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English CAE, Pearson Education Limited

Edinburgh Gate Harlow

Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world www.longman-elt.com

(c) Richard Walton 1994, 1999

The right of Richard Walton to be identified as author of this Work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

First published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd 1994

This edition published by Pearson Education Ltd, 1999

Fourth impression 2000

ISBN 0 582 32571 4

Set in 11/13.5 Minion

Printed in Spain by Graficas Estella

Author's acknowledgement

Many thanks to Sue O'Connell for keeping the book 'focused' and staying positive: and to Roberta for putting up with it all.

I would also like to thank the students and staff of St Clare's, Oxford for their help in piloting the material and for their support.

The publishers are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material:

Philip Allan Publishers Ltd for an adapted extract from 'Special Agents' by Andrew Jones in SOCIOLOGY REVIEW vol. 7 No l, September 1977 and an extract from 'Thinking about family life' by David Morgan in SOCIOLOGY REVIEW vol. 7 No 4, 1998; British Airways for an extract from an article by David Hewson in BRITISH AIRWAYS BUSINESS LIFE July/August 1998; BBC WILDLIFE MAGAZINE on behalf of the authors, for extracts from 'Mystery of the dying frogs by Tim Halliday & 'Small is beautiful' by Jonathan Porritt in BBC WILDLIFE MAGAZINE October 1997 p29 & pp21-22; Brockman Inc. on behalf of the author, for an extract from THE RISE AND FALL OF THE THIRD CHIMPANZEE by Jared Diamond; Guardian Newspapers Ltd for a slightly adapted extract from 'Office Politics' by Guy Browning in THE GUARDIAN WEEKEND 6.6.98; Guild of Master Craftsman Publications Ltd for and advertisement for a desk editor in THE INDEPENDENT 13.10.93; Penguin Books Ltd for an adapted extract from

BETTER READER, FASTER READER by Manya and Eric De Leeuw (Pelican Original) Copyright (c) Manya and Eric De Leeuw, 1965.

We have been unable to trace the copyright holder of the letter 'Pick Strawberry Fields for the heritage beat' from Mr Gerald Murphy to THE INDEPENDENT and would appreciate any information which would enable us to do so.

Illustrations by Nigel Paige, Anne Burchell Designed by Annette Peppis

Project Managed by Dave Francis

Contents I Use Your Head 4

Dictionary skills - Abbreviations; parts of speech; tenses; dependent prepositions Grammar - Conditionals 0, l , 2; despite/in spite of; although/but

Phrasal verbs - Word order

Phrasal verbs - Can you split it up?

Prefixes - under and over

Writing - Informal letter

Word formation

Wordcheck Collocations

Error correction

2 Severe Weather

Vocabulary Collocations; Idioms and

metaphors Contrast links

Collocations Prepositions

Writing Formal letter

Spelling - That can't be right!

Grammar Review of passives and causative have/get something done; passives for formal effect

Dependent prepositions

Wordcheck - Weather

3 Time Eaters 16

Vocabulary - Register and style

no matter . . . Grammar - will vs going to; future time clauses; guess the ending; present tenses, modal verbs 4 Stress 20

Cause and effect

Grammar - -ing forms; prepositions and conjunctions + -ing, -ing or infinitive?; -ing nouns; -ing adjectives Word building - Verb formation

Dependent prepositions

Collocations Wordcheck - Stress and relaxation

Progress Test One 25

5 Globe Trotting 29

Cohesive devices

Grammar - Past simple vs past continuous; past perfect simple and continuous Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs with up; in other words; three-word phrasal verbs

Reference links Word stress Air travel

Writing - Formal letter

Editing for phrasal verbs

Wordcheck - Collocations

6 Language Matters 35

Relative clauses - Relative pronouns; different endings; reduced relative clauses; fill in the gaps like, as and alike Comparison - Comparatives and superlatives, as ... as, complete the sentences Degrees of comparison Linking and logical devices - addition, concession, contrast Spelling

Emphasisers

Review writing 7 The Ages of Man 41

Grammar used to vs be/get used to .

past simple or present perfect; present perfect simple and continuous; stative vs dynamic verbs

Dictionary skills - Connotation; parts of speech; metaphors and idioms; collocation; word formation (derivations); register; pronunciation and stress

Reported speech

Expressions with make

Discourse cloze Wordcheck - Age

8 Personally Speaking 46

Compound adjectives of character

The . . . the . . . comparatives

Phrasal verbs Grammar - The passive; fill in the gaps; make/cause, etc. Writing - Informal letter

Wordcheck - Character and personality

Lexical cloze

Progress Test Two 50

9 Mind Your Manners 55

Inversion after negative introductions

Modal verbs

Collocations - verb + noun; verb + adverb; adjective + noun

Dictionary skills Opposites - prefixes; synonyms and antonyms; phonetics; spelling vs pronunciation; pronunciation

Type 3 and mixed conditionals

Writing - Report writing Register cloze

10 State of the Union 61

Grammar - Review of -ing fOrms and infinitives; cleft sentences and introductory it Collocations with do/make/have/get

Phrasal verbs Dependent prepositions

Writing - Information sheet

Structural cloze

Word formation Wordcheck - Relationships

I I Last Chance to See

Relative clauses - Punctuation; relative clauses with prepositions

Phrasal verbs Tense and structure; different meanings Expressing the future

Quantifiers - each/every, either/neither Linking and logical devices cause and result, purpose and time

Discourse cloze Writing - Formal letter

Wordcheck - The environment

Progress Test Three 71

12 Living Dangerously 75

Collocations and idioms

Emphatic structures

Phrasal verbs - Tense and structure; different meanings

Past tenses Conditionals - Conditional 3; 1st, 2nd, 3rd and mixed conditionals Dependent prepositions

Writing - Article

Structural cloze

Wordcheck - Fire

13 Mind and Body 80

Pronouns object, reflexive and reciprocal

Past tenses for hypothetical situations

Vocabulary - Word building; adjectives

Phrasal verhs Dictionary skills - Collocations; metaphors and idioms

Expressions of concession

Writing - Character reference

Word formation 14 Testing Times 86

Review of grammatical and syntactical structures - Tense forms and time; conditionals; structures after verbs; modals/modal perfects; passives; linkers; participle clauses; emphatic structures -ing forms - -ing or infinitive?; -ing fOrms, infinitive with or without to Tenses

Review of tenses

Writing - Report

Wordcheck - Studying and examinations

Editing skills Progress Test Four 93 Answer Key 98 SB = Student's Book

U se Your Head

I Dictionary skills 1.3 Tenses

Complete the following sentences with the correct form

1.1 Abbreviations of the verbs in brackets. Then fill in the name of the Give two examples for each of the following dictionary tense you have used. See the example.

1 Dan hates doing the washing-up. (hate - present 1 PREP with, from simple) 2 ADV

3 SING 2 Hi, Laura. Long time no see. How it

abbreviations. The first one has been done for you.

4 CONJ 3 Sorry to keep you. How long ...... ..... ...... you 5 PRON ? (wait - ..... ..... ..... .. ) 6 N [U] or UNCOUNT 4 I sincerely hope they ..... ..... ..... .. the building work by 7 the end of next month. (finish - ..... ..... ..... .. ) 8 ADJ 5 What you . . between 5 and 6pm 9 last Saturday? (do - 10 PASS 6 Good news everybody! We .. to build a new gymnasium with the new government grant. (can - Using a dictionary

you will find a good monotintool. Apart from spelling and tell you:

can recognise phonetic script or /r1t3:n/

is used in As an gual meanings, - part of

- - word - word

- collocations - useful

advanced dictionary an a dictionary speech pronunciation - if stress - /r1 1 formation

phrases the learner, essential can

you t3:n/ word 7 Julia ever ..... ..... ..... .. seriously ill before her trip to India last year? (be - ..... ..... .... ... )

8 Just think, this time next month I here for ten years! (work - .

9 Does anyone want a sandwich? No thanks, I just lunch. (have - ..... ..... ..... .. )

10 Where on earth ................. you .. those shoes? They're awful! (buy -

11 I hope I on a sun-drenched beach in Italy this time tomorrow. (sit -

12 wethrough the forest for two or three hours when we realised we were lost! (walk - I .2 Parts of speech

I .4 Dependent prepositions

Decide the grammatical function of the word fast in each of the sentences below. Use your dictionary to Complete the following sentences by putting the correct check your answers. preposition in the space provided. The first one has been done for you.

