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Студенческий документ № 025550 из ИМЭ

МИНИСТЕРСТВО СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

"Московский государственный агроинженерный университет

имени В. П. Горячкина"

Кафедра "Иностранные языки"

И. Г. Евдакова

AUTOMOBILE PARTS AND UNITS

Методические рекомендации

По дисциплине "Иностранный язык"

(английский)

Москва 2009

BEFORE

YOU READ

1. Read the following definitions of the ENGINE. Choose the most proper one:

a) ENGINE is a machine that runs on petrol.

b) ENGINE is a part of the automobile.

c) ENGINE is a machine that converts energy into power or motion.

EXPANDING

VOCABULARY

1.

Crankshaft - коленвал

2. Cycle - цикл

3. Cylinder - цилиндр

4. Engine - двигатель

internal combustion ~ - двигатель внутреннего сгорания

5. Exhaust gases - отработанные газы

6. Fuel - топливо

7. Mixture - смесь

8. Piston - поршень

9. Spark plug - свеча зажигания

10. Stroke - такт

compression ~ - такт сжатия

exhaust ~ - такт выпуска

induction (intake) ~ - такт впуска

power ~ - рабочий такт

11. Valve - клапан

inlet ~ - впускной клапан

outlet ~ - выпускной клапан

READING

2. Find the types of engines in the text and fill in the table:

Kind of fuel used Number of strokes

THE GASOLINE ENGINE

In the gasoline engine, we put heat to use by converting it into motive power. A gasoline engine is often called an internal combustion engine, but this means only that the fuel burns inside the engine. The jet engine and rocket engine are also internal combustion engines.

A gasoline engine works by burning a mixture of gasoline and air in a cylinder containing a piston. The heat produced causes the air to expand and force down the piston, which turns a crankshaft linked to the wheels.

Most cars have a four-stroke engine. A stroke is one movement of the piston, either up or down. In a four-stroke engine, the engine repeats a cycle of actions in which the piston moves four times:

I/ INDUCTION STROKE (fig. a) - the piston moves down and the inlet valve opens. The fuel and air mixture is sucked into cylinder.

II/ COMPRESSION STROKE (fig. b) - the inlet valve closes and the piston moves up. The mixture is compressed.

III/ POWER STROKE (fig. c) - the electric spark plug produces a spark and the fuel ignites, forcing the piston back down the cylinder.

IV/ EXHAUST STROKE (fig. d) - the outlet valve opens and the piston rises, pushing the exhaust gases out of the cylinder.

a) b) c) d)

Many light vehicles, such as motorcycles, have two-stroke engines. This kind of engine is simpler in construction than a four-stroke engine, but not as powerful. A two-stroke engine has no valves. Instead there are three ports in the side of the cylinder that the piston opens and closes as it moves up and down.

The diesel engine is similar to the gasoline engine, but runs on a heavier grade of fuel. The inlet valve admits only air, and the fuel is sprayed into the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke. The cylinder has no spark plug, but high compression makes the air in the cylinder so hot that the fuel ignites of its own accord as soon as it is sprayed in.

3. Match the beginning and the end of the sentences:

o

o A two-stroke engine

o A stroke o Motorcycles

o The cylinder of the diesel engine

o The exhaust gases

o is one movement of the piston.

o has no spark plugs.

o has no valves.

o go out when the outlet valve opens.

o have two-stroke engines.

BUILDING

VOCABULARY SKILLS

4. Link the nouns and the verbs associated with them:

Gas & air mixture Piston Valve

BURN MOVE OPEN SUCK CLOSE IGNITE RISE SPRAY

5. There is a word out in each line. Find all the four:

An internal combustion gasoline engine works by burning mixture of gasoline and air. The produced heat causes the air to expand and force move down the piston. One movement of the piston is called a stroke. Most cars have a 4-stroke engine. Many light motorcycles have 2-stroke engines. A 2-stroke engine is simpler in construction, it has no inlet valves. But it is not very powerful.

6. Give definitions or synonyms to the following words. Try not to use a dictionary.

1. STROKE__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. INLET VALVE___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. CYLINDER________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. FUEL_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. VEHICLE__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

JUST

FOR FUN 7. Read the words:

STROKENGINELECTRICSPARKPLUGASOLINEXHAUSTGASES

GRAMMAR

SKILLS

8. Find in the text the sentence with "EITHER... OR", translate it into Russian.

9. Translate into English: либо два, либо четыре; либо бензиновый, либо дизельный; либо впускной, либо выпускной; либо открывает, либо закрывает.

PROJECT

Write about your new car to a friend of yours. Tell him which car model you have bought, what type of engine it has.

