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Студенческий документ № 012373 из АГЗ МЧС России

Министерство Российской Федерации по делам гражданской обороны, чрезвычайным ситуациям и ликвидации последствий стихийных бедствий ____________________________________________________________

Академия гражданской защиты

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ для студентов

III курса

авиационный английский язык

Химки - 2014

I CONSTRUCTION OF AIRCRAFT

Active Vocabulary to Text A

aircraft -воздушное судно fuselage - корпус wing -крыло empennage - хвостовое оперение flight controls -приборы управления самол?том landing gear - шасси nacelle - гондола (двигателя) rudder - руль направления elevator - руль высоты to attached to... - прикреплять к ...

Text A

Airplane The main components of an airplane can be divided into six main parts: fuselage, wings, empennage, flight controls, landing gear and nacelles.

The fuselage is the main body of the airplane and contains the pilot's compartment and passenger and baggage compartments. The pilot's compartment is also called a cockpit. The cockpit contains the flight controls and instruments. The larger part of the fuselage contains passenger seats or cargo space and usually some provision for baggage.

The wings are the main lifting surfaces which support the aircraft in flight, and they are attached to a strongly-built or stressed section of the fuselage.

The empennage consists of a vertical stabilizer and rudder and the horizontal stabilizer and elevators.

The main landing gear or wheels are attached by struts and braces to the fuselage and often to the wings outboard of the fuselage.

Some airplanes are equipped with pontoons or floats for landing on water and skis for landing on snow.

Nacelles are compartments housing the power plant or engine and its accessories.

Questions to Text A 1. What are the main components of an airplane?

2. What is the main body of the airplane?

3. Where are the baggage compartment situated?

4. Does the fuselage contain the pilot's compartment?

5. What is the pilot's compartment called?

6. Does the cockpit contain the flight controls and instruments?

7. Why are the wings are the main lifting surfaces?

8. What are the main parts of empennage?

9. Some airplanes are equipped with floats, aren't they?

10. What are the nacelles?

* * * * Text B Helicopter

The improvement of aviation machinery of EMERCOM of Russia contributes to the maintenance and development of domestic aviation rescue technologies. For example, by request of the EMERCOM of Russia a rescue helicopter light class Ka-226А was developed. That helicopter helps in particularly difficult conditions for the transporting victims to the clinic, patrol the main highways and environmental monitoring.

A helicopter is a type of the aircraft that uses rotating or spinning wings called blades to fly. Unlike an airplane, a helicopter has wings that move. A helicopter's rotating blades or a rotor allow it to do things an airplane cannot.

In order to fly, an object must have "lift," a force moving it upward. Lift is usually made by wings. Wings are curved on top and flatter on the bottom. This shape is called an airfoil. That shape makes air flow over the top faster than under the bottom. As a result, there is less air pressure on top of the wing; this causes suction and makes the wing move up.

An airplane must fly fast to move enough air over its wings to provide lift. A helicopter moves air over its rotor by spinning its blades. A helicopter can take off or land without a runway. It can turn in the air in ways airplanes cannot. Unlike an airplane, a helicopter can fly backwards or sideways. It also can hover in one spot in the air without moving. This makes helicopters ideal for things an airplane cannot do. For example, a helicopter can pick someone with a medical problem up where there is no runway. It can then land in a small area on top of a hospital.

Helicopters can be used for many things. They can be used as flying ambulances to carry patients. They can be loaded with water to fight large fires. Military forces use helicopters to attack targets on the ground and move troops. Helicopters are used to get supplies to ships. Helicopters can be used to transport large objects from place to place. Helicopters can rescue people in hard-to-reach places like mountains or in rough seas. Television and radio stations use helicopters to fly over cities and report on traffic. These uses are just some of the many things that can be done with helicopters.

Safety of aviation machinery fully depends on the work of Air Traffic Controllers.

Active Vocabulary to Text B

blade - лопасть airfoil -аэродинамическая поверхность suction - засасывание runway - взл?тно-посадочная полоса

(ВПП) upward -направленный вверх backward -направленный назад sideways -в сторону to patrol -барражировать to hover - висеть, зависать to load with -грузить, загружать

Questions to Text B

1. What contributes to the maintenance and development of rescue technologies?

2. What is a helicopter?

3. Does a helicopter have wings?

4. What's the difference between a helicopter and an airplane?

5. Can a helicopter take off or land without a runway?

6. What can a helicopter do but an airplane can't?

7. Helicopters can be used as flying ambulances to carry patients, cannot they?

8. Can a helicopter do a military work?

9. Can a helicopter help in everyday life and how?

10. What's the main mission of Air Traffic Controllers?

FLIGHT BEHAVIOUR OF AIRCRAFT

Active Vocabulary to Text A

instrument - прибор height - высота altimeter - высотоме airspeed - воздушная скорость turning characteristics -характеристики управляемости attitude - пространственное положение direction - направление, курс rate - уровень, величина to measure - измерять to obtain - получать

Text A Aircraft instruments

Aircraft instruments are basically devices for obtaining information about the aircraft and its environment, and for presenting that information to the pilot in a concise form. Their purpose is to detect, measure, record, process and analise the variables encountered in flying an aircraft. They are mainly electrical, electronic or gyroscopic. They are concerned with the behaviour of the engines, the speed, height and attitude of the aircraft and its whereabouts.

