociology, and critical theories: postmodernism, post-structuralism play a major role. Many colleges and universities offer bachelor and master degrees in Human Resources Management.

Human resources management comprises several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. These processes can be performed in an HR department, but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company.

Workforce planning

Recruitment (sometimes separated into attraction and selection)

Induction, Orientation and Onboarding

Skills management

Training and development

Personnel administration

Compensation in wage or salary

Time management

Travel management (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than

HRM) Payroll (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM)

Employee benefits administration

Personnel cost planning

Performance appraisal

The sort of careers available in HRM are varied. There are generalist HRM jobs such as human resource assistant. There are careers involved with employment, recruitment and placement and these are usually conducted by interviewers, EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) specialists or college recruiters. Training and development specialism is often conducted by trainers and orientation specialists.

Several universities offer programs of study pertaining to HRM and broader fields. Cornell University created the world's first school for college-level study in HRM, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, business schools, University of Minnesota, Michigan State University, Ohio State University, and Purdue University.

Tasks. 1. Answer the questions:

1. What is the goal of human resource management?

2. What is the basic premise of the academic theory of HRM?

3. What fields play an important role in the academic theory of HRM?

4. What processes does HR management comprise?

5. What are available sorts of careers in HRM?

6. What universities offer programs of study pertaining to HRM?

Приложение

Реферирование текстов

Реферирование - это не только сокращение исходного варианта текста, сочетаемое с преобразованием прямой речи в косвенную. Реферат, в отличие от обычного пересказа, может включать в себя некоторые сведения, касающиеся автора текста, времени его написания, указание на главную идею текста, на его жанр, а также - изложение Вашего отношения к тексту и описываемым в нем событиям и людям.

Когда мы начинаем работу по реферированию, то, прочитав текст, мысленно определяем для себя:

1) основной смысл текста,

2) основные структурные составляющие текста (абзацы),

3) основной смысл каждого из абзацев,

4) ключевые слова и выражения, которые несут основную смысловую нагрузку во всем тексте и в каждом из абзацев.

В результате этой операции получаем некий смысловой каркас, построенный из ключевых слов и выражений. Этот каркас можно записать или запомнить. Затем мы пытаемся определить, насколько полно выделенные ключевые слова и выражения передают основной смысл текста и его структурных составляющих.

Если происходит утрата существенной части смысла, нужно найти средства ее восполнения.

Следующий этап - "редактирование" смыслового каркаса: мы устанавливаем те или иные связи между ключевыми эпизодами каждого абзаца,выстраиваем сквозную логику всего реферата.

И, наконец, в случае необходимости, мы включаем в пересказ-реферат изложение нашего отношения к событиям и людям, о которых говорится в тексте.

План реферирования текстов

По предлагаемому плану можно составить реферат того или иного текста. План состоит из 5 обязательных пунктов, каждый из которых снабжен рядом устойчивых конструкций и выражений, необходимых при кратком пересказе (реферировании) текстов.

1. Заголовок текста (the head-line)

The text is head-lined ...- Текст озаглавлен...

The head -line of the text under discussion is ...- Заголовок обсуждаемого текста...

2. Автор текста (the author of the text)

The author of the text is ...- Автором текста является...

The text is written by ...- Текст написан (тем-то)... 3. Главная идея текста (the main idea of the text)

The main idea of the text is ...- Главной идеей текста является...

The text is about ...- Текст рассказывает о ...

The text deals with ...- В тексте рассматривается вопрос о ...

The text touches upon ...- Текст затрагивает вопрос о ...

The purpose of the text is to give the reader some information on ...- Цель тек- ста - дать читателю некоторую информацию о ...

4. Содержание текста (the contents of the text)

The author starts be telling the readers about ...- Автор начинает свой рассказ

... The author writes (states, thinks) that ...- Автор пишет (утверждает, думает), что...

According to the text ...- В соответствии с текстом ...

Further the author says ...- В дальнейшем автор пишет, что ...

In conclusion ...- В заключение ...

The author comes to the conclusion that ...- Автор делает вывод, что ... 5. Ваше мнение относительно прочитанного (Your opinion of the text)

I found the article (the text) interesting (important, dull, too hard to understand) ... - По-моему, текст интересен (важен, скучен, слишком сложен для понимания) ...