FOR YOUR

INFORMATION Read with a dictionary and translate it into Russian:

THE EXHAUST AND SILENCER

The exhaust gases leave the engine at high pressure, and would produce intolerable noise if allowed to escape directly. The exhaust manifold therefore conducts the gases to the silencer, where they pass through a series of holes in metal plates or tubes. This reduces the pressure of the gases so that they leave the silencer quietly.

EXHAUST SILENCER BAFFLE EXHAUST

MANIFOLD PLATES PIPE

BEFORE

YOU READ

1. What can be engaged or disengaged? Choose the answer:

A - VALVE B - CLUTCH

C - CRANKSHAFT

EXPANDING

VOCABULARY

1. Clutch cover - крышка картера

2. Flywheel - маховик

3. Gearbox - коробка передач

manual ~ - механическая коробка передач

4. Jerking - удар (в момент соединения валов)

5. Lever - рычаг

6. Pressure plate - нажимной диск

7. Thrust pad - фланец

READING

3. Look through the text and find the English equivalents for:

Педаль сцепления, вал трансмиссии, диск сцепления (= ведомый диск), пружины, фрикционные накладки, предотвращает удар, вилка сцепления, упорный подшипник.

4. Read the text and find the sentences which describe:

a) the function of the clutch;

b) the function of friction linings.

THE CLUTCH In a car, the clutch makes use of friction to transmit the rotation of the engine crankshaft to the gearbox, and then to the wheels. It can take up the rotation slowly so that the car moves smoothly away. In a car with a manual gearbox, the clutch is disengaged when the clutch pedal is pressed down. The pedal operates the thrust pad, which presses on levers at the center of the rotating clutch cover. This raises the pressure plate away from the clutch plate, disconnecting the flywheel, which is turned by the crankshaft, from the transmission shaft. When the clutch pedal is lifted, the springs force the pressure plate and clutch plate against the flywheel. Friction linings on the clutch plate allow the plate to slide before it becomes fully engaged, which prevents jerking.

PRESSURE PLATE SPRING CLUTCH COVER GEAR LEVER

CLUTCH THRUST THRUST CLUTCH

FLYWHEEL PLATE PAD BEARING FORK

Pressing the pedal pushes in the thrust pad, which in turn pulls back the pressure plate. The flywheel and transmission shaft are now disconnected, so the engine cannot turn the wheels. THE CLUTCH IS DISENGAGED.

5. Read the text, look at the picture and put the following in the correct order:

THRUST PAD > PRESSURE PLATE > LEVERS > CLUTCH PEDAL > CLUTCH COVER

BUILDING VOCABULARY

SKILLS 6. Decide if the following words are synonyms (S) or antonyms (A):

1. disengaged engaged S A

2. releasing pressing S A

3. press down lift S A

4. operate drive S A

5. raise lift S A

7. Choose the proper word and complete the sentences:

1. transmit, transmission

a) The flywheel drives the ...... shaft.

b) The clutch makes use of friction to ...... the rotation of the engine crankshaft to the wheels via the gearbox.

2. engaged, disengaged

a) Friction linings prevent jerking before the plate is fully ...... .

b) The clutch is ...... when the pedal is pressed down.

3. rotating, rotation

a) The clutch pedal operates levers at the centre of the ...... cover.

b) If the ...... passed to the gearbox slow, the car moves smoothly away.

4. pressing, pressure

a) The thrust pad is operated by ...... the pedal.

b) The springs force the ...... plate and clutch plate against the flywheel.

8. Put in the proper prepositions and choose the best Russian equivalent:

TAKE _____ PRESS _____

RAISE _____ FORCE _____

MOVE _____

Поднимать - забирать - передавать

Нажимать - давить - сжимать

Освобождать - поднимать - снимать

Бороться - прижимать - выталкивать

Двигаться - уезжать - переезжать

JUST FOR FUN

9. Do the puzzle:

PROJECT

Find out which types of the clutch exist. Which of them are widely used?

FOR YOUR

INFORMATION Read the text with the dictionary and translate it into Russian.

CAR SEAT BELT

A car seat belt works in the reverse way to the window shade. Instead of locking when the belt is pulled gently, it locks when the belt is given a sharp tug of the kind that would occur in a crash, and so secures the driver or passenger. The belt remained unlocked when pulled slowly, allowing normal movement in the seat. At the heart of the seat belt is a centrifugal clutch.

During normal use, the toothed plate is not in contact with the clutch and so the plate, and therefore the belt shaft, is free to rotate slowly.

A sudden movement makes the toothed plate rotate quickly within the clutch. Centrifugal force makes it slide outward to engage the inner teeth of the clutch.