Instruments Concerned with Flight Information

Height. An instrument for measuring and showing height above a level of reference is called an altimeter. It is basically an extremely sensitive aneroid barometer which measures static pressure at the height the aircraft is flying and, according to the difference between this and the pressure at a predetermined reference level, indicates height above reference level.

Vertical Speed. The rate of change in altitude is measured and shown by a vertical speed indicator. This indicates the speed of climb (ascent) or descent (dive or glide).

Horizontal Airspeed. Horizontal airspeed is measured and shown by an airspeed indicator (ASI). The ASI is an aneroid capsule which measures the difference between static pressure and the pressure inside an openended tube, called Pitot tube, usually situated on or underneath the nose of the aircraft.

Turning Characteristics. Aircraft turning characteristics can be measured and shown by a simple device known as a turn-bank indicator.

Attitude. The attitude of an aircraft relative to the surface of the earth is shown by an "artificial" or "gyro" horizon. There is a horizon bar on the instrument that always remains parallel to the surface of the earth.

Direction. An elementary direction-measuring instrument is a simple magnetic compass which may, however, be inaccurate by a degree or two in straight and level flight and much more inaccurate in turns.

Questions to Text A

1. What are the aircraft instruments?

2. What is the purpose of the aircraft instruments?

3. How are they classified?

4. Are they concerned with the behaviour of the engines, the speed, height and attitude of the aircraft and its whereabouts?

5. What are the main instruments concerned with flight information?

6. Is an altimeter an instrument for measuring or showing height ?

7. Does the vertical speed indicate the speed of climb or descent?

8. What is the horizontal speed measured by?

9. The attitude of an aircraft relative to the surface of the earth is shown by an "artificial" or "gyro" horizon, isn't it?

10. What is an elementary direction-measuring instrument?

* * * *

Text B Cockpit instruments

Instruments Concerned with Propulsion Information

Speed. Engine speeds are measured and shown on rpm indicators which measure the revolutions per minute of the main rotor in each engine.

Temperature. The temperature of each engine on an aircraft is measured and shown on a temperature indicator.

Pressure. A manifold pressure gauge is an instrument for measuring the absolute pressure in the induction system (a branched pipe for distributing air or a mixture to a number of cylinders) at a point standardized for each engine.

Instruments Concerned with Information about Fuel

Fuel Content. Fuel tank contents indicators show how much fuel the aircraft has left at any moment of time.

Fuel Flow. The fuel consumption of each engine is measured by fuel flowmeters calibrated in kilos per minute. Instruments Concerned with Information about

Conditions on the Outside of the Airframe

Temperature. The outside air temperature (OAT) gauge gives the pilot general information about the temperature of the air immediately surrounding the airframe.

Pressure. It is important to know the pressure inside the passenger cabin because it must be neither too high nor too low for human comfort. It is also important to know the difference between the air pressure outside the cabin and the air pressure inside it because it represents a force exerted in normal circumstances in an outwards direction.

Instruments Concerned with Information about the Aircraft's Electrical System

Voltage. Direct current and alternating current voltages are measured and shown by AC and DC voltmeters. Where information is required only periodically from a number of points it is usual to have only one voltmeter with a device for selecting each point of measurement as required. Current. The instrument that measures an electric current in amperes is called an ammeter.

We may summarize the nature of information presented by aicraft instruments as

follows: (a) it may be continuous presentation, as in the case of a gyrohorizon. (b) it may be on-tap presentation, as in the case of moving a switch for a particular reading on a voltmeter.

(c) it is always concerned with situations that are expected to change within certain limits, for example temperature.

(d) most is presented visually.

Active Vocabulary to Text B

propulsion - двигатель revolutions per minute - обороты в минуту gauge - измерительный приброр fuel flow - расход топлива airframe - корпус, каркас consumption - потребление current - ток to exert - влиять to moove a switch - переключять to concern with - описывать neither ... nor... - ни... ни...