How to Make a Summary of Newspaper Articles

1. The "Kiev Post" dated the 20th of May carries an article headlined "..." The article under the headline'...' was published in '...' The article is taken from the newspaper...

The article is headlined'...' The headline of the article I have read is ... The author of the article is...It is written by a Ukrainian (British) correspondent/ journalist.

It is published/printed in... The article under the title (the name) ... is taken from

...

2. The article reviews current events at home / the latest events abroad /home (national) affairs / foreign (international, world) affairs / local news / a detailed information about... The article which I'm going to review deals with the recent news from / a brief analysis of the political situation in.. 3. The theme of the article is closely connected with title of the article The aim of the article is to provide the reader with some material/data on...

The main/central idea of the article is...The article is about... I want to pay your attention to the problem which is raised in this article The purpose of the article is to give the reader some information on... The article is devoted to the analysis of the situation / to the description of/ to the question of

The article points out the necessity of solving the problem... The article contains the following facts..../ describes in detail..

4. The article runs about the latest news... From the article we learn that... The article deals with / expresses the view that / describes It touches upon the problem of.../ It focuses the reader's attention on... It is reported that... The article is rather short (long) but extremely interesting. The article opens with a description of events in.../ an information about... / the situation in...

5. The author starts by telling the reader that...

The author of the article makes it clear that../ concentrates on / points out that / stresses that / criticizes / comes out in support of/ comes out against / describes / reports on./ underlines / estimates

He says /adds/ warns about/ admits /emphasizes /claims/ assures that / discusses / writes / states / thinks

6. It should be noted that.../ According to the article... Speaking of it, it's necessary to note that...

Analyzing (describing) this situation it is necessary to emphasize

One can't but mention / It's worth mentioning This question is of great importance for... Taking into consideration the fact that...

I cannot but admit that.../ The interesting thing is that

7. The article goes on to say that..

The problem which is raised in this article is the urgent one

Further the author reports (says) / goes on to say In the author's opinion/ In addition to... Then the author gives a detailed (brief) analysis of the situation in... / a brief course of the events in...

8. In conclusion the author says / makes it clear that.../ gives a warning that.. The author concludes by saying that../ draws a conclusion that / comes to the conclusion that

At the end of the article the author says that.../ draws the conclusion that.../ concludes that.../ sums up

9. It goes without saying ... My own attitude to this article is... As far as I've caught / understood But I'd like to say a few words in this connection... I fully agree with / I don't agree with / He is not right / I think he's wrong trying to...

In my opinion / I think / It seems to me /I am sure /To my mind/ from my point of view...

It is hard to predict the course of events in future, but there is some evidence of the

improvement of this situation. It remains to be seen.

I found the article interesting / important / dull / of great value / too hard to understand.

Раздел 5

Тема № 1

MY FAMILY AND MYSELF

Let me introduce myself to you. My name is Yury. My full name is Yury Alexandrovich Sergeev. Jury is my first name, Alexandrovich is my patronymic,

Sergeev is my surname. I am nearly seventeen. I'm just out of school.

My parents are not very old. They are about fifty. My mother is a bit younger than my father. My father is a handsome, energetic man. He is an economist and is always busy in his plant. My mother is a nice woman. She is a bank manager. She is easy to deal with and we children are happy when she is at home. Our parents are fond of working in the garden and we help them. They both came from quite large families (my mother is one of six children and my father is one of four) so my sister, my brother and myself have many aunts, uncles and cousins. My mother's parents are still alive and we are fond of visiting them on some family events, like birthdays or big holidays as Christmas, New Year, Easter and Victory Day. Our grandparents have a small cottage with a garden in a countryside. They are over sixty. My Grandfather takes care of the garden and my Granny runs the house and looks after two pets, a dog and a cat. When we visit them we help them about the garden, especially in early spring, summer and autumn when there is a lot of work for them to do. We are happy to see each other and share the family news. We have nice dinners, sing songs, dance and play games.

I am Russian. I was born in Tula. My parents have two more children besides me. I have an elder brother and a younger sister. My brother is five years my senior. He graduated from the Radioengeneering Academy, and now he works at a big plant. He is an engineer. Victor is already married. His wife Mary is a beautiful young woman with blue eyes and blond hair. She is a teacher of English at school. Thanks to her our parties at home are so nice and our friends are fond of visiting us on week-ends and holidays.