Once the clutch has engaged, it rotates to move a pawl which in turn engages the ratchet. The pawl is fixed to the car body, while the ratchet is attached to the belt shaft. The pawl prevents the ratchet turning, so locking the belt. When the belt slackens, springs return the parts to their initial position and free the belt.

BEFORE

YOU READ

1. Read the dictionary entry. Using the picture after the text say which meanings of the word GEAR are used in the text.

GEA gear 1. шестерня, зубчатое колесо; зубчатая передача || сцепляться; входить в зацепление 2. привод || приводить в движение (механизм) 3. механизм; приспособление, устройство # in -находящийся в зацеплении; сцепленный; -s in mesh шестерни в зацепле нии; to change the -s переключать пе-редачу; to - down включать понижающую передачу; замедлять движение

2. Answer the questions: what differs one type of gear from another one? What do all gears have in common?

EXPANDING

VOCABULARY

1.

Bevel gears - коническая передача (= pinion and crown wheel; pinion and ring wheel)

2. Direction - направление Motion - движение

3. Force - сила

4. Plane - плоскость

5. Rack and pinion gears - реечная передача

6. Speed - скорость

7. Spur gears - передача цилиндрическими прямозубыми шестернями

8. Teeth - зубья, зубцы

9. Worm gears - червячная передача

READING

3. Read the text and mark the sentences that have answers to the questions from exercise 2.

GEARS Gears come in a variety of sizes with their teeth straight or curved and inclined at a variety of angles. They are connected together in various ways to transmit motion and force in machines. However, there are only four basic types of gears. They all act so that one gearwheel turns faster or slower than the other, or moves in a different direction. A difference in speed between two gears produces a change in the force transmitted.

b)

SPUR GEARS ( a). Two gear wheels intermesh in the same plane, regulating the speed or force of motion and reversing its direction.

RACK AND PINION GEARS ( b). One wheel, the pinion, meshes with a sliding toothed rack, converting rotary motion to reciprocating - to-and-fro - motion and vice versa.

WORM GEARS (c). A shaft with a screw thread meshes with a toothed wheel to alter the direction of motion, and change the speed and force.

BEVEL GEARS (d). Two wheels intermesh at an angle to change the direction of rotation, also altering speed and force if necessary. These are sometimes known as a pinion and crown wheel, or pinion and ring gear.

4. Fill in the table with the information about gears from the text:

Spur gears Two gear wheels Regulate speed and force of motion; reverse the direction of motion Two wheels at an angle

Alter the speed, force and direction of motion

BUILDING

VOCABULARY SKILLS

5. Decide if the following words are synonyms (S) or antonyms (A):

1. change alter S A

2. crown wheel ring wheel S A

3. faster slower S A

4. gear wheel toothed wheel S A

5. gear pinion S A

6. Choose the proper word and complete the sentences:

1. variety, various

a. The machine has ...... functions.

b. This exhibition astonishes with (удивляет) a ...... of automobiles.

2. motion, move a. To-and-fro ...... is also known as reciprocating one.

b. One gear wheel must ...... faster than the other.

3. different, difference

a. There are ...... types of gears.

b. The ...... in design between Volvo and BMW is evident (очевидна).

4. rotary, rotation

a. When anything goes round a central point we may speak about ...... motion.

b. We cannot feel the ...... of the earth.

7. Give definitions or synonyms to the following words. Try not to use a dictionary.

1. SPUR GEARS________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. BEVEL GEARS________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. PINION_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. ROTARY MOTION______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. RECIPROCATING MOTION______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. ALTER________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

JUST

FOR FUN

8. Find English equivalents for: сила, рейка, червячная передача, зубчатое колесо, зубья, передавать, направление, движение, плоскость. You can move up or down horizontally, vertically and diagonally.

O F C E E S N K G F R O P E D F Q O L F I E O T T H O K I N D K C A R R R E D T X L W G E L T A V W O R M G E A R S A N O M R Y W V N Y F U P S F C P L A N E O T O O M O A C E T L B C I C N I R H T E E T H S O N S T C R O D D E M G Q F I R E Y D I R E C T I O N P

GRAMMAR

SKILLS 9. Choose the correct translation:

1. They are connected together...

a) Они соединяются...

b) Они соединяют...

c) Они связывают вместе...

2. ...the direction of rotation...

a) ...направление, вращение...

b) ...направление вращения...

c) ...направлять вращение...

3. ...converting rotary motion to reciprocating motion...

a) ...преобразовав вращательное движение в возвратно-поступательное...

b) ...преобразуя вращательное движение в возвратно-поступательное...

c) ...преобразовать вращательное движение в возвратно-поступательное...