1 If you take the fast train, you should be there in

under an hour. 1

2 Many religions require their followers to fast at certain times of the year. 2

3 The car got stuck fast in the wet sand so we just left it there. 3

4 When it started raining, we all ran inside as fast as we could. 4

5 Some prisoners began a fast to protest against the

appalling conditions. 5

6 By the time I got home, the children were already fast asleep.

Moral and social responsibility should be integrated into every child's schooling.

It's impossible to attend a task properly if you're worrying something else.

Kelly has great confidence ..... ..... .... ... her children's abilities.

It's a good idea to make notes ..... .... ..... ... what you're reading if you want to remember it. Unfortunately, many university courses do not

provide students ..... ..... ..... .. the basic study skills they really need.

I 6 Jack took early retirement as he was losing his grip . the job.

7 Apparently, an interest in reading in later life is closely related ..... ..... ..... .. how much your parents read to you as a child.

8 Ron usually primes himself ..... ..... ..... .. plenty of black coffee before starting the night shift. 9 1 find it very hard to commit historical dates

. memory.

10 Lack of sleep can seriously interfere . ... ..... ... .. . .. your ability to think rationally.

2 Grammar 2.1 Conditionals O, I and 2 Focus on Grammar, SB page 14

Complete the following conditional sentences with suitable phrases. Look at the example given.

1 OK, OK, I'll lend you the money as long as you pay me back next week.

2 What would you do if your car ..... ..... ..... ..... .. miles from anywhere?

3 If you woollen clothes in hot water, they shrink.

4 Quite frankly, I think you're going to fail the exam unless .. . . harder.

5 I know he's hardly ever around these days but if you

tell him to get back in touch.

6 But supposing our train is late, how ..... ..... ..... ...... the airport on time?

7 I can't get off to sleep at night unless ...a hot drink.

8 If my boyfriend spoke to me like that, ..... ..... ..... ..... ..

his face. 9 You can borrow my video camera on condition that

..... ..... ..... ..... .. properly.

10 If you drop a cat, it always ..... ..... ..... ..... .. on its feet.

11 I'd apply for that job as an interpreter if

. better Russian. 12 Should . further information, please contact our publicity officer.

13 I'm going to take a big pullover in case ..... ..... ..... ..... .. very cold.

14 I'm sure you those headaches all the time if you wore your glasses more often.

15 Provided no more objections, we'll continue with the next point on the agenda. 16 Suppose ..... on a desert island, how would you survive?

17 I'd go and see the doctor with that rash if

..... ..... ..... ..... .. you.

18 We should be able to play tennis on Friday afternoon unlessof course.

19 Should ..... .... in the neighbourhood, feel free to call in.

20 I'd play a lot more sport if I ..... ..... ..... ..... .. so much work to do.

2.2 despitelin spite of; althoughlbut > Study Box, SB page 1 7

Match the first half of the sentences in Column A with their endings in Column B then add an appropriate linking word or phrase. The first one has been done for you.

I Joan is very hard-working

2 . Lucy lived in Mexico for three years,

3 Joe's parents wanted him to be a doctor

4 . teachers can help students learn,

5 what you might have heard,

6 Sue passed all of her exams

7 . they lived almost opposite the

state school 8 . of drinking six cups of strong, black coffee

9 We made ourselves understood

10 . all the special offers

. not doing any revision at all.

. of not speaking any Greek.

C Jack and Ruth sent their daughter to a private place ten miles away.

D but she's not very imaginative.

E I refused to buy any encyclopaedias.

F she only speaks a few words of Spanish.

G I just couldn't stay awake.

H students must learn for themselves.

1. he wanted to learn to write plays.

J there is no quick and easy way to learn a language.

5 3 Phrasal verbs 4 He doesn't look like his father much but he takes in the way he behaves. 3.1 Word order 5 Their company has gone bankrupt and they only set In some, but not all, of the sentences below the word . two years ago! order of the phrasal verbs and objects is wrong. Make 6 Look, don't keep complaining to me about it. If your any corrections that you think are necessary. See the steak is underdone, send . example given. 7 'Did you believe that story about a long-lost brother?'

'No, not a word of it. I'm sure she was making 1 If there are any words you don't understand, look up them in your dictionaries. 8 'What did little Patrick think of his first visit to the 2 Quick, I haven't got a pen. Can you jot Jack's phone swimming pool?'

'Oh, he took ..... ..... ..... ... . like a duck number down for me?

3 You don't have to give me an answer right away.

to water!' Think over it and let me know tomorrow. 9 You don't have to give me an answer right now. 4 'Are you going to the party next Friday?' Think ..... ..... ..... ..... .. ..... ..... ..... ... . for a while. 'Yes, I'm really looking forward to it.' 10 The form was so complicated that she had to ask her 5 Could you look this article through and tell me what accountant to fill .... for her. you think of it? I l I've been given this algebra problem to solve before 6 'I don't think we'll be able to play the match in all this rain.' tomorrow morning and I just can't work

'No, let's put off it until tomorrow.' 12 His wife left him for another man and he's never 7 'Mrs McCarthy, I've got your husband on the line.' 13 really got .

I still understand this word and 'OK. Put him through.' don't I've just 8 It was such a good book I just couldn't put down it. looked ..... ... in the dictionary! 9 Harry's family always believed in his innocence and 14 As they didn't have anywhere to stay, we put stood by him throughout the murder trial. for the night. 10 'I see you're still smoking, Chris.' 15 Nina fainted in the heat and we had to bring 'Yes, but I'm really trying to give up it.' .. with smelling salts. 3.2 Can you split it up? Focus on Grammar, SB page 1 9

In the following sentences add a particle to complete the phrasal verb and an appropriate object pronoun (it, me, them, etc) in the CORRECT place - either before or after the particle. See the example provided.

I OK, you read out the phone numbers and I'll jot them down.

2 Where's the remote control?

I don't know. I was just looking ..... ...

3 That cheese in the fridge had gone off so I threw

4 Prefixes - under and over

Word formation, SB page 20

4. I Fill in the spaces below with words beginning with under and their opposites. Look at the example provided.

I smaller than average or normal (adj)

2 fail to guess or understand the real cost, size or difficulty of something (v)

3 not express an idea fully or adequately (v)

4 weak and unhealthy due to lack of food (adj)

5 charge too little money for something (v)

6 having too few people for the amount of work (adj)

7 not cooked for long enough (adj)

8 wearing clothes that are not attractive or formal enough for an event (adj)

9 make too little use of something (v)

10 lacking the money, education, possessions and opportunities that the average person has (adj)

I l fail to appreciate how skilful, important someone or something is (v)

12 give too little light to a piece of photographic film (v)

Word Opposite undersized

oversized

4.2 Now complete these sentences using any of the words from 4.1. See the example provided.

I There was far too much light and all my photos were overexposed.

2 Don't you think you're a bit for a barbecue in that suit?

3 The baby was a bit at birth but she's put on weight well.

4 Calling his behaviour criminal is rather an

It was just a mistake.

5 I think 45 minutes is anof the time it will take. I'd allow an hour.

6 The office is so some people will have to be made redundant.

7 The council is trying to promote the new sports facilities, which are at present.

8 I'm hopeless at preparing pasta. I always how much to cook and we end up either eating it for three days or throwing it away.

9 I can't stand meat that is so that it has blood oozing out of it.

10 I find his songs very repetitive. I think he's really as a singer, to be honest.

I l To say we were surprised by the news of his arrest would be an

12 Many of the children were clearly and suffering from various diseases.

13 It's a very good restaurant. But be warned, they tend to

14 Although she came from an family

background, she went on to become one of the most highly paid lawyers in Britain.

5 Writing - Informal letter

In the following letter, there are 7 mistakes of layout and style. One has been marked for you. There are also 7 missing phrases. Find the other 6 mistakes and complete the 7 missing phrases.

Andy Kulbacher Bramley Road 25

Burnville 66Z 23rd Oct, 20-

Dear friend, it was very nice to (1) after such a long time. (2) to hear that you've settled down in your new job in Valencia and are getting into Che local way

of lifel As you know, I'm still working at the same language school as before although now I'm in charge of marketing our courses in

Europe! So it's a lot more responsibi/ity and lots of trave/ling. As it happens, I'm coming to Valencia next month and (3) favour! I desperately need the names, addresses and phone numbers of the directors of all the local English language schools and / can't seem to get that sort of information in Chis country.