Questions to Text B

1. What are the instruments concerned with propulsion information?

2. What's the difference between fuel content and fuel flow?

3. What are the instruments concerned with information about conditions on the outside of the airframe?

4. Why do we need the instruments concerned with information about conditions on the outside of the airframe?

5. Where is the information required only periodically?

6. What is an ammeter?

7. To how many points may we summarize the nature of information presented by aicraft instruments?

8. May it be continuous presentation or on-tap presentation ?

9. Are there instruments concerned with situations that are expected to change ?

10. What is presented visually?

AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

Active Vocabulary to Text A

terminal area - зона аэродрома apron - приангарная площадка taxiway - рул?жная дорожка approach - заход на посадку carousel - круговой транспорт?р для багажа в аэропорту maintenance - содержание и технический ремонт to arrange - располагать to relate to - затрагивать infinite - бесконечный prior - предшествующий

Text A Airports There are airports in every country.

In theory, an aircraft can fly an infinite number of paths through the air from any surface point to any other. In practice, paths of flight lead from airport to airport. Aircraft not only need proper landing and take off facilities. Moreover, those who use aircraft need services and accommodations which the airport must provide.

In the interest of aviation safety and air traffic assistance and control air traffic rules were established. The rules relate chiefly to weather minima, flight altitudes and traffic patterns which are to be used under different circumstances.

The modern airport is a complex structure, a centre of most diversified services. Millions of passengers and thousands of tons of airfreight are handled by modern airports. Thousands of people are working at airports.

In practical any airport can be divided into two main parts: the landing area (runways and taxiways) and the terminal area (aprons, buildings, car parking areas, hangars, etc.). There is also a third part - terminal air traffic control. The landing area includes runways and taxiways. The number of runways, their length and location depend on the volume and character of traffic, the prevailing wind direction and other factors.

The runways and taxiways should be arranged so that to prevent delays on landing, taxying and take off operations.

Aprons are required for aircraft to make final checks prior to departure.

The main function of the terminal buildings is to handle the departing and arriving passengers and their baggage.

Among the airport services are: flight assistance service, air traffic control services - airport traffic control, approach control, air route traffic control, radio communications and weather observation and forecasting service.

At every airport there is a number of supplementary services such as rescue and security services, an airport clinic, a fire brigade, special vehicles and equipment units (water trucks, tow tractors, etc.).

Other services include maintenance, overhaul and repair of stationary and mobile equipment, the supply of electricity, water, heat and air conditioning.

The facilities include runways, air navigational aids, passenger and cargo terminals. The airport has a hotel, a post office, bank offices, restaurants, car rental firms, etc. In the terminal there is everything for quick passenger handling: check-in desks, electronic flight information board of departure and arrival times, the baggage claim carousel and many others.

Questions to Text A

1. Where must be an airport?

2. What are the main two parts of the airport?

3. Is there a third part of the airport? What is it?

4. What factors influence the number of runways, their length and location?

5. Are the aprons required for aircraft to make final checks prior to departure?

6. What is the main function of the terminal building?

7. Is the weather observation among the airport services ?

8. What supplementary services are there at the airport?

9. Where is the carousel situated?

10. What is used for quick passenger handling?

Text B

Main Airports

There are many airports in our country. There are some international airports.

There is an aerodrome, a terminal, some buildings and offices at the airport; on the aerodrome there are some taxiways and runways. Runways are 2000 m long and more. Some taxiways are long, other taxiways are short. There are hangars there. There are beacons, too. At the terminal there is an apron, on it there are many stands for aircraft and there are pads for helicopters. At every aerodrome, there is a meteorological office, a tower and a fire station. There is a settlement for the personnel and a hotel for passengers and crews at every airport. The airport is not far from the city. It doesn't take much time to get to the airport. It may be a 20 - 40 minute drive by bus or train.

Sheremetyevo The capacity of Sheremetyevo Airport has increased. The terminal can receive up to 2100 passengers every hour; the total capacity of the complex is 15 mil passengers a year. Sheremetyevo II is the centre of international air traffic of Russia. Sheremetyevo II was inaugurated in

1980. It's a 9-storey building with 19 telescopic ladders (fingers). It has been assembled by the West German firm. It has the most up-to-date equipment for handling passengers. There is a new runway which can handle all types of aircraft. Radio navigation equipment and the traffic control system have been modernized. The new check-in counters, computers and 10 automatic luggage conveyors cut the time needed for receiving passengers and handling luggage down to 5 minutes. The automatic baggage conveyors reduce luggage waiting time after arrival to 7 minutes. There are halls for passengers, 4 restaurants, a banquet hall, bars, snack bars to cater for 1600 passengers at a time. There's a conference hall for 500 seats. There's a hotel for 500 transit passengers, a modern complex for centralized fueling of aircraft, engineering communications and other facilities. There are arrivals, departures, transit and waiting halls in the terminal. The terminal has all the latest equipment to handle numerous passengers, much cargo and baggage. Boarding is done through one of the 19 passages (telescopic gangways). There are foreign airline offices, on the upper floors. There is a parking place for 1200 cars. It takes only 35 minutes to get to the centre of the city.