PROJECT

Think of a mechanism (a device or a machine) where one or several types of gears would be used. Make a picture of your invention. Label the type/s of the gear in the picture and describe its/ their operating principle.

FOR YOUR

INFORMATION Read the text with a dictionary. Translate it into Russian.

SPEEDOMETER

A car's speedometer uses worm gears to produce an enormous reduction in speed. The final drum of numbers in the distance counter turns just once every hundred thousand miles or kilometers, while the transmission shaft that drives it turns several hundred million times.

The speedometer is driven by a flexible cable. This contains a rotating wire connected to a small drive wheel which is rotated by a large worm on a shaft that drives the wheels. Inside the speedometer, the wire drives the speed indicator through electromagnetic induction. Its speed is further reduced by another worm gear to turn the distance counter, which itself contains reducing gears so that each numeral drum rotates at a tenth the speed of its neighbor.

Cable connection

The speedometer cable is attached

to the gearbox output shaft,

transmission shaft or differential,

all of which rotate at a speed

that depends on the road speed.

BEFORE

YOU READ 1. What do you think the gearbox is? Do you agree that the gearbox is connected to the clutch?

EXPANDING VOCABULARY

1.

Constant-mesh wheels - шестерни постоянного зацепления

2. Gear - передача

first ~ - первая передача

reverse ~ - задний ход

top ~ - высшая передача

3. Gear ( shift) lever - рычаг переключения передач

4. Idler wheel - промежуточная шестерня

5. Layshaft - промежуточный вал

6. Ratio - отношение

7. Selector fork - вилка механизма переключения передач

8. Selector rod - стержень вилки переключения передач (ползун)

READING

2. Read the text and find the sentences which describe:

a) functions of the gearbox;

b) the connection between the gearbox and the clutch.

THE GEARBOX

All gasoline engines work best if they run at a high but limited rate of revolutions. The job of the gearbox is to keep the engine running at its most efficient rate while allowing the car to travel at a large range of speed.

The crankshaft always turns faster than the wheels - from about twelve times as fast in first gear to about four times as fast in top gear. The differential reduces engine speed by four times. The rest of the reduction takes place in the gearbox.

The gearbox lies between the clutch and the differential. The gears can only be changed when the clutch has disengaged the engine. Operating the gear lever of a manual gearbox brings a different train of spur gears into play for each gear, except fourth gear. In fourth gear, no gear wheels are engaged and transmission goes directly through the gearbox from the clutch to the differential.

The different ratios of teeth on the gears involved produce different speeds. Selecting reverse gear simply introduces an extra gear wheel which reverses the rotation of the transmission shaft.

d e f g h

c

i

b a k j

The picture above shows first gear being selected, in which the transmission shaft goes from the clutch shaft via the layshaft and first gear wheels to the transmission shaft.

The GEAR LEVER (h) shifts the SELECTOR RODS(g), which move the SELECTOR FORKS (f) that engage the gear wheels.

In neutral, the UPPER GEAR WHEELS(c) spin freely on the TRANSMISSION SHAFT (j). Selecting first, second or third gear locks an upper wheel to the shaft.

Selecting fourth gear locks the transmission shaft directly to the CLUTCH SHAFT (d). This is called the direct transmission.

The LOWER GEAR WHEELS (b) are turned by the LAYSHAFT (k) and drive the upper wheels.

The pair of CONSTANT-MESH WHEELS (a) makes the clutch shaft drive the layshaft.

The IDLER WHEEL (i) engages the reverse gear wheels, making the transmission shaft turn in the opposite direction.

SELECTING A GEAR. Moving the gear lever tilts it so that it pushes or pulls one of the three selector rods. Except in reverse gear, the selector fork then shifts a COLLAR (e) that makes the dog teeth lock the required gear wheel to the transmission shaft. The speed of the rotating parts are matched by the synchromesh. In reverse gear, the fork engages the idler wheel.

3. Look through the text and say:

a) which type (manual or automatic) of the gearbox is described;

b) which type of the gearbox (in terms of speed number) is pictured.

BUILDING

VOCABULARY

SKILLS 4. Look at the pictures after the text, highlight all the types of the wheels mentioned and add them to the diagram below:

5. Match the two parts of the phrases and translate them into Russian:

A. The gearbox

B. The reduction

C. The gear lever

D. Transmission E. Constant-mesh wheels

a. brings a number of gears into play for each gear.

b. keeps the engine running at its most efficient rate.

c. goes directly through the gearbox.

d. takes place in the gearbox.

e. make the clutch shaft drive the layshaft.