(4) if you could go through all the local yellow pages and send me information. Please don't

(5) if you can't manage it, I can always do it when I get there.

(6) we must definitely meet up when

I'm over. (7) see you soon.

Looking forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely,

Andy I 6 Word formation 7 Wordcheck - Collocations

6. I Complete the following grid, paying particular verbs in the most suitable form from the box. The first attention to whether the required word is grammatically one has been done for you. positive (+) or negative G). See the examples provided. Complete the sentences below by adding the correct

parrot circulate produce report assimilate

jot down undergo set yourself chew over prove I efficient (adj + ) efficiency (noun + )

2 respond (verb + ) irresponsible

3 benefit (noun + )

4 complex (adj + )(noun + )

5 intellect (noun + )

6 conceive (verb + ) (noun -) 1 If you don't know where it is, try consulting an atlas. 7 deceive (verb + ) 2 It's hard to .. information when feeling 8 anxious (adj + ) . (noun + ) anxious. 9 honesty (noun + ) 3 Several students volunteered to . 10 explain (verb + ) . (noun + ) psychological tests.

I l photograph (noun 4 Details of the new grant were

12 attend (verb + )last edition of the college magazine.

13 psychology (noun + )5 Don't even try and write everything. Just

14 invest (verb + ) (noun + ) . the main points. 15 appear (verb + ) (noun -) 6 It's important to ..... ..... ..... ..... ... clear targets in your study programme. 6.2 Now complete the following sentences with suitable 7 Don't make the mistake of simply . words from the exercise above. someone else's words when writing your own notes. 8 The teacher said mnemonics can help you memorise 16 A 'cheat' is someone who behaves in a ..... ..... ..... ..... .. things and to ..... ..... .... ..... .... the point he memorised and .... .... way. various phrases the students, came up with in other 17 There is a popular ..... ..... ..... ..... .. that all British languages. people are monarchists. This is simply not true! 9 The headteacher could ..... ..... ..... ..... ... no explanation 18 Sara refused to provide the police with any for such poor examination results. . for the ..... ..... ..... ..... .. of such a large 10 I find it helpful to listen to classical music when I'm sum of money. . a problem. effects of taking regular exercise Il So-called 'sleep learning' has failed to ..... are both physical and any beneficial effects to the learning process. 20 Children often feel a great deal of . 12 The findings of the tests were ..... ..... ..... ..... ... • about their first day at school. journal 'Psychobabble'. 21 Although Rita was often ..... ..... ..... ..... .. in class, she had a virtually ... memory and got top grades in all her exams. 22 The ..... ..... ..... ... ... of her arguments left us all in a state of confusion. 23 I like to relax with a good detective story - nothing too demanding or . 24 The ..... ..... ..... ..... .. of our memories does not necessarily deteriorate with age. 9

8 Error correction

8. 1 Parts of speech

Underline the unnecessary words in each of the following sentences and identify which part of speech it is. See the example given.

I Remind me to telephone to my sister before the end of the day. preposition

2 We really need an information about flights to Skopje.

3 The modern life is complicated enough without more rules and regulations.

4 They hope to can arrive before the start of the conference.

5 Hadn't she been suggested creating two part-time jobs?

6 If you don't know the answer, why don't you ask to the teacher?

7 Prague which is a city I've always wanted to visit.

8 Paul was in the hospital for three months after the accident.

9 The shark which pushed silently through the seaweed and attacked the unsuspecting swimmers.

10 There was an ominous silence as they entered into the room.

8.2 Error correction

In most lines of the following text there is one unnecessary word. It is either grammatically incorrect or it does not fit in with the sense of the text. For each numbered line, find the unnecessary word and then write it in the space provided. Some lines are correct. Indicate these with a tick (V). The first two lines have been done for you.

Mapping the mind's word processor

An area is deep in the left frontal half of the brain used to process language has been pinpointed by a new brain-imager. Dr Julie Fiez, who first reported the work, believes brain-imagers will one day help to show(thaUthe causes of problems like dyslexia and determine strategies to overcome language in difficulties.

The new imaging technique shows that the parts of the brain which atOworking harder' because [ofblood flow has increased.

When some people being studied were asked to lift their left index finger When they have heard a specific tone, word, syllable or vowel. Others were asked only to listen without doing anything.

The brain's left frontal region was seen to be used only when subjects had to show they had heard of the specific sound, rather than just listened. Many regions are involved in listening but this: one appears to be involved when parts of a sound have to be analysed to make up a decision, for instance how to correctly pronounce the words 'lead' and 'tears' in tn\different contexts.

O is

1 2 3 4

6 7 9

12

14

Severe Weather I Vocabulary 2 Contrast links

1 . 1 Collocations > Study Box, SB page 27

Match each word in Column A with its partner in Column B. See the example.

I high A situation 2 gusty C] B range 3 torrentialC warning

4 severeD level 5 slightE tides

6 desperateF weather

7 floodG seas 8 choppyH rain

9 temperatureI winds

10 seaJ breeze I .2 Idioms and metaphors

Complete the following sentences to make a suitable common idiom or metaphor connected with the weather.

1 1'm really sorry I won't be able to see you this week but I'm absolutely snowed under with work.

2 'What's the capital of Peru?'

'Sorry, I haven't got the

3 Jane and Steve have what you might call a relationship - they're always arguing and then making up again!

4 Julie is amazingly cheerful, she always greets everyone with a ..... ..... ..... .... .. smile.

5 The decision to build the new motorway through the forest was met by .. of protest from local residents.

6 Tom has been ..... ..... ..... ...... Maria with presents to make up for forgetting their wedding anniversary last month.

7 One of the TV cameramen was hit in the leg when they were caught in a ..... ..... ..... ...... of bullets outside the gang's_hideout.

8 The boss's manner turned decidedly after I told her I was looking for a new job.

9 1 got home to find everyone in ..... ..... ..... ...... of tears over the terrible news.

10 'Is Nick pleased about his new job?'

'Pleased? He's on ..... ..... ..... ...... nine!'

Complete the sentences using the linking words in the box below. The first one has been done as an example.

while/whereas on the other hand although in contrast yet 1 Mick likes playing tennis, Put only if he wins!

2 Dogs are loving and loyal, cats are very independent.

3 Hugo claims to be a strict vegetarian and he regularly eats chicken!

4 Cars produce a great deal of pollution. Bicycles, are totally environmentally friendly.

5 Checkers is a relatively easy game to master, learning to play chess takes a very long time.

6 Ms Ross will be able to see you tomorrow not before I lam.

7 Some people regard television as no more than 'chewing gum for the eyes' many others appreciate its educative value.

8 Jo likes living in the country, she does miss the convenience of living in town.

3 Collocations Complete the following sentences to form common word combinations. The first letter of the missing word is given in each case to help you. See the example.

1 Unfortunately, I missed the bus so I had to hitch a lift.

2 The lorry drivers' strike brought the traffic to a in most parts of the country.

3 Quick! Grab h..... of my hand and I'll try and pull you out.

4 I took a..................... of the sales to buy myself a smart new suit.

5 Jan takes large doses of Vitamin C at the slightest of a cold.

6 My kids just never g..... .. a second thought to where all the money comes from to pay for their toys and presents.

7 Clean, running water plays a vital r..................... in the health of the population of any country.

2 SEVERE WEATHER

4 Prepositions

Complete these sentences with a preposition and the appropriate form of a word taken from the box below. See the example.

increase tears stand-by action admission warn clear illusions fit I Dan's rather mean. He thinks a box of chocolates counts as a generous wedding present!

2 In rough weather the coast guard is constantto respond quickly to distress signals from boats.

3 A local woman us swimming in the bay. She said sharks had been seen there recently.

4 Most people regarded his refusal to answer the question as an his guilt.

5 The workers were rather cynical after the meeting. that Most of them were the management would take their complaints seriously.

6 Before applying the solution, make sure the surface to be treated has been all loose rust and paint.

7 The police moved swiftly to stop fighting between the rival groups of football fans.

8 There has been a dramatic the number of cases of skin cancer due to the damage to the ozone layer.

9 It was such a sad film that we were all reduced at the end.

10 The new model is electric windows, a sun-roof and a catalytic converter as standard.

5 Writing - Formal letter

Fred Smith is writing a letter to Mr Clough, the Chairman of the town council in Loxley. The information in his letter is correct but the style is far too informal. Rewrite the letter in a more formal style and include the phrases in the box below.

I am writing to express my concern about .