My sister Ira is still at school. Her dream is to become a teacher. She is a pretty young girl. She is three years my junior. She is very bright. She can play the guitar and speak English and French. She is also good at cooking.

I am quite an ordinary boy. I am fond of sports, football is my favourite. I am a great fan of our local team and never miss a single match. But now I am very busy. This year I entered the Pedagogical University, because there is a faculty where students study Physics. I want to become a physicist. We have lectures and tutorials every day. I learn many subjects but my favourite subjects are Physics, Mathematics, History and Physical Training. There is practically no time left. But, nevertheless, I attend a swimming pool twice a week and I like to go to the Art Gallery to see a new exposition there or to the concert or disco in the evening.

Many outstanding people had hobbies. Mikhail Lomonosov was not only a poet and physicist. He made a mozaic panel depicting the Poltave Battle. As for Dmitri Mendeleev, he liked to make suitcases.

Nowadays there is a new hobby - a computer. Young people can spend hours travelling through the WWW, Internet, or playing computer games.

Тема №2. "Мой университет"

MY UNIVERSITY

The Ryazan Yesenin State University is one of the oldest among the higher educational establishments in central Russia. Teacher education here dates back to December 1915 when a Teacher's College, training women teachers, the first of its kind in Russia, was established. In October 1918 it served the corner stone in the foundation of the Ryazan Teachers' Training Institute - the first higher educational establishment in the post-revolutionary Russian land. In July 1993 the Ryazan Teacher's Training Institute was reorganized into the Ryazan Teacher's Training University.

The modern-day Ryazan University is one of the largest higher educational institutions in the centre of Russia. It houses eight faculties, which train students of day and correspondent departments in many specialities. The enrolments climb to five thousand students, with 200 professors and assistant professors on the teaching staff. The academic staff combine their scholarly work with research that contributes to the economic development of the region.

The University course lasts five years. An academic year is divided into two terms, each ending in an examination session. On graduating the students receive diplomas which give them the right to teach at school.

Students are to attend different lectures and seminars. Students' practical work is paid much attention to at our University and students give lessons at primary and secondary schools.

The University has post-graduate courses in Physics, Mathematics, Astronomy, History and other subjects.

The University offers the most modern of technical facilities for teaching and research, including computer programmes.

Practising school and college teachers may improve their qualifications here through professional development programmes.

The University has a Preparatory Department, which helps students to refresh their knowledge before entering the University.

Much is being done to ensure adequate facilities for the students' academic studies as well as recreation. The hostels cater for those who come to study from remote places. Each year about 60 students and 150 teachers go camping to a special student's camp.

The Ryazan University was the first among higher educational institutions in the city to establish international ties. The first exchange programmes began in the 50-ies. Now the contracts with the educational centres in France and Germany have become regular, including the constant exchange of scientific information as well as groups of students and teaching staff.

In recent years promising ties have been established with a number of organisations in the USA and Canada. The Ryazan University is taking part in the international educational programme "Global Education".

Тема№3 "Великобритания"

GREAT BRITAIN

The United kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland consists of England, Wales, Scotland and Nothern Ireland. Great Britain and Ireland are the largest islands and there are about five thousand small islands.

Great Britain is surrounded by seas and is separated from the Continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.

The rivers in Great Britain are not long, but many of them are deep. The most known rivers are the Thames, the Severn and the Clyde. The capital of Great Britain, London is situated on the Thames. The Thames is the busiest and the most important river in the country.

The surface of Great Britain is rather flat and there are not many mountains there. The highest mountains are Ben Nevis in Scotland (1343 meters high) and Snowdon (1085 metres high) in Wales. There are many mountains in the north of England and in Scotland, but they are not very high. This part of the country is called the Highlands. The highest mountain in Great Britain is called Ben Nevis. In the south there are many beautiful plains and valleys. This part of the country is known as the Lowlands. There are numerous lakes in Scotland. The most beautiful is Loch Lomond.

The climate of Great Britain is mild. Thanks to the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf-Stream the climate is rainy and foggy. The summer is not very hot and the winter is not very cold. Winter temperature seldom falls below zero.