Heathrow airport

The UK is in a global race for trade, jobs and economic growth. The international economy is changing with the rise of emerging markets like Brazil, Russia, India and China. UK businesses trade 20 times more with emerging markets that have daily flights than those with less frequent or no direct service.

There are 8 major airports in Britain - Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted Southampton,

Prestwick, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen. But Heathrow is slipping out of the Premier League of Europe's international hub airports.

Heathrow is the UK's only hub airport. A hub airport is uniquely important to establishing flights to growth destinations. It is an airport where local passengers combine with transfer passengers to allow airlines to fly to more destinations more frequently than could be supported by local demand alone. Transfer passengers allow the UK to connect to countries where it couldn't sustain a direct daily flight itself. Many routes would not exist without transfer passengers. Passengers can fly to 75 destinations from Heathrow that aren't served by any other UK airport. Heathrow is 24 km west of London center. There are 125 parking stands.

There're 3 terminals. Terminal I and Terminal II are for short haul routes, Terminal III is for long haul routes. A new 4-th terminal is planned, it can handle 2000 passengers an hour and its capacity is 8 mil passengers a year. It can receive the biggest aircraft. There are 22 stands. Heathrow services about 27 mil passengers a year. 45000 people work at Heathrow, in its 260 offices. There're 74 airlines offices with cargo agents, salesmen, charwomen, typists, mechanics, medical personnel, policemen, Customs officers, Passport Control officers, etc.

. Active Vocabulary to Text B

beacon - маяк capacity - вместимость hub airport - узловой аэропорт haul routes - транспортный маршруту settlement - небольшой пос?лок to inaugurate - вводить в эксплуатацию to assemble - собирать, монтировать to sustain - поддерживать emerging - развивающийся transfer - транзитный

Questions to Text B

1. What is there at tht airport?

2. Is it difficult to get to the airport?

3. Has the capacity of Sheremetyevo Airport increased nowadays?

4. What is the centre of international air traffic of Russia?

5. What does the terminal of Sheremetyevo Airport have?

6. What are the main airports in Britain?

7. Is Heathrow the UK's only hub airport?

8. Where is it situated?

9. How many terminals are there?

10. How many passengers can the terminals handle every hour?

II

AIRCRAFT TAXIING AND TAKEOFF

Active Vocabulary to Text A

taxiing -выруливание (воздушного судна) insrtuctions -указания awareness - осведомл?нность intersection -перекрещивание clearance - разрешение to issue - исходить prevailing -преобладающий explicit - подробный appropriate -должный, соответствующий sequential -последовательный

Text A

Taxiing Modern airplanes become heavier and faster. They need more complex and longer runways. Airports are rapidly developing and swallow up more and more precious land.

Taxiing is the controlled movement of the airplane under its own power while on the ground.

An awareness of other aircraft which are taking off, landing, or taxiing, and consideration for the right of way of others is essential to safety. Taxiing instructions issued by a controller will always contain a clearance limit, which is the point at which the aircraft must stop until further permission to proceed is given. For departing aircraft the clearance limit will normally be the holding position of the runway in use, but it may be any other position on the aerodrome depending on prevailing traffic circumstances. When intersection departures are used, the appropriate holding positions shall be clearly identified by ATC. When a taxi clearance contains a taxi limit beyond a runway, it shall contain an explicit clearance to cross that runway, or an instruction to hold short, even if the runway is not in use.

Communication with any aircraft using the runway for the purpose of taxiing, should be transferred from the ground controller to the aerodrome controller prior to the aircraft entering / crossing a runway. It is strongly advised, when practicable, to use standard taxi routes.

For more complicated taxi instructions, it may be appropriate to divide the message into segments, placing the clearances and instructions in sequential order, to avoid the possibility of pilot misunderstanding.

Questions to Text A

1. What is taxiing?

2. What is essential to safety?

3. Are the taxiing instructions issued by a controller or a pilot?

4. What do the taxiing instructions contain?

5. Will the clearance limit be the holding position of the runway in use for departing aircraft?

6. When shall the appropriate holding positions be clearly identified by ATC?

7. When a taxi clearance contains a taxi limit beyond a runway, it shall contain an explicit clearance to cross that runway or an instruction to hold short, shall not it?