6. Give definitions or synonyms to the following words. Try not to use a dictionary.

1. GEAR LEVER________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. RATIO________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. IDLER WHEEL_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. GEARBOX_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. RATE_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

JUST

FOR FUN 7. Correct the wrong labels:

1 - GEAR-LEVER; 2 - LOWER WHEELS; 3 - IDLER WHEEL; 4 - LAYSHAFT; 5 -TRANSMISSION SHAFT; 6 - SELECTOR ROD; 7 - CLUTCH SHAFT; 8 - COLAR; 9 - UPPER WHEELS; 10 - SELECTOR FORK

1 2 3 4 5

6 7

10 9 8

GRAMMAR

SKILLS 8. Choose the proper translation:

1. ... reduces speed by four times...

a) снижает скорость за четыре часа;

b) в четыре раза снижает скорость;

c) четыре раза снижает скорость;

2. ... while allowing the car travel...

a) позволяя в то время машине ехать;

b) в то время как машине позволено ехать;

c) при этом позволяя автомобилю ехать;

3. ... no gear wheels are engaged.

a) нет шестерен, участвующих в;

b) нет задействованных шестерен;

c) не участвует ни одна из шестерен.

PROJECT

Describe the movements the gear lever of a 5-speed manual gearbox makes in order to select each of the gears.

Find out if the gearbox moves the same way in every automobile with a manual gearbox.

FOR YOUR

INFORMATION

Read the text with a dictionary. Translate it into Russian.

SYNCHROMESH

The synchromesh is a mechanism in a car's gearbox that enables the driver to change gears easily. It prevents gear wheels inside the gearbox from engaging at different speeds and crunching together. Before any forward gear is selected, gear wheels driven by the engine freewheel on the transmission shaft. For a gear to be engaged, the wheel and shaft need to be brought to the same speed and locked together. The synchromesh uses friction to do this smoothly and quietly.

Pushed by the selector fork, the collar slides along the transmission shaft, rotating with it. The collar fits over a cone on the gear wheel, making the wheel speed up or slow down until both are moving at the same speed. The outer toothed ring on the collar then engages the dog teeth on the cone, locking the collar to the gear wheel.

BEFORE

YOU READ 1. Imagine the automobile moving in a circle. Do the inner and outer wheels pass the same distance? What can you say about the speed of the outer and inner wheels?

EXPANDING VOCABULARY

1.

Drive - привод

four-wheel ~ - привод на четыре колеса

front-wheel ~ - привод на передние колеса

rear-wheel ~ - привод на задние колеса

2. Driving wheel - ведущее колесо

3. Free-wheeling - механизм свободного хода

4. Half-shaft - полуось

5. Planet pinion - сателлит

6. Sun gear - солнечная [центральная] шестерня

7. Transmission shaft - вал главной передачи

READING

2. Read the text and find the sentences which:

a) describe fig. 1; b) tell where the differential is situated.

THE DIFFERENTIAL

When a car goes around a corner, the outer driving wheel must be turned at a greater speed than the inner one. This is achieved through the differential. It lies midway between the two driving wheels, linked to each wheel by a half-shaft turned through a bevel gear.

The half-shafts have sun gears connected by free-wheeling planet pinions. When traveling straight, the planet pinions do not spin, driving the sun gears and half-shafts at different speeds.

CROWN WHEEL SUN GEAR

HALF-SHAFT

DRIVE PLANET

PINION PINION

TRANSMISSION SHAFT

Fig. 1 In a rear-wheel drive car, the transmission shaft from the gearbox urns the differential through a crown wheel and pinion. The teeth on the crown wheel and the drive pinion are helical, or curved.

This allows the transmission shaft to rise up and down slightly if the road surface is uneven.

In a front-wheel drive car, the gearbox may drive the differential directly through a pair of spur gears.

Four-wheel drive cars have two differentials, one of each pair of wheels.

Fig. 2

3. Label the pictures and their descriptions correctly:

TRAVELLING STRAIGHT; TURNING A CORNER

________________________

The planet pinions both circle around within the differential and spin. The half-shafts rotate at different speeds.

________________________

The planet pinions circle around within the differential without spinning. They drive both the half-shafts at the same speed.

BUILDING

VOCABULARY SKILLS

4. Find the odd word out in each line:

a) go around the corner; corner; turn; move

b) linked; connected; separated; combined

c) midway; halfway; at the end; in the middle of

d) machine; car; automobile; vehicle

e) same; different; various; unlike

f) travel; achieve; go; move

5. Complete with the right words. Write down the Russian equivalents of these words on the lines after the text:

In a front-wheel d -- -- -- -- car, the g -- -- -- -- -- -- may drive the differential directly through a pair of s -- -- -- gears.