I must insist that you

I must urge you to

So, why haven' t you done anything about it? I think you 'd better send a road repair team round here as soon as possible. Not only that, I think it would be a good idea for you to be better prepared in the future so you can get things sorted out a bit more quickly!

Hoping to hear from you very soon about

this problern.

Fred Smith

10 North Parade

Loxley Dear Mr Clough

I'm writing to say just how fed up T am with the state of the road outside my house. It's a real mess ! Just the other day old Mrs Bicknell, the woman who lives next door, got the back wheel of her Mini stuck in one of the huge great pot-holes outside my gate . The poor old thing was really upset and we had to get two chaps from the garage to pull her car out !

Now why have we got these pot-holes in the road? Well, because of that terrible weather we had with all that ice and snow. But that was two months ago now, and I know you ]mow about the situation because we saw a chap from the council inspecting the road just after the weather got better.

6 Spelling -That can't be right!

In the following sentences some of the underlined verbs are spelt incorrectly. Correct any mistakes, as in the

example. forgetting

1 I've got a terrible memory, I keep forgeting that girl's name.

2 If you believe what they say in the commercials, some of these face creams seem to stop the ageing process completely!

3 William is studing modern languages. He hopes to become an interpreter.

4 I think the best sport for all-round fitness must be swiming.

5 I wish you'd stop biting your nails - it's a really unpleasant habit!

6 Come on, let's go to the pub, I'm dieing for a drink!

7 I see the police have arrested those men who are supposed to have kidnaped that little boy.

8 The crash is a complete mystery. It occurred on a sunny afternoon, with excellent visibility and practically no wind.

9 Louise must have left her credit card behind when she payed for the petrol.

10 They tryed not to laugh at his accent but just couldn't help it.

Il Jim and Fay don't seem to be getting on very well these days, they're always argueing about something. 12 Excuse me, Professor. Could you repeat the name of that German scientist you refered to earlier?

13 When I was a boy, I plaied rugby not football.

14 Oh Brian! You really must stop disagreeing with everything I say!

15 Although the fire was very small, everyone paniced and rushed out of the cinema, causing complete chaos.

Doubling consonants

of more than one syllable the doubled only if the stress is on

but but remembering Remember

syllable that consonant is before referred

forgetting final the

in verbs

(usually) it: SEVERE WEATHER 2

7 Grammar 7. I Review of passives and causative (have/ get something done) Focus on Grammar SB, page 30

Causative have/get

(Causative) is used to mean: done by someone else yesterday. (The hairdresser did it.) yourself cleared up in no time.

(usually undesirable) cards stolen the other day.

obligation or urgency insurance renewed - it ran out last

was difficult to do/achieve decorating finished just before we

to achieve something President of the club.

up at once!

cause e.g. I cause

e.g. I'll e.g. Clara

Get is to e.g. I

to

e.g. We moved to

e.g. He in e.g. Get Have/get had/got

used in. indicate got imperatives

something something my hair something have/get this something had/got rather a feeling get my

that finally got

a planned himself

this room done to be cut to happen mess

her credit than have:

of car

something the action elected

cleaned In the following sentences, decide which of the underlined forms is correct/more probable or if both are possible. See the example given.

I Our house is )ein ettin renovated so we're staying with friends at the moment.

2 Frank's nose was/got broken while he was playing rugby.

3 The new museum on Bath Road was/got designed by Isobel Fischer.

13 2 SEVERE WEATHER

4 Sorry I'm late but I kept being/getting lost on the way here.

5 I'm afraid the meeting will have to be/get postponed until next week.

6 Apart from the terrible hotel and the dirty beach, my camcorder was/got stolen on the last day too!

7 Have/Get your hair cut, you horrible little man!

8 I went to five different shops but I just couldn't have/get my watch repaired.

9 We eventually managed to have/get the tent put up just before it started snowing.

10 Don't worry, we'll soon have/get your car started.

7.2 Passives for formal effect

Using the verbs in the box below, complete the sentences to make more formal equivalents of the sentences provided. An example is given.

address to pa.y4e.F Pay grant accompany accompany receive require notify allow I If you break anything, you'll have to pay for it.

All breakages (will) have to be paid for.

2 You might have to show some sort of ID.

Proof of identity may ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .. .

3 You can't pay by cheque unless you've got a guarantee card.

All cheques must ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .................... .

4 You mustn't use a flash inside the cathedral.

Flash photography .

5 You should tell the manager if you've got anything to complain about.

All complaints ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ......................................

6 They'll tell you before the end of the month if you've got the job or not.

The successful applicant ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ......

7 You've got to pay for everything within ten working

Full payment

8 Sorry, but the council has turned down your planning permission.

We regret to inform you that planning permission

9 You won't get any compensation if you post money and it gets lost.

No compensation . . . .

10 They don't let kids in without a grown-up. Children .

8 Dependent prepositions

Complete the following sentences with the correct preposition. See the example given.

I All new models have been fitted with a safety lock. 2 You look really scruffy. Can't you tuck your shirt ..... ..... ..... .. your trousers at least?

3 The main part of the house is very old. It dates .. more than 400 years.

4 The sudden movement of the train threw me

. balance and I fell head-first down the steps.

5 Erica is an excellent colleague. She goes . her job calmly and efficiently.

6 The school ran ..... ..... ..... .. financial trouble when 80% of the staff went on strike.

7 As soon as the President stepped out of the car, guards moved .. action to hold back the crowds.

8 The price of shares in the company went up ..... ..... ..... .. over 50% when they announced the discovery of the new oilfield.

9 We've decided to switch ..... .... . electricity

. solar power in an attempt to be more ecofriendly.

10 The over-use of fertilisers and pesticides is one of the greatest threats ..... ..... ..... .. wildlife today.

SEVERE WEATHER 2

9 Wordcheck - Weather

Complete the crossword. One has been done for you.

Across 1 If severe weather or a transport problem prevents you from leaving a place, you are (8)

2 Violent form of 8 across with strong circular 9 across. (7)

3 Very strong 9 across. (4)

4 A great amount of water in a place that is usually dry. (5)

5 A pile of snow blown up by 9 across. (5)

6 Medical term for when your body temperature falls to a dangerously low level. (I l)

7 Water at OOC. (3)

8 Bad weather with a lot of rain. (5)

9 A current of air moving across the earth's surface. (4)

10 Blocked in by heavy snow. (9)

Down 11 Having become hard or stiff from cold. (6)

12 Periods of dry weather causing suffering and hardship. (8)

13 A violent hurricane that occurs in the western Pacific. (7)

14 A large mass of snow that slides down the side of a mountain. (9)

15 To die under water because you can't breathe. (5)

16 Heavy snowfall with extremely strong 9 across. (8)

17 A mixture of rain and snow. (5)

14 17 15 Vocabulary - Register and style 6 She turned out to be a great boss to work for notwithstanding what everybody said about her. Language Focus, SB page 36 7 It is, to say the very least, regrettable that the Managing Director has decided to resign at this . 1 Good monolingual dictionaries always indicate if a crucial time. word or phrase has a particular 'register', in other words 8 podgy children run a higher risk of heart disease in the type of context it should be used in. Different dictio- later life. naries use slightly different labels to indicate register but 9 My grandmother never bought a TV. She was quite they all tell you whether the word or phrase is informal, happy listening to her wireless, as she used to call it. formal, specialised/technical (e.g. medical, legal, literary, 10 Can you pen a quick shopping list for me? You know etc), old-fashioned/dated, slang, etc. Words and phrases how forgetful I am. with no label are of neutral register. l One feels it may not be politic at this moment to Use your monolingual dictionary to determine the press for an increase in salary. register of the following words and to discover a more 12 'Hi, Karen. So this is your new boyfriend.' common/neutral (near) synonym. An example is given. (Yeah, we've been courting for about two months now.' 13 I'm a bit worried about Harry, doctor. He's got some Word Register Synonym nasty lesions on his legs. 14 I see Fred Gomm's been arrested again.' lesion medical cub, wound 'Oh, what for this time?' 2 podgy

3 bananas (adj) 'The usual - larceny.' pen (v) 2 no matter 5 wireless (n)

6 larceny

7 pretty (adv) . . . Time Eaters

8 court (v) 9 notwithstanding

10 nosh-up I l politic

12 bamboozle

I No matter how hard I try, 2 Well, it looks as though we'll have to buy a new one, I .2 Make any necessary changes to the underlined 3 She never gets to work on time, words in the sentences that follow. Not all the under- 4 Don't trust her an inch, lined words are in inappropriate register. The first one 5 No matter ..... ..... .... ..... .. much he'd like to, has been done for you. 6 No matter ..... ..... ..... ... ... you get there, 7 No matter ..... ..... ..... ...... the doctor tells him, 8 Cigarettes are extremely bad for you, I Unfortunately, he ended his days in an institution 9 Look, this rumour is totally untrue, for the criminally insane

2 Oh no! I think I've put my clavicle out again.

3 Lingo study classes are from 0900 to 1215 with 10 Come on, you'd better clear up this mess,' options in the afternoon. A no matter . she promises. 4 You are invited to a nosh-up to celebrate the 25th B no matter ..... ..... ..... ...... it costs. anniversary of the foundation of the club. C he'll never forget the crash. 5 It's no good trying to bamboozle me. I'm not going D no matter . fault it was. 13 clavicle

14 lingo

> Study Box, SB page 42

to buy any insurance. E he refuses to give up eating fatty food. Match the first part of each sentence in Column A with the second part in Column B and add a suitable word to complete it. Look at the example.