8. What should be transferred from the ground controller to the aerodrome controller?

9. Is it strongly advised to use standard taxi routes?

10. What may be appropriate for more complicated taxi instructions?

Text B Takeoff Every flight follows a typical profile:

1. Preflight -This portion of the flight starts on the ground and includes flight checks, push-back from the gate and taxi to the runway.

2. Takeoff - The pilot powers up the aircraft and speeds down the runway.

3. Departure - The plane lifts off the ground and climbs to a cruising altitude.

4. En route - The aircraft travels through one or more center airspaces and nears the destination airport.

5. Descent - The pilot descends and maneuvers the aircraft to the destination airport.

6. Approach - The pilot aligns the aircraft with the designated landing runway.

7. Landing - The aircraft lands on the designated runway, taxis to the destination gate and parks at the terminal.

The aircraft shall land and take off on runways only instructed by air traffic control. It shall have a two-way radio capable of communicating with air traffic control.

Landings or takeoffs shall be made only at a safe distance from buildings and other aircraft. Takeoffs and landings over building area and parking lot in the vicinity of the administration building are prohibited.

Landings or takeoffs shall not be permitted on the taxiways unless permission is granted by air traffic control.

As the flight has been approved, the air traffic controller gives clearance to the pilot and passes the strip to the ground controller in the tower.

The ground controller is responsible for all ground traffic, which includes aircraft taxiing from the gates to takeoff runways and from landing runways to the gates. When the ground controller determines that it is safe, he or she directs the pilot to push the plane back from the gate (airline personnel operate the tugs that actually push the aircraft back and direct the plane out of the gate area). As the plane taxis to the runway, the ground controller watches all of the airport's taxiways and uses ground radar to track all of the aircraft (especially useful in bad weather), ensuring that the plane does not cross an active runway or interfere with ground vehicles.

The ground controller talks with the pilot by radio and gives him instructions, such as which way to taxi and which runway to go to for takeoff. Once the plane reaches the designated takeoff runway, the ground controller passes the strip to the local controller.

The local controller in the tower watches the skies above the airfield and uses surface radar to track aircraft. He or she is responsible for maintaining safe distances between planes as they take off. The local controller gives the pilot final clearance for takeoff when it is deemed safe, and provides the new radio frequency for the departure controller. Once clearance is given, the pilot must decide if it is safe to take off. If it is safe, he accelerates the plane down the runway.

Active Vocabulary to Text B

profile - зд. профиль(пол?та), схема vicinity -соседство, близость ground controller - диспетчер наземного движения tug -буксировочное приспособление designated landing/takeoff - намеченная посадка/взл?т clearance -диспетчерское разрешение strip - (л?тная) полоса to deem - считать, полагать to align -выводить на курс, ставить по курсу to accelerate -ускорять, разгонять

Questions to Text B

1. What must every flight follow?

2. What is takeoff?

3. Shall the aircraft land and takeoff only instructed by air traffic control?

4. Are only takeoffs prohibited over building area?

5. What must be granted by air traffic control?

6. What is the ground controller responsible for?

7. What is especially useful in bad weather?

8. The ground controller talks with the pilot by radio and gives him instructions, doesn't he(she)?

9. What does the local controller do?

10. Does the local controller give the pilot final clearance or not?

THE WORK OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER

Active Vocabulary to Text A

collision -столкновение adequate facilities -соответствующие средства

(возможности) orderly flow - организованный поток vital requirement -жизненная потребность to undergo -преобладающий to expedite - ускорять, продвигать to possess -владеть, обладать efficient -действенный, эффективный proficient -опытный mental -умственный

Text A

Air Traffic Control

The ATC's first concern is safety, that is the prevention of collision between aircraft in the air and orderly flow of traffic.

Air traffic controllers typically do the following:

• Issue landing and takeoff instructions to pilots

• Monitor and direct the movement of aircraft on the ground and in the

air, using radar, computers, or visual references

• Control all ground traffic at airports, including baggage vehicles and airport workers

• Manage communications by transferring control of departing flights to traffic control centers and accepting control of arriving flights

• Provide information to pilots, such as weather updates, runway closures, and other critical information

• Alert airport response staff, in the event of an aircraft emergency

To perform their exacting duties air traffic controllers need adequate facilities. Computers are also a powerful tool. They give assistance by taking over routine tasks but they must not dominate the system. The human controller is much more efficient than any current system because it is he who takes responsibility for controlling aircraft and it is he who takes final decisions in all situations including conflicting and emergency.

During periods of heavy traffic controllers work under high stress. They may control several aircraft simultaneously, their number sometimes exceeding 15 and even more. Controllers' slightest error may cause loss of human lives and property.