In a rear-w -- -- -- -- drive car, the transmission s -- -- -- -- from the gearbox turns the

d -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- through a crown wheel and p -- -- -- -- --.

_____________ _____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

6. Give definitions or synonyms to the following words. Try not to use a dictionary.

1. PLANET PINION_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. DIFFERENTIAL________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. TO CORNER______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. TRANSMISSION SHAFT________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

JUST

FOR FUN 7. Give English equivalents of the following words. Then in the dark squares you will read the word which denotes a restaurant, cinema, etc at which persons get service while in their car.

1.Скорость

2. Червячная передача

3. Дифференциал

4. Ведущее колесо

5. Коробка передач

6. Движение

7. Зубчатое колесо

PROJECT

Suppose that you have a problem with your car, and you think something is wrong with the differential. Send an e-mail to a mechanic; inform which car model you have and how many differentials there are in your car.

FOR YOUR

INFORMATION

Read with a dictionary and translate into Russian:

CAR TIRE

Car tires use friction to provide traction and steering: they grip the road so that the force of the engine is converted into forces that propel and turn the car. Tires must grip the road surface in all conditions, including wet weather.

If a film of water becomes sandwiched between the tire and the road, then friction - and with it traction and steering - is lost.

The raised tread on the surface of a tire is designed to maintain friction on a wet road by dispersing the water.

BEFORE

YOU READ 1. Would you like your car move smoothly or bounce up & down? Why is it necessary to reduce automobile bouncing up and down?

EXPANDING

VOCABULARY

1.

Anti-roll bar - стержень стабилизатора поперечных колебаний кузова

2. Coil spring - пружина

3. Leaf spring - рессора

4. Piston - поршень

5. Shock absorber - амортизатор

6. Strut - стойка

7. Swivel joint - поворотное соединение

8. Swivel member - поворотный кулак

9. Torsion bar - торсион

10. Wheel axles - полуоси

READING

2. Read the text and fill in the table:

COIL SPRING LEAF SPRING TYPE OF THE CAR WHERE THE SPRING IS USED WHERE THE SPRING IS FIXED

THE CAR SUSPENSION

The suspension of a car allows it to drive smoothly over a bumpy road. The wheels may jolt up and down, but springs between the wheel axles and the body of the car flex and take up the force of the jolts. This ensures that the force of the bumping is not transferred to the car. Springs alone produce a bouncing motion, so the suspension also contains dampers, commonly known as shock absorbers. These slow the movement of the springs to prevent the car and its occupants bouncing up and down.

A shock absorber is fixed between the wheel axle and car body. Its piston moves up or down as the suspension spring flexes. As it does so, the oil is squeezed through channels in the piston, slowing the piston's movement.

BODY SHOCK UPPER WISHBONE

MOUNTING ABSORBER

SWIVEL JOINT SWIVEL MEMBER

Fig. 1 COIL LOWER WHEEL

SPRING WISHBONE AXLE

COIL SPRING (fig. 1). Smaller vehicles have a coil spring and shock absorber attached to each wheel. The axle of the wheel is attached to hinged struts so that it can move up and down. The spring and shock absorber are fixed between the car body and the struts, or "wishbones".

LEAF SPRING (fig. 2). Larger vehicles have heavy-duty leaf springs and shock absorbers to cushion the ride. The leaf spring is a stack of steel strips slightly curved so that the spring straightens when the vehicle is loaded. The axle is attached at or near the centre of the leaf spring, and the ends of the spring are fixed to the body. The shock absorber is fixed between the axle and body.

BODY

MOUNTING

LEAF SPRING

WHEEL AXLE

Fig. 2

TORSION BAR (fig. 3). A torsion bar is a steel rod that acts like a spring to take up a twisting force. If the bar is forced to twist in one direction, it resists the movement and then twists back when the force is removed.

Many cars contain an anti-roll bar fixed between the front axles. This rotates as the wheels go up and down. If the car begins to roll over on a tight corner, the anti-roll bar prevents the roll from increasing.

Fig. 3

UNTWISTING FORCE TWISTING FORCE

BUILDING VOCABULARY

SKILLS 3. Decide if the following words are synonyms (S) or antonyms (A):

1) Shock absorber

2) Vehicle 3) Curved

4) Jolt 5) Strut

6) Attached 7) Cushion

8) Smaller

Damper Car Straitened

Bounce Wishbone

Fixed Increase Larger

S A

S A S A S A

S A S A S A

S A 4. Look through the text and write out all the synonyms to the word MOVEMENT.