England looks like one great well-ordered park. The countryside with large green gardens, the little country houses and farms is very beautiful and pleasant to look at.

The total area of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is 94,250 square miles. The population is about 60 million people. About 80% of the population live in towns and cities.

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. The country lives by manufacture and trade, exporting machinery, vessels, motors and many other goods. The UK buys more goods than it sells because she has to import foot products and raw materials from many countries of the world. Great Britain is no rich in mineral resources. It has coal and iron ore, oil and gas, zinc and chalk.

The industrial centres of Great Britain are London, Manchester, Sheffield and others.

The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy. Queen Elisabeth II is considered to be the head of the state. But it is an old tradition. In reality the legislative power belongs to the Parliament which consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The seats are hereditary in the House of Lords, but the members of the House of Commons are elected every 5 years.

Britain's flag was approved of in 1801, and it is known as Union Jack. It is a combination of the banners of England (St. George's flag which is a red cross on a white field), Scotland (St. Andrew's flag - a white cross on a blue field) and Ireland (St. Patrick's flag - a red cross on a whiten field).

There are three main political parties in Great Britain. These are: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Party.

2 Семестр.

Тема №1 "Лондон"

LONDON London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, cultural and commercial centre. It is one of the biggest and busiest ports of the 0nited Kingdom. London is situated on the banks of the river Thames.

London is one of the largest cities in the world and a very old city. London is more than 20 centuries old.

London consists of many parts. The West End is the symbol of wealth and v prosperity. The best and most expensive hotels, restaurants, clubs, theatres and cinemas and the richest shops are found here, in the West End. Splendid houses and lovely gardens are typical of this part of London.

The East End is the poorest district of London. There are plants and factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow. Working-class families live in the East End.

Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London, In the centre of this square there is a statue of Nelson. Admiral Nelson won the victory at the Battle of Trafalgar.

The City is the oldest part of London. The City is the financial and business part of London. Numerous banks, offices and trusts are concentrated here.

It occupies only one square mile in the centre of London.

There are many ancient buildings within the City, such as famous St Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London which was built nine centuries ago. This Tower was used as a royal palace, a fortress and a political prison. Now it is a very popular museum.

Whitehall is the palace of many government offices. Not very far from Whitehall the Houses of Parliament ace situated. Big Ben, the famous clock on the clock Tower, is known in all the countries in the world.

London is the centre of the cultural life in Britain. There are many museums, theatres, cinemas and art galleries, the Tate Gallery and the Portrait Gallery are known everywhere in the world. The British museum is the biggest museum in London. It has a big collection of different things- paintings and drawings, coins and statues. The British Museum has a very rich library. Near the British Museum one can see the University of London.

London is also a big port and the industrial centre of Great Britain. But when speaking of London one always thinks of Westminster Abbey. Westminster Abbey is famous not only for its architecture, Westminster Abbey has its world's famous Poet's Corner where many greatest English poets and writers are buried: Charles Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling and others. Here there are memorials to Shakespeare, Burns, Walter Scott and to the great American poet Longfellow.

There are many great and wonderful sights in London. But a visit to London's great museum is a "must" for any visitor to Great Britain. When Madarne Tussaud was only 9 years old she helped her uncle to open the first exhibition of life-size wax portraits in Paris. It was in 1770. When she was 17 she made a wax portrait of many famous people in France. She came to England in 1802, travelling with her exhibition for thirty years before settling down in London.

Тема №2 "США"

THE UNITED STATES

The United States proper (excluding Hawaii and Alaska) stretches across North America from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, from Canada in the north to Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Gulf of California in the south. The USA is an extremely large country in North America. In size, the United States ranks fourth among the nations after Russia, Canada, and China. It possesses many islands in the Pacific Ocean and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands in the Atlantic. It has military bases scattered all over the globe.

Features: The United States proper (excluding Hawaii and Alaska) consists of the Atlantic coastal plain, the Appalachian highlands, a vast interior plains region, the Rocky Mountains belt, the basin and plateaus west of the Rockies, and the mountains and valleys of the Pacific borderland. Alaska's main physical division are the Pacific mountain system, the Central Plateau, the Arctic mountain system, and the Arctic Slope. Hawaii consists of a 1,610 mile long chain of 122 islands, which represent the peaks of a chain of mountains of volcanic origin and largely submerged in the Pacific.