F I never lose any weight.

G no matter told you.

H no matterbus she takes.

I give us a ring to let us know everything's OK.

J no matter little tar they might contain.

3 Grammar

3. 1 will vs going to Focus on Grammar, SB page 44

Complete the sentences below using the most appropriate form of will or going to and the verb given in brackets. The first one has been done as an example.

1 What are you going to do (do) after you leave university?

2 1 hope I (have) a better job this time

next year. 3 Look out, that lorry's coming straight at us! Oh no, we (crash)!

4 (Could I have an orange juice?'

(I'm sorry, we've run out.'

'Oh, alright I .. (have) a coke then, please.'

5 What time do you think you .. (get) back from the conference?

6 Oh come on, look at that beautiful blue sky it . (not rain) today!

7 (Have you got any plans for Friday night?

'Not really, I .. (just stay) in and read a

book.' 8 Sid promised to come and help us but he

(probably not remember), you know how unreliable he is.

9 'Maria, the phone's ringing and I'm in the bath.' . (get) it!'

10 Quick! Give me a paper tissue, I ..... .... (sneeze) again!

TIME EATERS 3 3.2 Future time clauses Focus on Grammar, SB page 44

Complete the following passage by putting the time conjunctions from the box in the correct space. The first one is shown as an example.

until after when while by the time as soon as bekye

until if

once Memorandum from Security Supervisor I B Shadow

(1) Before the Ambassador arrives, you will have searched the embassy and grounds for anything suspicious. (2) he steps out of his bullet-proof limousine, you and three of your men will be in charge of his personal safety (3) he gets back into his limousine after the meeting.

he's shaken hands with the British diplomats, one of you will have to stay very close to him (5) he greets the well-wishers in the crowd and, remember, (6) you see anyone behaving strangely, you'll be expected to act first and ask questions later. (7) he goes inside the embassy building with the negotiators, you'll accompany him to the meeting room door and wait outside (8) he re-emerges - this could take anvthing from two to three hours.

(9) he comes out of the embassy, the crowd will probably have dwindled somewhat but this

is the time when you and your men will need to be most vigilant, so keep him covered all the time.

he gets back in his limousine, he'll be back in the hands of the mobile security unit and you'll be able to breathe a sigh of relief.

9 DO 3 TIME EATERS

3.3 Guess the ending Focus on Grammar,

SB page 44 Complete these sentences in a logical way. Look at the example provided.

I Don't worry, you'll recognise me as soon as you see

2 It's OK, I'll wait for you until

3 I'll go and have a cup of tea while

4 Hurry up, or they'll have finished dinner by the time

5 I'll meet you back here after we

6 Won't you get a fine if

7 Come on, let's do the washing-up before we

8 You won't feel much on this side of your mouth until the injection

3.4 Present tenses

Put the verbs in brackets into either the present simple or the present continuous tense. Put any other words in the brackets in the correct place. The first one has been done for you.

I This milk doesn't smell (not smell) too fresh - I think I'll throw it out.

2 You (forever/use) my razor, can't you buy one of your own?

3 Oh yes, Jean and I (know) each other very well.

4 Mark (go) to work by train while his car's at the mechanic's.

5 Don't forget the coach (leave) at 6.45 tomorrow morning so you'd better get an early

night. 6 7 8 9

10 Il 12 'Where's Harry?' 'In the study, I think he

(write) some letters.'

Aunt Agnes is very generous, she

(always/give) the children wonderful presents for their birthdays.

That new postman(not seem) very bright to me, he(always/leave) our letters in the wrong letterbox.

I'm sorry we can't make it to the party on Saturday but we(have) dinner with some old

friends.

Predictably, at the end of the film the Swarzenegger hero(rescue) the prisoners and (get) the girl! Whereyou(live) until your new house is ready? Carter(serve), Pampas

(return) but the ball(go) into the net. Game to Carter.

Present tenses Remember that present tenses are not only limited to talking about the present - they are also used: - to make the past seem Jess remote and more dramatic.

e.g. So, yesterday I'm sitting in the office, finishing off a few letters, when in comes Alan! - to make the future more definite:

e.g. We're flying to Crete next Friday. The plane takes off at 7 a.m.

TIME EATERS 3 3.5 Modal verbs Focus on Grammar, SB 11 'I wonder why Pam ignored me in the street this page 48 morning.' Complete the following sentences with a suitable form 'Well, she ..... ..... ..... ...... (not realise) it was you. She's of can, could, be able, may, might, must and the verb in as blind as a bat.' brackets. An example is given. 12 Smoking .. (cause) all sorts of physical problems. 1 I feel absolutely awful. I think I must have (have) flu.

you. 2 Are you going to .. (come) to Charlie's birthday party next Saturday? 3 My word! It . (take) you ages to write all this. There are more than 2,000 pages! 4 Which bus do you think you (leave) your bag on? 5 (It's odd we haven't received that cheque. Showerings said they'd sent it.'

'Yes, I suppose it ..... ..... ..... ...... (get) lost in the post but I doubt it.' . (not be) more delighted when we heard the news. Congratulations!

14 Quick, Phil! ..... ..... ..... .... you (see) that man over there? I think he .... .... ..... .... .... well (be) the one the police are looking for.

15 Marsha ..... .... ..... .... (be) a brilliant lawyer but she gave it all up to go and live in Nepal.

16 'What's that there in those trees?'

'It .... ..... ..... ..... .. (not be) a dog, it's too big. Let's run for it!'

17 Jane's not completely deaf but she ..... ..... ..... ...... n hear) properly for a long time.

18 Billy, come away from that dog. It .....

could vs was able to

to show general ability in

she was 1 3. on a specific occasion in

she was able to drive home. Remember

able

could could drive to shows

having a the past:

e.g. She was the past:

e.g. is used

when ability flat tyre,

6 (swim) really well when I was six years old.

7 Although she had a broken leg, she ..... ..... ..... ... .. (swim) to the shore.

8 You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (tell) me it was a formal party. I looked a real idiot in my pullover and jeans!

9 It's not surprising we .. (not find) the house. You gave us the wrong address!

10 I used to . (run) for miles. Now I

(not even run) round the block!

1 9 Stress I Cause and effect

Study Box, SB page 55

Match the beginning of each sentence in Column A with the correct ending in Column B and add any necessary words. See the example.

1 Careless driving

2 Eating too many sugary things

3 Skin cancer

4 Heart attacks 5 One of using a computer all day

6 Bad posture 7 A sudden rise in temperature

8 Malaria can from

9 Obesity can be the of

10 Crimes in inner cities have increased

11 Letting children always do what they want

12 Accidents in the home

A overeating and a lack of exercise.

B can be . to tiredness and distraction. C can and does .. in tooth decay.

l) is to cause headaches and eye problems.

E being bitten by a mosquito.

F IS a major .. of chronic back pain.

. of high unemployment and a lack of recreational facilities.

H can be . by sunbathing for long periods.

I is a major cause of road accidents.

J can and does .. to behavioural problems at school.

K have increased as a ..... ..... ...... of our modern stressful lifestyles.

L can and does .. avalanches.

2 Grammar > Focus on Grammar, SB page 58

2. 1 -ing forms

In each of the following sentences add a suitable subject made from a verb. The first one is shown as an example.

I Drinking lots of water is supposed to be good for your complexion.