5. Match the words from A and B:

A To drive A twisting

A bumpy Steel The car

A bouncing B strips

road

body smoothly motion

force 6. Complete the sentences with the phrases from exercise 5:

a) The suspension allows the car ............... .

b) Dampers of the car absorb ............... of springs.

c) ............... are usually fixed in larger vehicles.

d) Both coil springs and leaf springs are attached to ............... .

e) A torsion bar is a steal rod that takes up ............... .

f) On ............... car occupants bounce up and down.

JUST FOR

FUN 7. Assemble the words in the left box. Then find their Russian equivalents in the right box:

SP PIS TS RING

INT ABSOR BER

SUS OCK ST

SION JO

TON BAR RU

PEN

SION TOR SH

ПРУЖИНА

АМОРТИЗАТОР

ПОЛУОСЬ

ПОРШЕНЬ ТОРСИОН

ШАРНИР СТОЙКИ

ПОДВЕСКА

GRAMMAR

SKILLS 8. In the text find the sentences with IF. Translate them into Russian.

9. Change the sentences into the sentences with IF (meaning should stay the same):

a) The wheels may jolt up and down, but springs take up the force of the jolts.

b) The piston moves up or down as the suspension spring flexes.

c) The leaf spring straightens when the vehicle is loaded.

d) The anti-roll bar rotates as the wheels of the car go up or down.

PROJECT

If you have your own car, describe its suspension. If you don't, describe the suspension of any car model you like.

FOR YOUR

INFORMATION Read the text with a dictionary. Translate it into Russian.

BREATH TESTER

Several sensors are designed to detect the presence of specific substances. A breath tester detects and measures the concentration of alcohol in the breath, which is an accurate indication of the amount of alcohol in the blood. Breath testers use either a fuel cell or infra-red rays, which are absorbed by alcohol vapor. Testing drivers with a breath tester enables police to check alcohol levels in a matter of seconds.

Preparing the tester for work one should press the SET button to lower the diaphragm and empty the fuel cell of air. The fuel cell contains two platinum electrodes connected to a microchip.

When the driver blows into a tube two lights come on. The lights are linked to a pressure sensor and timer to provide the correct breath sample. The READ button is then pressed, which raises the diaphragm to admit the sample to the fuel cell. Alcohol in the air causes the fuel cell to produce a current.

The microchip measures the voltage of the cell and converts it into a signal that goes to the display. This shows the alcohol level.

BEFORE

YOU READ 1. Have you ever driven the automobile with the automatic transmission? Why does the automatic transmission make driving easy?

EXPANDING

VOCABULARY

1. Break band - тормозная лента

2. Gear change mechanism - механизм переключения передач

3. Governor - регулятор

4. Oil pump - насос гидросистемы

5. Shift-valve - клапан-переключатель

6. Throttle - дроссель

READING

2. Read the text and find the sentences which explain:

a) why it is easy to drive the car with the automatic transmission;

b) what the automatic transmission responds to.

THE AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

Automatic transmission makes driving easy because there is no gear lever and clutch pedal to operate. The mechanism responds to the speed of the car, and automatically changes to a higher or lower gear as the car's speed rises and falls. It can also sense the position of the accelerator pedal.

The control system works by oil pressure. Each gear change is controlled by a shift valve. A governor linked to the wheels and a throttle valve operated by the pedal supply oil at different pressures to the shift valve. The valve moves accordingly and routs oil to the gear change mechanisms in the transmission.

GOVERNOR LOW-GEAR PISTON HIGH-GEAR PISTON

THROTTLE VALVE OIL PUMP SHIFT VALVE

GOVERNOR. The drive shaft that turns the wheels also turns the governor. As the car accelerates, the governor rotates faster. Centrifugal force moves the valves outward sending oil from the pump to the shift valve. Reducing speed makes the valves move inward sending oil in the opposite direction.

PISTON. The low-gear piston and the high-gear piston operate the clutches or brake bands that change gear. Oil at pump pressure from the shift valve moves one of the two pistons out to engage a new gear. A spring returns the other piston, sending oil back to the pump at low pressure and disengaging its gear.

OIL PUMP. The pump circulates oil throughout the transmission and also the engine.

SHIFT VALVE. One end of each shift valve receives oil from the governor and the other end from the throttle valve. When governor pressure is greater, the shift valve moves to send oil from the oil pump to the high-gear piston. Oil flows away from the low-gear piston to return to the pump.

THROTTLE VALVE. The accelerator pedal moves the piston increasing oil pressure in the valve. A spring returns the pedal, decreasing the oil pressure.