Chief Rivers: Mississippi, Missouri, Rio Grande, Yukon, Arkansas, Colorado, Ohio-Allegheny, Red, Columbia.

The USA has several different climate zones. The northern borders of the USA correspond to the line of Paris - Vienna - Volgograd, while the southern ones correspond to the northern part of the Sahara desert. New York lies in the same latitude as Naples. But the climate in North America is, much colder than in Europe and the average annual temperature of New York is 11 °C, five degrees lower than that of Naples.

In the East the principal trees are spruce and fir, and in Minnesota, spruce, poplar, and birch. The northern Appalachians and the upper Great Lakes region are dominated by mixed forests of birch, beech, maple, hemlock, and pine. The northern coastal area is of predominantly oak-pine forest. Much of southern Florida (the Everglades) and the lower Mississippi River valley are covered by marsh grasses. On the southern tip of Florida the marshes give way to mangrove swamps.

The Pacific Northwest has dense coniferous forest with Douglas fir, hemlock, fir, and spruce among the principal trees. Northwestern California has dense stands of giant redwoods (sequoias) along the coast.

The animal population of the United States was both numerous and prolific in aboriginal times, despite the dependence of the Indian upon for food and raw materials. Since the advent of the white man in overwhelming numbers, with his firearms and with his need of land for agriculture, the animal population has been greatly reduced. Whole species have been exterminated, or preserved in other than the wild state.

The Interior Plains had vast herds of grazing animals, especially bisons ("buffaloes") and antelopes. Other denizens of the plains included the burrowing owl, the prairie dog, and the badger. The higher mountains of the West were the home of the mountain sheep, mountain goat, grizzly bear, marmot, and rod rabbit. The deserts have a highly specialized world, equipped to heat and reduce water losses to a minimum, like the sidewind rattlesnake, which keeps much of its body off the ground t( avoid contact with that searing surface. Of special interest is the poisonous Gila monster, a lizard found in Arizona. History. North America may have been discovered in about 1;00( A. D. by Vikings under Leif Erickson, but Europeans did not know of its existence until Columbus sailed there in 1492. The first permanent English settlement in America was Jamestown, Virginie (1607). Although, effective colonization in New England beggar in 1620 when the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Government. Head of state and government: President, elected for four years.

Legislative body: Congress (bicameral), consisting of the Senat and the House of Representatives. The Senate consists of 101 members - two from each state - chosen by popular vote for i six-year term; a third of its membership is renewed every twice years. The House of Representatives has about 450 member elected by popular vote every two years; each state is entitled to at least one representative, with 4he total number determined periodically according to population.

Local government: 50 states, each with a popularly elected governor and legislature. Below the state level, local self-government is usually conducted through municipalities, townships, am counties

Тема № 3 "Высшее и школьное образование"

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN.

The system of higher education includes universities, colleges and evening institutes. There are more than 50 universities and 500 colleges and evening institutes in Great Britain. Colleges are divided into colleges of education and polytechnical colleges. Colleges of education prepare students to be teachers. Politechnics prepare students for some kind of career. Universities consist of a number of faculties: divinity, medicine, arts, philosophy, law agriculture, natural sciences, music, economics, engineering, commerce and education.

The leading universities in England are Oxford, Cambridge and London. There are also universities in Bristol, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Belfast and some other cities. British universities differ greatly in history, general organization, methods of instruction and ways of student life. Many British universities are international. Young people from many parts of the world come to study there. After three or four years of study students take examinations to get a Bachelor's degree. Later they may proceed to the degrees of Master or Doctor.

Part of the teaching at universities is by means of lectures. There are tutorials and seminars. A tutorial is a lesson given by a tutor to a group of 4 to 6 students, and a seminar to a group of 10. British students do not have many lessons, but they have to do a lot of work by themselves. Each student has a personal tutor with whom he discusses his work and his other problems.