Top physical and mental condition is a vital requirement for ATC controllers. Therefore they undergo strict medical examination which are repeated at periodic intervals.

The problem of the selection and training of ATC personnel is extremely important. The controllers should possess a number of qualities which are absolutely necessary for them: a high degree of morality, a very good nervous and emotional balance, a sound critical judgment, a readiness for decisions and an instinct for team work. To become a highly professional controller one must be proficient not only in specialized aviation English but also in plain language because aviation safety depends on accurate pilot - controller communications.

The training of ATC personnel is carried out by different methods using various teaching aids, systems and simulators. Modern simulators can reproduce the whole ATC task from take-off to landing including all manoeuvers even the dangerous ones.

Questions to Text A

1. What is the main task of ATC activity?

2. How can controllers expedite the flow of traffic?

3. What aids and systems do controller use to control air traffic?

4. Can any aids or systems substitute a human controller?

5. What are the working conditions of controllers?

6. How many aircraft may controllers control at peak traffic periods?

7. What is one of the vital requirements for ATC controllers?

8. What qualities should a person possess to become a controller?

9. How are controllers trained?

10. Can modern simulators reproduce conflicting and emergency situations?

ADDITION Text B

Training of Air Traffic Controllers

Training to become a fully qualified air traffic controller can take around three years. The actual structure of the training is likely to vary depending on the provider.

Training with private course providers has to be paid for but you can usually choose the area you wish to specialise in, e.g. area control, aerodrome, etc. If candidates train with National Air Traffic Services (NATS), they receive a basic wage as the training stages are part of their employment. They may be placed in any location in the UK, however, once a certain part of their training is complete, and the area they specialise in is usually determined by business needs.

The basic training with NATS usually takes around two months to complete. This is followed by training in the specialised areas. Area control courses take around nine months, aerodrome/approach courses take at least eight months and aerodrome courses take around five months. These are minimum course lengths and some candidates may take longer to finish the training.

Upon completion of this stage, candidates are placed in available positions and continue with training to work towards validation. The time this takes varies depending on the individual and the unit they are placed in.

Candidates are assessed throughout their training through the use of practical exercises, exams and oral tests.

Those from other course providers are able to apply for trainee roles with other air services operators, where they will continue with their training.

Once qualified, all air traffic controllers are required to keep their knowledge and skills up to date. This means they will continue to go on training courses or will receive in-house training throughout their careers.

APPROACH AND LANDING

Active Vocabulary to Text A

descent -снижение pattern -зд. схема complexity - сложность thrust power -тяговая мощность briefing -ирструктаж stall/spin -сваливание на крыло/штопр envelope -зд. границы to incorporate -включать to commence -начинать current -действенный

Text A Approach

Approach(APP) is the descent of an aircraft towards the place where it intends to land.

The approach and landing phase is the busiest and most demanding phase of flight. Attention must be divided among flying the airplane, navigating to the proper position for pattern entry or initiation of the instrument approach, and communicating with ATC.

Depending on speed of the aircraft, availability of weather information, and the complexity of the approach procedure or special terrain avoidance procedures for the airport of intended landing, the inflight planning phase of an instrument approach can begin far from the destination. Some of the approach planning should be accomplished during preflight. In general, there are five steps that most operators incorporate into their Flight Standards manuals for the inflight planning phase of an instrument approach:

• Gathering weather information, field conditions, and Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) for the runway of intended landing.

• Calculation of performance data, approach speeds, and thrust power settings.

• Flight deck navigation/communication and automation setup.

• Instrument approach procedure (IAP) review and, for flight crews, IAP briefing.

• Operational review and, for flight crews, operational briefing.

Determining the suitability of a specific IAP can be a very complex task, since there are many factors that can limit the usability of a particular approach. There are several questions that pilots need to answer during preflight planning and prior to commencing an approach. Is the approach procedure authorized for the company? Is the weather appropriate for the approach? Is the aircraft currently at a weight that will allow it the necessary performance for the approach and landing or go around/missed approach? Is the aircraft properly equipped for the approach? Is the flight crew qualified and current for the approach? etc.

Once the approach briefing has been completed, it is time for the pilot to focus attention to the proper execution of the approach and landing. However, even a thoroughly planned approach demands a high level of concentration. The stall/spin accident continues to be one of the most common and most deadly accidents to occur during the approach phase of flight. The pilot's primary responsibility is to operate the airplane safely within its performance envelope.

Questions to Text A

1. What is approach?

2. Is it the busiest phase of flight?

3. What should be accomplished during preflight?

4. Are there five steps that most operators incorporate into their Flight Standards manuals for the inflight planning phase of an instrument approach?