CHANGING DOWN: as the governor rotates more slowly or the accelerator pedal is pressed, the throttle valve pressure exceeds the governor pressure; the shift valve moves back, and the low-gear piston engages low gear while the high-gear piston disengages high gear.

3. Read the text and complete the table:

OIL PUMP

OPERATES A THROTTLE VALVE

AT DIFFERENCE PRESSURE

SUPPLIES OIL TO THE SHIFT VALVE SHIFT VALVE

THROTTLE VALVE PISTONS

BUILDING

VOCABULARY SKILLS

4. Look through the text again and find the antonyms of the following words:

OUTWARD, INCREASING, SEND, FLOW AWAY, ENGAGE.

5. Complete the sentences with the words from exercise 4:

a) The piston moves in or out to .......... and .......... the gear.

b) Oil .......... from the low-gear piston to .......... to the pump.

c) The valves move .......... and .......... to send oil from the valve to the pump or in the opposite direction.

d) Each shift valve .......... oil which the governor .......... by its pressure.

e) The accelerator pedal moves, .......... and .......... oil pressure.

6. Complete with the right words:

A-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- t-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- makes driving easy because there is no -- -- -- -- lever and -- --u-- -- p-- -- -- -- to operate. The system works by -- -- -- pressure. Oil passes to the s-- -- -- -- v-- -- -- -- at a pressure that depends on the speed of the -- -- --. As the car accelerates, the -- --v-- -- -- -- -- rotates faster. The valves move o-- -- -- -- -- -- rotating oil from the -- -- --p to the s-- -- -- v-- -- -- --. As the g-- -- -- -- -- -- -- rotates more slowly the

t-- -- -- -- -- -- -- v-- -- -- -- pressure increases, and the p-- -- -- -- --s move in or out to

e-- -- -- -- -- or d-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- low/ high g-- -- --.

JUST

FOR FUN

7. Mark T (true) if the term is correct and F (false) if the term is wrong:

Throttle piston

Throttle valve

Drive shaft Oil pump

Shift pump Middle-gear piston

Accelerator pedal

Wheels pedal

Gear lever

GRAMMAR SKILLS

8. In the text find the examples to fill in the table below:

MOVE + noun + prep. + adv.

9. Choose the proper Russian equivalent.

a) greater: больше - более великий - громаднее;

b) faster: скорее - раньше - быстрее;

c) higher: более высокая - бoльшая - сильнее;

d) lower: более низкая - меньшая - слабее.

10. Write the comparative forms of the following adjectives:

Small Big Heavy

Bulky

Wide Short PROJECT

Compare an automatic transmission and mechanical. Name advantages and disadvantages of the both.

FOR YOUR INFORMATION

Read the text with a dictionary. Translate it into Russian.

CRUISE CONTROL

Many cars are fitted with cruise control, which at the press of a button automatically maintains a set speed. In this way, the driver can cruise at a speed limit or economic speed without continually checking the speedometer. The automatic system required is an example of a feedback mechanism. A sensor measures the car's speed and controls the carburetor. It boosts fuel flow if speed begins to drop on climbing a slope, or feeds less fuel to the engine if the car begins to speed up.

The sensor may be an electromagnet on the drive shaft, which produces an electric signal related to the speed. A motor operates the carburetor. The controlling operation is best carried out by a microprocessor - the "brain" of a computer. The microprocessor continually checks the sensor signal and sends a control signal to the motor.

The advantage of a microprocessor is that it can do more than simply control speed. As it "knows" the speed and fuel flow, it can also calculate and display speed, distance and fuel consumption, and control the engine to improve consumption. MICROPROCESSOR

ENGINE SPEED SIGNAL

LIST OF SOURCES

1. Зеленин С. Ф., Молоков В. А. Учебник по устройству автомобиля. - М.: Изд-во Русь Автокнига, 2002.

2. Полезные страницы. За рулем/ Выпуск 9. - М., СПб, 2001.

3. Большой англо-русский автомобильный словарь. Составление В. Р. Лесова. - СПб: "М. Г. В.", 2003.

4. David Macaulay. The way things work/ Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1988.

CONTENTS

PAGE UNIT 1THE GASOLINE ENGINE................................................... 3

UNIT 2 THE CLUTCH.................................................................. 8

UNIT 3 GEARS.......................................................................... 13

UNIT 4 THE GEARBOX............................................................... 20

UNIT 5 THE DIFFERENTIAL ....................................................... 27

UNIT 6 THE CAR SUSPENSION.................................................... 33

UNIT 7 THE AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION.................................... 39

1

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7 Мб, 24 сентября 2014 в 19:48 - Россия, Москва, ИМЭ, 2014 г., doc
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