2 causes a lot of unnecessary accidents every year.

3 is much less popular now than it was 20 years ago.

4 is by far the most common way of spending the evening.

5 often makes you appreciate the things you took for granted in your own country.

6 crossword puzzles is a classic time-eater.

7 is a good way of losing weight and getting fit.

8 in poor light can damage your eyesight.

9 is my favourite way of relaxing.

10 is a sign of nervousness or stress.

2.2 Prepositions and conjunctions + -ing 2.3 -ing or infinitive? Complete the following sentences by adding the correct Complete the following sentences with either a gerund preposition and a suitable gerund. See the example. or infinitive. In some cases the verb to use is indicated il brackets. The first one has been done for you. 1 I'm really looking forward to meeting your sister, I've heard so much about her. 1 You'll remember to fill the car up with petrol, won't 2 We're thinking to Turkey this summer. you? 3 Arnold was falsely accused cash from 2 Try a cup of camomile tea before you go the till. to bed. 4 When I was a child my mother was always warning 3 She remembered his face in a police me lifts from strangers. identikit picture. 5 Jean doesn't believe today what she can 4 You must try down on the number of put off until tomorrow! cigarettes you smoke. 6 Trevor is absolutely hopeless photos - 5 Being a doctor means very long hours and he always cuts your head or feet off! a fragmented social life. 7 Lesley's rather anxious the doctor next 6 During the meeting we came that not onb week - she thinks it might be something serious. were we not getting a pay rise but probably a pay 8 Emma was furious with me her ex- cut! STRESS 4

boyfriend to the party. 7 I regret him he was pathetic, I got a bit 9 I intend to find out who's responsible angry, that's all. the window. 8 I regret you that there is very little chance 10 I'm tired the same old faces every day of recovery. - I need a change! 9 Having defeated the champion in the opening I l Anyone interested on the trip to Bath match, she went on the tournament. should tell Kerry by noon today. 10 Isn't it time you stopped on your parents 12 Dr Farquar is famous people's names - so much and tried on your own two feet? I'm surprised he can remember his own! 11 You can't expect the exam if you spend all 13 Carol is incredibly honest. She'd never dream day video games. a lie. 12 I can't help (wonder) why Julie keeps 14 You can delete anything you don't want home so late. this button. 13 It's no good (worry) about things you 15 Sally found it difficult to re-adjust to the British way can't be expected (know). of life back from a long holiday in the 14 Would you mind not in here? I can't stand Greek islands. . in other people's cigarette smoke. 16 What's the name of that stuff you use ..... ..... .. 15 I hate ..... ..... ...... in small, confined places. I was once grass stains out of clothes? trapped in a lift and tried ... (smash) 17 MANUFACTURER'S WARNING: Always wear the doors down. safety goggles . this machinery. 16 Don't forget .. the car to the garage on 18 Francesco picked up a strong American accent Monday the brakes need ..... ..... ...... again. a Master's degree in the USA. 17 It's not worth (risk) .. (get) a fine 19 ..... .... ..... ..... ... practically nothing, I just can't seem to by .. the car here even for five minutes. lose any weight! 18 There was no point in ..... ..... ...... (promise) . 20 You must check in your mirror ..... .... ..... ..... ...

another car on the motorway. (help) if you don't like ..... .... ..... .. (get) your hands 2

4 STRESS 2.4 -ing nouns

Put the correct form of the nouns in the box below in the correct places in the following sentences. See the example given.

showing sighting saying spelling carving airing being hearing setting awakening following fitting recording reading I A hundred years ago people used to attend public hangings outside local jails.

2 We'll need to leave work early if we want to see the earlierof the new movie.

3 The rock group 'U2' has a very largeall over the world.

4 Have there ever been any verifiedof the Loch Ness monster?

5 I like to throw open the windows and give the room a good every morning.

6 Our second this evening comes from the poetic works of Oscar Wilde.

7 There's a lot of truth in the 'Everything comes to he who waits'.

8 We bought a beautiful wooden of a horse in Hungary.

9 The cabins were in the most attractiveon the edge of a lake, surrounded by forest. 10 He felt a gradual of love for this strange, independent girl.

I l There was an officialto discover who was responsible for polluting the river.

12 Actually, the word has two differentand both are correct!

13 He told me he'd spoken to some alien ..

from another universe!

14 The bathroom still has all the original Victorian

15 I'm sorry it's so crackly but it's the original 1948 concert ..... ..... ...... .

2.5 -ing adjectives

Match each adjective in Column A with the appropriate noun in Column B. The first one is shown as an example.

I carvingA board

2 shavingB rod 3 buildingC bag

4 divingD stone 5 wateringE licence

6 parkingF powder

7 drivingG knife

8 fillingH can 9 pavingI water

10 walkingJ site

I l fishingK cream 12 sleepingL space

13 ironingM station

14 washingN stick

15 drinkingO board

Collocations

are very useful in forming bag.

chopping BOARD membership CARD shopping BAG

and other such useful words a common

e.g. chess credit shoulder

record of possible Some collocations

diving birthday carrier

Keep and their words board, cord,

these partners, 3 Word building -Verb formation

Use the nouns or adjectives shown in brackets to form suitable verbs to fill each space. An example is provided.

1 If you tell the company exactly what you want, they can put together a cu6Comised (custom) computer system for you.

2 Would it be possible to(large) this part of the photo?

3 You'll never get a job unless you (smart) yourself up a bit.

4 It was really Charles Dickens who ..... ..... ..... ..... ..

(popular) the celebration of Christmas in Britain.

5 If you're worried about the drinking water, there are

STRESS 4 tablets you can get to (pure) it.

6 We don't need to hear all the details of the meeting.

Could you just (summary) the main point for us?

7 Everyone now agrees that smoking (danger) people's health.

8 Frank bought an old car and

(cannibal) it to repair two others.

9 We were all (horror) by the amount of money we had to pay.

10 The management are trying to persuade the workers to agree to (long) the working week.

Il Excuse me, professor. Could you

(clear) what you mean by 'dumbing down'? 12 Taking regular exercise can (less) the risk of heart disease.

13 The police find it extremely difficult to (force) speed limits out of town.

14 Gangs of hooligans have been(terror) local residents.

15 Our anger (height) still further as we realised our luggage had been taken to the wrong airport.

4 Dependent prepositions

Replace the incorrect prepositions in the following sentences with the correct ones. The first one is shown as an example.

I You can reduce your vulnerability Co stress by taking a nap in the afternoon.

2 I play tennis - but just in fun. rm not very good at it. 3 I've no idea why Flony is so angry. He never confides with me.

4 Jane's out in the garden mulling through a problem to do with work.

5 There's no need to exercise at the point of exhaustion.

6 At weekends, I like to immerse myself with the peace and quiet of the countryside.

7 Bob's finding it hard to focus his mind in his studies at the moment.

8 Dentists fall on the category of high-stress occupations.

9 One of the greatest causes of stress at the workplace is the feeling of being undervalued.

10 Moving house often has a negative effect for people's mental health.

5 Collocations Complete each of the following sentences with the

correct form of an appropriate verb taken from the box.

The first one is shown as an example.

modify calm take receive do spend meet organise attend provide

answer I We all need to spend some time just enjoying ourselves.

2 Not having enough money to your basic needs is a great cause of stress.

3 Many people find it hard to their behaviour in order to reduce stress.

4 We've just been told that the new multi-gym will facilities for just about all indoor

sports. 5 Excuse me! I wonder if you'd have the time to a brief questionnaire.

6 I try to .. my mind by . . ..... ..... .. yoga. 7 How many alcoholic drinks do you ..... per week?

8 ICs important to both give and . affection regularly.

9 I really must try and ..... ..... ..... ..... .. my time better.

I'm always leaving things until the last minute.

10 Her grandmother is in excellent health and regularly

. the local sports club.

4 STRESS

6 Wordcheck - Stress and 6.2 Collocations

relaxation Match up the word partners in Columns A and B as in the example.

6.1 Odd word out

Underline the word in each group that does not fit in with the other three. Use a dictionary to help you if I blood A nights necessary. The first one is shown as an example. 2 stomachB effects

3 timeC pressure

I fun enjoyable friendly light-hearted 4 stressD breakdown 2 nap rush snooze siesta 5 minorE ulcers

3 dizzy worn out tired run-down 6 balancedF constraints

4 tackle wrestle with fight mull over 7 sleeplessG trouble

5 focus unwind relax switch off 8 nervousH ailments

6 source result cause reason 9 heartI meal

7 tense angry upset vulnerable 10 harmfulJ overload

8 stuck confined boosted cramped

PROGRESS TEST ONE

Progress Test One

Units 1-4 I Structural cloze

Complete the following newspaper article by writing one word in each of the numbered gaps.