5. Should the ATC/pilot be concerned about weather information?

6. What is IAP?

7. Is IAP a very complex task?

8. What questions do the pilots need to answer?

9. Even a thoroughly planned approach demands a high level of concentration, doesn't it?

10. What are the most common and most deadly accidents to occur during the approach phase of flight?

Text B Landing

Any locality either on land, water, or structures, including airports/heliports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo is called landing area.

Landing is the act of setting an aircraft onto the ground or another surface such as ice or water after the flight.

En route controllers monitor aircraft once they leave an airport's airspace. They work at air route traffic control centers located throughout the country, which typically are not located at airports.

Each center is assigned an airspace based on the geography and altitude of the area in which it is located. As an airplane approaches and

flies through a center's airspace, en route controllers guide the airplane along its route. They may adjust the flight path of aircraft for safety and collision avoidance.

As an airplane goes along its route, en route controllers hand the plane off to the next center, approach control, or tower along the path, as needed. En route controllers pay special attention to aircraft as they descend and get closer to the busier airspace around an airport. En route controllers turn the aircraft over to the airport's approach controllers when the aircraft is about 50 miles from the airport.

As the aircraft approaches its destination, the en route center organizes the traffic into several streams and flows the traffic towards the airport.

The center will "hand off" responsibility for the aircraft to the approach controller located in the same room as the departure controllers and will adjust the aircraft's speed, altitude and flight path by issuing instructions to the pilot. Once an aircraft has been cleared for the approach, responsibility for the aircraft is transferred to the local controller.

The local controller in the airport tower checks the runways and the skies above the runways with binoculars and surface radar (local and ground controllers are the only controllers licensed to use visual information in performing their duties). When the local controller determines that it is safe, he or she gives the pilot clearance to land. The local controller also updates weather conditions for the pilot and monitors the spacing between the plane and other landing aircraft.

Once the aircraft landed, the local controller directs the plane to an exit taxiway, tells the pilot the new radio frequency for the ground controller and passes the plane off to the ground controller.

The ground controller watches the runways and taxiways and uses ground radar information to ensure that the taxiing aircraft does not cross active runways or interfere with ground vehicles. He or she directs the plane to the appropriate terminal gate. Ground personnel from the airline use hand signals to assist the pilot in parking the airplane at the gate.

Every aircraft type possesses its own special characteristics. Fortunately test pilots have already carefully studied these, and the results are enshrined in the aircraft type's pilot operating handbook. The handbook will recommend the best speed of approach and give vital information on all phases of flight and aircraft operation.

Active Vocabulary to Text B

avoidance - избежание, уклонение radio frequency -радиочастота hand signals - сигналы, поданные рукой handbook - руководство setting -зд. посадка to assign - распределять to adjust -регулировать, улаживать to clear -разъяснять to license -давать право to enshrine -хранить Questions to Text B

1. What is landing?

2. What area is called landing area?

3. Do en route controllers or ground controllers monitor aircraft once they leave an airport's airspace?

4. How long en route controllers guide the airplane?

5. To whom en route controller hand the plane off?

6.What does the en route center organize as the aircraft approaches its destination?

7. When is the aircraft transferred to the local controller?

8. When the local controller determines that it is safe, he or she gives the pilot clearance to land, doesn't he/she?

9. Who use hand signals?

10. What is the name of the main pilot's book?

APPENDIX

Flight Deck

Flight deck is a compartment that contains navigation equipment and controls and from which the crew pilots the aircraft.

It contains:

air data computer computer that calculates the flight parameters (speed, altitude and course);

transponder instruments that, with the autopilot, control the engine power and guide the

aircraft on its course;

first officer's seat right seat occupied by the copilot, who is second in command;

flap lever control stick that activates the wing slats and the trailing edge flaps control console component located between the two seats that contains part of the instrumentation;

communication panels panel for selecting radio frequencies on which pilots can send or receive;

captain's seat

left seat occupied by the pilot, who is in charge of the flight and the crew;

systems display screen that controls various systems, such as air pressure and the electric and

hydraulic circuits; engine fuel valves knobs for opening and shutting the fuel supply to the engines; throttles control levers for the engines; they regulate speed and thrust; speedbrake lever command stick that releases the wing flaps to brake the aircraft immediately

after landing; control wheel lever that activates the control column from back to front and from side to side;

control column steering component that causes an aircraft to bank to the left or to the right and

to ascend or descend; primary flight display screen that shows the main parameters necessary for piloting