Admission to universities is by examination and selection. It usually depends on how well a student does in the General Certificate of Education. Advanced level ("A" level). University fees are rather high, so not many working class children are able to get higher education. Still there are always more candidates to universities than places there. Women are admitted to universities on equal terms with men but at Cambridge their number is limited by statute. The general proportion of men to women students is 3 to 1. At Oxford it is 6 to 1, and at Cambridge 10 to 1.

3 Семестр Тема №1 " Моя будущая профессия"

TEACHER'S PROFESSION

Teaching is a very difficult job of great responsibility and most specific character. There is a wide variety of teaching. A good teacher is not only a. communicator of knowledge but a model of competence. He forms attitudes to his subject and attitudes to learning, becoming himself a symbol of education process, a person who is learning as well as teaching. While communicating with children a teacher studies them closely to discover their interests, their strengths and weaknesses, their needs and abilities. Thus a good teacher always regards capacities his pupils have, trying to temper his teaching methods to children's abilities and aptitudes. He builds his work upon what he learns about his children.

An environment should be created to stimulate children to develop their abilities and satisfy their interests. "Climate" of a classroom depends on the nature of personal relationships between a teacher and his pupils. These relationships should be founded on respect for a person. Thus a primary condition of creating a good atmosphere in class is that everybody in it, respects everybody in it. Teacher's authority will be ensured by respect of his pupils, because his knowledge and skill are greater and better coordinated and his thinking is at a higher level than that of his pupils. His commands arc likely to be respected and obeyed then.

It is a purpose of education to liquidate ignorance. But it is also the function of education to help children to live in the community, to prepare them for real life situations. Social development is paid just as much attention to as intellectual development. School becomes a place of work and play, of living and learning. A teacher takes an active part in shaping of child's character, fostering honesty, kindness, loyalty, cooperation and respect for ideals.

Quintilian, the prominent Roman school master, wrote in his "Institutes Oratory" published about 95 AD the following about a teacher and his work: "Let him adopt a parental attitude to his pupils. Let him be free from vice himself. Let him be strict but not austere, kind but not too familiar: for austerity will make him unpopular, while familiarity breeds contempt. He must control his temper without shutting his eyes to faults requiring correction. His instruction must be free from affection, his industry great, his demands on class continuous, but not extravagant. He must be ready to answer questions and to put them unasked to those who sit silent. In praising the answers of his pupils he must be neither, grudging nor overgenerous. In correcting faults he must avoid sarcasm and above all abuse to discourage industry".

Here is an exacting job, but those who are well equipped for it will have a happy and satisfying life.

Тема№2 "Россия"

THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Russia is one of the biggest states in the world. Its official name is the Russian Federation.

It occupies the territory of about 17 million square kilometers and covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia.

Russia is wished by the Arctic Ocean in the north, by the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Pacific Ocean in the east. It is also washed by 12 seas; the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Baltic Sea, (he Black Sea and many others.

Russia borders on many counters: Finland. Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus, Georgia, Azerbaijan. China, Mongolia and others.

Russia is a country which has n rich variety of scenery. In the north you can see tundra and taiga, vast steppes in the south, forests and plains in r midland, deserts in the south.

The main mountain chains arc the Altai, the Caucasus, the Urals. The Ural naturally separates European and Asian parts of Russia.

There are two great plains in Russia: the great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland.

Russia is rich in small and big rivers and lakes. The Volga river is a symbol of Russia. It flows into the Caspian Sea. It is the longest river in Europe. The biggest Siberian rivers are the Ob, the Lena and the Yenisei. They flow from the South to the North. There is another important river in the Asian part of Russia. It is the Amur which is in the Far East and flows into the Pacific Ocean

All of these rivers are good for navigation and they also produce electric power.

In Siberia, there is the deepest and the most beautiful lake of Russia. Lake Baikal is also considered to be the most beautiful in the world.

Thousands of Russians are eager to visit this lake in order to see its picturesque scenery and taste the famous fish from the lake.

The water in the lake is very clear. The stones on the bottom of it can be seen.

The climate in Russia is varied as the country covers half of Europe and a third of Asia, from arctic in the North to subtropical in the South, but in the centre of it, the climate is continental.

Russia is a multinational country: over 100 nationalities inhabit it. The population of Russia is above 160 mln people.

The Russian Federation is one of the richest countries in the world in natural resources. It has big reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, iron, ore, gold, copper, nickel, silver and other minerals.