Shining example or white elephant?

The new university hospital in just in front of her (12) .

Trenton, ( l ) the Health very few people can have seen it. No Minister Victoria Culley has described (13) . how hard I tried to a 'shining example' persuade her, she wouldn't give me an to hospitals all (3) the appointment card for a blood test, so I country, has been open now for over started (14) again and six months. (4) heard finally got the card at 8.30! I then set several less than complimentary off for the blood tests room, following comments about the organisation and the nice new signs (15) .

efficiency of the place, I decided to see they suddenly stopped and I realised for myself. Before (5) that I was in a part of the hospital that there, I had arranged with my local GP hasn't been finished yet! When I got to to have some routine blood tests for the door I saw a notice saying 'Back in anaerma. 10 minutes'. I sat down and waited for In (6) of arriving 30 minutes before a doctor appeared early (7.15 a.m.!) I found that there and told me to come in without, of were already long queues at the course, (16) . for keeping reception desks. (7) I me waiting. I asked him why I'd had to was waiting, I looked around and have wait and he explained he'd had to help to admit that it is an impressive out in another ward which was building; large and light with marble ... as a (18) everywhere. Eventually my turn came of a flu epidemic among the doctors! and I presented my doctor's letters to I got out of the hospital at 9.45 the receptionist, (8) a.m. and breathed a sigh of relief. I'm informed me that I was in the X-ray now waiting for the results.

queue and I'd have to go to another So, Mrs Culley, a far from rosy queue and start again! I couldn't picture. Certainly the public should be believe it and asked her no illusions that be possible to give things have changed for the better. me an appointment card anyway Perhaps you should visit the hospital . making me queue as an anonymous out-patient rather up again. She informed me it was no than a government minister if you . arguing with her and really want to know what it's like, I should have read the sign, an almost as I suspect, you invisible piece of card saying 'X-rays' don't actually care that much! PROGRESS TEST ONE

2 Phrasal verbs

Complete each of the following sentences with the appropriate form of a suitable phrasal verb. An example is provided.

Example: Dennis has given up his job so he can stay at home and look after the children.

I Overeating and lack of exercise canserious health problems in later life.

2 Hi Brenda, Peter here. I'm just to say I've got two tickets for the concert on Saturday night. Fancy coming?

3 You should the pros and cons carefully before buying a second-hand car.

4 Now, don't us We're counting on you to cook something really special for the party this Saturday.

5 The group the concert with their greatest hits. So everyone went home happy.

3 Error correction

In most of the lines of the following text, there is one unnecessary word. It is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit in with the sense of the text. For each numbered line 1-16, find this word and write it in the space to the right of the text. Some lines are correct. Indicate these lines with a tick (V) in the space. The exercise begins with two examples (O).

Hibernation syndrome

I don't know about you, but come to the winter months, my body seems to require more sleep than in summer and I'm definitely at my happiest when I'm being curled up in a hedgehog-style ball. 'Wanting to sleep more in winter is not natural and nothing to worry about, unless you are sleeping for more than 12 hours a day,' says sleep expert Dr James B. Maas. The reason for we feel drowsy has as much to do with our biochemistry as it does so with wanting to sniggle up like a couch potato indoors. 'It's all to do with melatonin,' explains Dr Maas, 'a hormone with which is secreted by the brain's pineal gland in response to darkness.' They may feel more sleepy, but as many people find getting to sleep in winter is a problem. It's hardly surprising. When lounging around indoors drinking mugs of warming up coffee and snacking

on chocolate bars doesn't always prepare you for a good night's rest. If you do have trouble nodding off, Deepak Chopra has this tip. 'Try a soothing mix of the sweet and sour essential oils, such as orange, geranium and cloveQEmixed with almond oil and rubbed it on to your forehead just before bedtime.'

O to 1 2 4 .

5 .

10 1 1 .

1 2 . 1 3 . 14

15 ..... ... .. .

16 ..... ..... ..... ... PROGRESS TEST ONE

Homeopathy Our army of (8) and underpaid family doctors are daily disheartened to see the same people returning with the same problems. They know only too well that thousands of people suffer from (9) for which conventional treatment proves (10) , no matter how many expensive or painful tests they are forced to (11) However, all is not lost. Alternative medicine and, (12) homeopathy is gaining (13) as a valid form of treatment even though it remains hard to prove (14) . just how it works! Sceptics regard it as a fairly (15) form of hocus-pocus with active ingredients so diluted they wouldn't hurt a fly. But with so many devotees, it seems hard to ignore its potential any longer. All at sea

Just after sunrise, Jack looked out of the porthole again. If anything, the sea was looking even

(O) c.bQ.pp.i.e.r... than it had been the night before. The wind had ( l ) and was now accompanied by

(2) rain. Jack's heart sank. He felt (3) after yet another (4) night spent tying things down and praying the yacht wouldn't sink under the relentless battering of the wind and the waves. With the radio broken, he had no chance of signalling for help and all he had for company was mile upon (5) mile of mountainous seas between him and the (6) of port. He realised he was in a (7) situation. 8

9 10

11 12 13 14 15 WORK

AIL EFFECT GO PARTICULAR

RECOGNISE SCIENCE

HARM O CHOPPY

1 INTENSE 2 TORRENT

3 DREAD 4 SLEEP

5 END 6 SAFE 7 DESPAIR 4 Word formation

Read the texts below. Use the words in the box to form one word that fits in the numbered space in the texts. The exercise begins with an example.

PROGRESS TEST ONE

5 Discourse cloze

For questions 1-6, read through the following text and then choose from the list A-J the best phrase or sentence to fill each of the spaces. Write one letter (A-J) in the correct space. Some of the answers do not fit at all. The exercise begins with an example (0).

So how was your inbox this morning? Overflowing at the seams? Full of messages from people you don't know, subjects you don't care about, and (0) , the odd gem of information which could transform your life (l)

Welcome to the club: e-mail is both business blessing and commercial curse. You can't do without it, yet you still can't face the idea of wading through every one of those tedious messages that come through the digital door every day. Perhaps (2) then it's time to move on to the fun parts of the magazine because I have momentous news for you: the e-mail flood may be bad today, but tomorrow (3) .... . Not only are you going to get more of the stuff, the stuff itself is going to explode too - into audio and graphics, video and customer response forms. And (4) , you're going to lose a key business edge along the way.

In the US, (5) for large corporations that deal with employees, customers and suppliers by e-mail to dispatch a staggering 800,000 messages per day (yes, you did read that correctly). Small wonder that one boss of a large software company decided to close down his network e-mail system for part of each day, (6) .... he thought people were too busy e-mailing and not spending enough time communicating. A if all this sounds way too familiar

B it is not unknown

C unless you refuse to use it

D precisely because

E if you try to ignore it F it's going to be ten times worse

G despite the fact that

H if only you could find it

I somewhere in among the dross

Globe Trotting

I Cohesive devices . (get) foggier it .... ..... ..... ..... ... (become) almost impossible to steer the boat along Language Focus, SB page 65 the narrow canal. Correct any illogical linking devices in the following 5 (hear) a strange noise just as I sentences. The first one is shown as an example. . (go) to sleep. 6 When the fire alarm ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (go) off, we 1 Although

Be€?se he'd never tried it before he was very good . (leave) the building as quickly as possible. 7 At the place where we (live) before, our 2 Don't forget to phone us finally you get there. neighbours ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (always/have) violent 3 Despite being an accomplished musician, Freda is arguments late at night. also a first-rate painter. 8 (hope) you'd come round for tea one 4 As well as the bad weather, the race meeting has afternoon next week. been cancelled. 9 Fiona ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (live) in New York when her first 5 I hope to get some work done while the holidays. novel . (publish). 6 So that you're always borrowing a pen, I've decided 10 On looking out of the window, Dick to buy you one. (see) it was another dreary day. The wind 7 Cars are expensive to maintain, whereas bicycles cost . (blow) hard and big black clouds very little. (gather) on the horizon. 8 I put the vases on top of the piano since they 11 While the others .. (lie) on the beach, wouldn't get broken. poor old Gary (work) in the office as 9 While a little sunshine can be good for you, too usual. much can be very harmful. 12 When the phone ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (ring), she 10 The job is a little tedious, but however it offers lots . (pick) it up and ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (put) it of fringe benefits. down again! 11 Credit may be arranged so as to spread payment 13 (never/understand) why you over twelve months. . (always/get) to school late on Monday 12 Tony has decided to take a year off owing to travel mornings. around the world. 14 Beverly ..... ..... ..... ... . (work) in a fast-food restaurant for a few months before she ..... ..... ..... ...... 2 Grammar (go) to college. 15 When I ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (be) a lad, we ..... .... ..... ..... ... Focus on Grammar, SB page 70 (always/go) to Heysham for our summer holidays. I

. (really/love) the place even though it 2. 1 Past simple vs past continuous (often/rain). In the following sentences put the verbs in brackets in either the past simple or past continuous tense. Put any other words in the brackets in the correct place. Look at the example provided.