(aircraft's position in relation to the horizon, altitude and course); navigation display

screen that shows the aircraft's position and flight plan and weather conditions;

standby altimeter instrument that shows the vertical distance between the aircraft and the ground; it is used in the event the flight display fails;

standby airspeed indicator

instrument that shows the aircraft's speed; it is used in the event the flight

display fails; standby attitude indicator

screen that shows the aircraft's position in relation to the horizon; it is used in the event the flight display fails;

windshield highly durable pane made of glass and plastic that provides good visibility;

engine and crew alarm display screen that controls the engines and displays alarm signals in the event of system failure;

autopilot controls device that enables the aircraft to be piloted and kept on course automatically;

landing gear lever control for lowering and raising the landing gear; overhead switch panel panel made up of the switches that cut the hydraulic, electric and fuel circuits;

lighting device that diffuses light over a shelf on which the pilots place navigation charts;

speaker integrated device that relays audible messages such as alarms to the pilots.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

I CONSTRUCTION OF AIRCRAFT

1. What are the main parts of an airplain?

2. What is the main body of the airplain?

3. What are the nacelles?

4. What is the pilot's compartment called?

5. What is a helicopter?

6. What is the difference between a helicopter and an airplane?

7. How can a helicopter help in everyday life?

8. What is a flight deck?

9. What does a flight deck contain?

10. Safety of aviation machinery fully depends on the work of Air Traffic Controllers, doesn't it?

FLIGHT BEHAVIOUR OF AIRCRAFT

1. What types of aircraft do you know?

2. Name the main parts of the aircraft.

3. What does the fuselage contain?

4. What for are the wings required?

5. What is the purpose of aircraft instruments?

6. How are they classified?

7. What are the main instruments concerned with flight information?

8. Is an altimeter an instrument for measuring or showing height ?

9. What are the instruments concerned with propulsion information?

10. What is an elementary direction-measuring instrument?

AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

1. Where must be an airport?

2. What are the main two parts of the airport?

3. Is there a third part of the airport? What is it?

4. What factors influence the number of runways, their length and location?

5. Are the aprons required for aircraft to make final checks prior to departure?

6. What is the main function of the terminal building?

7. Is the weather observation among the airport services ?

8. What supplementary services are there at the airport?

9. Where is the carousel situated?

10. What is used for quick passenger handling?

II AIRCRAFT TAXIING AND TAKEOFF

1. What must every flight follow?

2. What is taxiing?

3. Are the taxiing instructions issued by a controller or a pilot?

4. What do the taxiing instructions contain?

5. Is it strongly advised to use standart taxi routes?

6. What is takeoff?

7. Shall the aircraft land and takeoff only instructed by air traffic control?

8. Are only takeoffs prohibited over building area?

9. What is the ground controller responsible for?

10. What does the local controller do?

THE WORK OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER

1. What is the main task of ATC activity?

2. How can controllers expedite the flow of traffic?

3. What aids and systems do controller use to control air traffic?

4. Can any aids or systems substitute a human controller?

5. What are the working conditions of controllers?

6. How many aircraft may controllers control at peak traffic periods?

7. What is one of the vital requirements for ATC controllers?

8. What qualities should a person possess to become a controller?

9. How are controllers trained?

10. Can modern simulators reproduce conflicting and emergency situations?

APPROACH AND LANDING

1. What is approach?

2. Why is it the busiest phase of the flight?

3. Should the ATC/pilot be concerned about weather information?

4. What questions do the pilots need to answer?

5. What are the most common and most deadly accidents to occur during the approach phase of flight?

6. What is landing?

7. What area is called landing area?

8. Do en route controllers or ground controllers monitor aircraft once they leave an airport's airspace?

9. How long en route controllers guide the airplane?

10. When is the responsibility for the aircraft transferred to the local controller?

C O N T E N T

I CONSTRUCTION OF AIRCRAFT ....................................................... 2

Text A Construction of Airplane ............................................................. 2

Text B Helicopter .................................................................................... 2

FLIGHT BEHAVIOUR OF AIRCRAFT ................................................ 2

Text A Aircraft Instruments ..................................................................... 2

Text B Cockpit Instruments .................................................................... 2

AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE............................................................ 2

Text A Airports........................................................................................ 2

Text B Main Airports .............................................................................. 2

II

AIRCRAFT TAXIING AND TAKEOFF ................................................ 2

Text A Taxiing......................................................................................... 2 Text B Takeoff ........................................................................................ 2

THE WORK OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER .................................. 2

Text A Air Traffic Control ....................................................................... 2

Text B Training of Air Traffic Controllers .............................................. 2

APPROACH AND LANDING ............................................................... 2

Text A Approach ..................................................................................... 2

Text B Landing ....................................................................................... 2

APPENDIX...............................................................................................2

REVIEW QUESTIONS .......................................................................... 2

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443 Кб, 27 октября 2014 в 22:40 - Россия, Москва, АГЗ МЧС России, 2014 г., pdf
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