Russia is a country of modern technology. Many enterprises of Russia, its plants and factories produce computers and cars, tractors and clocks, refrigerators and TV-sets, electric motors and so on. Timber processing, textile goods, clothes and furs, foodstuffs and papermaking are the leading branches in the Russian industry.

Russia is a country of high developed agriculture. Wheat, barley, flax and oats as well as corn are the main crops in Russia. Cattle breeding is very important, too.

Russia is a country of highly developed science, culture and education. There is the Academy of Sciences, many higher educational establishments, a lot of theatres, art galleries and libraries.

Russia is a country of mixed economy. The production is controlled by both the government and private producers.

Russia is a Presidential Republic. The President is the head of the state. The Federal government unites three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each branch is controlled and checked by the President.

The legislative power is represented by the Federal Assembly which consists of two chambers: the Council of Federation and the Slate Duma.

The executive power belongs to the Government with the Prime minister a the head.

The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court.

The state symbol of Russia is a three-coloured banner with three horizontal stripes on it: white, blue and red.

Тема№3 "Рязань"

RYAZAN

Ryazan is an old Russian city. It was founded in 1095. In 1995 we celebrated the 900th anniversary of our city. It should be said that Ryazan played an important role defending Russia from the Tatar's invaders. The old City (town), the so-called old Ryazan, was well fortified. It was considered a large cultural centre of Russia.

By the beginning of the 13th century Ryazan had grown into a prospering city. It had developed its own architecture. Ryazan handicrafts in the 12th-13th centuries produced fine gold and silver articles.

In 1237 a terrible misfortune fell upon the town and its citizens. For five days they defended the city but the enemy was stronger and the Tatars' invaders destroyed the town. Almost all citizens were killed their houses burnt down. But then the town was rebuilt and became the capital of a strong prosperous principality.

Nowadays Ryazan is a large industrial, scientific and cultural centre. Is population is over half a million people. It is situated on the Oka river.

At the beginning of our century it was built mainly with one or two storeyed houses. It has changed greatly since that time. You can see many fine buildings of glass and stone in the centre and in the suburbs too.

There are many places of interest in our city: the Ryazan Art Museum, the Museum of Regional Studies, the Pavlov's memorial house. The Ryazan Kremlin is a masterpiece of Russian architecture. It is greatly admired by the tourists and by our citizens. We always show our guests the monuments to Tziolkovsky, Yesenin, Pavlov and the Monument to the Soviet-Polish friendship, our Drama and Puppet theatres.

There are many plants and factories in our city. It is also a city of students. There are five institutes in it.

Ryazan is famous for its well-known citizens. They were the first to raise the people's volunteer corps during the war against the French invaders in 1812.

Everybody knows the name of the famous decembrist M.S.Lunin. He was one of the organizers of the North Society. Our famous scientists Pavlov, Tsiolkovsky, Semenov-Tanshansky, Sevastyanov made a great contribution to the development of physiology, space exploration, geography and geology. We are proud of poets, writers and artists who lived and worked in Ryazan and its region: Yesenin, Saltykov-Shedrin, Paustovsky, Simoniv, Solzenitsin, Pozalostin and many others. A lot of our fellow citizens fought bravely together with all Soviet people during the Great patriotic war. The whole world knows the names of Poletayev, Kashirin, Deinekin and many others.

We like our city and are proud of its history.

Раздел 6

Cross-cultural Communication

Culture is a collection of beliefs, values and ways of doing things which are typical of a particular community and which are expressed and perpetuated through various codes.

It is obvious that when people from different cultural backgrounds meet there are going to be all kinds of communication problems. These may be quite fundamental if neither speaks the other's language. But even if they are able to use a common language, difficulties may occur as a result of the different cultural assumptions that the speakers make. This fascinating area of communication studies is called cross-cultural communication.

?Study the comparison of typical cultural features in Great Britain and Japan.

Cultural feature British Japanese

1 When you greet you shake hands You bow from the waist - the someone degree of the bow depends on

2 3 4 5 6 the relationship of the two people and the context in which they find themselves. On entering the house You wipe your shoes on the door-mat You take your shoes off. Slippers are provided. When you take a bath You fill a body-length bath with hot water and wash yourself in the bath The bath is a waist-high tub. You soap and rinse yourself beside the bath, then soak in the clean tub of water. Your staple diet is bread, potatoes, meat and cooked fish is rice, noodles, raw fish and cooked meat Your religion is most likely to be Christianity is most likely to be Shintoism and/or Buddhism Your writing Uses the 26 characters of the Roman alphabet Consists of ideograms (from Chinese) and some extra syllabic characters.

Compare typical cultural features in America and Russia in the same way and add three more options to the table.

Your writing 6

7 8 9 10

?Test your global IQ and make the correct choice:

1. The executive of a Chinese company is celebrating his/her 65th birthday. Which of the following gifts is NOT appropriate?

a) a silk tie;

b) a silver Mont Blank pen;

c) a gold clock;

d) a crystal paperweight;

e) gold and jade cuff links.

2. In Spain, for which event is punctuality most important?

a) bullfight; b) dinner;

c) lunch; d) siesta break;

e) cocktails.

3. In Thailand, the customary greeting is:

a) a bow; b) a handshake;

c) a hand placed on the left shoulder;

d) a kiss on the forehead;

e) hands placed in a praying position at one's chest.

4. You're creating a sales training manual for employees doing business in Japan. When would you tell them NOT to discuss business?

a) at dinner; b) over lunch;

c) on the golf course;

d) at the start of a business meeting;

e) in your superior's office.

5. When doing business in Mexico, indicating your academic titles and credentials to potential customers is: a) not important;

b) important only if you are in a scientific or technical field;

d) only done if your customer asks for them;

e) offensive because it's considered bragging.

6. In which country would a picture showing the soles of a person's shoes pose the greatest problem? a) France;

b) Germany;

c) Saudi Arabia;

d) Japan; e) The Netherlands.

7. The people of Scotland are called:

a) Scotch;

b) Scottish; c) Scots;

d) Scotlanders;

e) Highlanders.

8. In Southern India, people eat with:

a) their right hand;

b) their left hand;

c) chopsticks; d) hand carved wooden utensils;

e) brass knives, forks and spoons.

9. Your company would like to send its top sales representative abroad to meet with its distributors in August. In which countries is this most likely to become a problem?

a) Italy and France;

b) Ireland and Sweden;

c) Japan and China;

d) Australia and New Zealand;

e) Hungary and Rumania.

10. When conducting business with New Zealanders you should not:

a) differentiate them from Australians;

b) inquire into an executive's positions in their country;

c) call them Kiwis;

d) shake hands when greeting;

e) none of the above.

11. When creating advertising to be used in France, which of the following is illegal?

a) boasting about your company;

b) frequently repeating an idea or spelling point;

c) coming across as a very competitive company;

d) using a hard-sell approach;

e) criticizing a competitor.

12. During a business trip to Japan, which custom is extremely important for you to respect?

a) eating your meals with chopsticks;

b) bowing to say hello and goodbye;

c) drinking and singing with your Japanese counterparts;

d) going to see a Kabuki play;

e) working on Saturdays.

13. Which should you never offer a Moslem to eat?

a) beef; b) pork.

14. In a Buddist country, you shouldn't:

a) pat a child's hat;

b) hold hands with a child.

15. Which shouldn't you do in Japan?

a) take off your jacket before a meal;

b) blow your nose in public.

16. Which is banned in Singapore?

a) alcohol; b) chewing gum.

17. Which colour is worn at a traditional Chinese funeral? a) black;

b) white.

18. The usual way of greeting in China is:

a) shaking hands;

b) bowing. 19. What do Italians do at midnight on New Year's Eve?

a) throw old things out of the windows;

b) sit on the floor and hold hands;

20. If you are invited to a meal in Brazil, you should arrive:

a) shortly before the stated time;

b) some time after the stated time.

21. On holiday in Spain, you are invited to go on a paseo. Is this: a) a walk?

b) a picnic?

22. Which flowers should you never take to a dinner party in Poland? a) carnations;

b) chrysanthemums;

c) tulips.

Показать полностью… https://vk.com/doc322411590_443615941
2 Мб, 24 марта 2017 в 13:57 - Россия, Ростов-на-Дону, РГПУ, 2017 г., pdf
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