1 While the teacher was explaining (explain) the sum on the blackboard, the children were throwing

(throw) paper aeroplanes around the classroom.

2 Eve ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (live) in Athens when she

. (meet) the man who was to become her husband.

3 . . you . (not work) at Mcl]roy's when they (have) that terrible fire?

5 GLOBE 2.2 Past perfect simple and continuous

In the following passage fill in the spaces with an appropriate form of the past perfect simple, past perfect continuous, past simple or past continuous of the verb in brackets. The first one has been done for you.

Frogs in my car I (1) had been waiting (wait) for over an hour when Barry finally (2) (turn up) on the tractor. He (3) .. (explain) he

. (hold up) by a fallen tree on the road. I (5) ..... ...... (not find) this hard to believe as a gale force wind (6) (blow) for the past 5 hours accompanied by torrential rain. The reason why I (7) .. (call) Barry was that my car (8) . (lie) on its side in a ditch. I (9) .. (drive) along very slowly in the terrible weather when suddenly a large dog

(appear) in front of me. I

. (brake) to avoid hitting it and the car (12) .. (skid) out of control on the water and mud on the road and into the ditch. I

. (manage) to get out through the window. The problem now was that the car

. (fill up) with water and mud!

Within seconds Barry, who (15) .

(wear) enormous rubber boots, (16) .

(tie) a rope to the front bumper of the car and

(pull) it out with the tractor. After a few minutes the car was the right way up and back on the road again. We (18) .

(open) the door and out (19) .. (jump) two big frogs who (20) .. (swim) in through the open window!

3 Phrasal verbs

3. 1 Phrasal verbs with up

Substitute the underlined words in the following sentences with a phrasal verb with up. The first one is shown as an example.

1 The TV's rather quiet, can't you increase its volume/ turn it up?

2 I'd like to improve/................. . my Spanish before going on holiday to Valencia.

3 Come on, finish your drink/....... .. and we'll go for a walk along the river.

4 What's the matter, Rupert? Can't you fasten/...................... your seatbelt for yourself?

5 In my grandparents' day it was unusual for married couples to separate/...............

6 The police eventually managed to bring together/........ all the criminals who had taken part in the bank robbery.

7 Quite honestly, Mr Mitty, I think you've invented/ ...... the whole story.

8 Children often don't realise how cruel it is to unite/ ..... against someone who is different from them.

9 If you don't understand a word, try and guess what it means before you find its meaning/...... in a dictionary.

10 Can't we go a little faster/................ . a bit or we'll never get there on time?

3.2 In other words

In the following story replace the words in brackets with an appropriate phrasal verb taken from the box below. See the example.

pull up look on to build up

drop off to start up pull off stub out jump out of shoot off go through with rip off pull over pull out take aback The hold-up

The hold-up had started going wrong. Clyde, who was supposed to be (l) looking out for (waiting to see) the security van from a flat which (2)

(gave a view of) the main street, had (3) (gone to) sleep due to the fact that he had been drinking double brandies all morning to (4) (increase) his courage.

So Bugsy, Danny and Studs were completely (5) (amazed) when the security van (6) (stopped) outside the bank without a word of warning from Clyde. Bugsy (7) (extinguished) his cigarette. 'We've gotta (8) it (not leave unfinished) now - it's too late to (9) (abandon a difficult plan)! Studs (10) (put in motion) the getaway car and (l l ) (moved) to a

spot just past the bank. Bugsy and Danny

(quickly left) the car and (13) . (ran) towards the bank. Studs suddenly realised just how shaky he felt after the recent events and got out of the car for a breath of fresh air.

A few minutes later Bugsy and Danny came running back from the bank shouting to the still dazed Studs that they had (14) .. it ..... ..... ...... (succeeded in a difficult plan). Studs, however, didn't seem too interested and stood glued to the spot where he had left the car.

'(Good (God ! Is nothing sacred these days? Some crook's just (15) . the car ..... ..... ...... (stolen)!' 3.3 Three-word phrasal verbs Study Box, SB page 72

Complete the following sentences with three-word phrasal verbs. An example is provided in number one.

I We still haven't sold the house because the buyers went back on their word and pulled out of the deal.

2 As there was no official at the gate, Diana got not buying an entrance ticket.

3 Unfortunately, the new restaurant didn't really live our expectations.

4 How much longer have we got to put these hooligans before the police take some action?

5 I look meeting you at the congress next month.

6 I gave waiting for the landlord to repair the roof and paid for the work to be done myself.

7 Someone broke into the shop last night and made some videos and a TV set.

8 We spent over an hour at the airport looking

Vera's cousin but, somehow, we missed him!

9 Although they are from very different backgrounds, they get each other extremely well.

10 I'm sorry I haven't got fixing your window yet. I'll do it tomorrow.

Phrasal verbs offi etc) rather than verb (get, make, run, etc):

e.g. turn switch ON put UP WITH catch

Remember that particles often have fixed meanings such as fastening and restriction, approach etc:

e.g. wrap up, zip up, tie up, make for, head for A good way to record and remember phrasal verbs is to group them according to particle (up, down, in, out, on,

S GLOBE 4 inks

> study Box, SB page 75

Match sentences 1-9 with A-H. Use the reference links in the box below to complete A-H. Look at the example given.

such which the above the latter that another 1 Frank and Nigel Fish had been seen in the area two or three days before the robbery took place. D 2 The national press falls into two main camps, the broadsheets and the tabloids.

3 Occasionally the child does not want to be re-united with the parents.

4 Not recommended for people with angina, diabetes, migraine or vertigo.

5 There has been a family feud going on for about ten years.

6 Hamford seems to be more and more polluted - the city centre is just appalling with all those buses belching out exhaust fumes,

7 One way of treating a headache is to take some pain killers, like aspirins.

8 Didn't you realise Andrew is only partially sighted?

A Incases it is extremely hard to find a solution.

. is to try relaxation techniques or, better still, massage.

c . is why we've decided to move out to the countryside.

D Not only that but the style of the crime is typical of the aforementioned brothers.

E Oh, ..... ..... ..... .... .. explains why it's Barbara who always drives the car!

F As you can imagine, ..... ..... ..... ..... .. makes birthdays and Christmas parties rather tense affairs!

. tend to concentrate on the more sensational or scandalous aspects of the news.

H Please consult your GP if you suffer from any of

5 Word stress -Air travel

Use a dictionary to help you mark the stress patterns in the underlined words below. Draw one circle for each syllable and show the stressed syllables with large circles. Be careful to identify the grammatical function in each case. See the example provided.

I Oh no, I've left my handbag at the check-in desk. 2 The hostess on the plane gave us some sweets to suck before take-off.

3 Would late passengers for flight BY577 please check in immediately.

4 Lavatories on planes are usually rather small. 5 The bus for the city centre leaves from outside the terminal building.

6 Please have your boarding card ready. 7 I'm not sure if I'll be leaving today as I've got a standby ticket.

8 Sorry for the delay, we hope to take off in 5 minutes.

Word stress

to show the correct stress with. Bubbles show not only number of syllables which

O oo temperature

bubbles not you have stress but pronounced.

0 00

comfortable, Use on words the main are actually

0 e.g. accents difficulty also the

o o interesting, 6 Writing - Formal letter

Look at the advertisement opposite, which appeared in

The Independent, and the letter written in response to it. The letter contains 14 mistakes. Find and correct them as in the two examples provided.

COUNTRY COTTAGE HOLIDAYS

Give yourself a break in one of our beautifully restored country cottages with all mod cons sleeping from 4 to

10 people. Prices from ?100 per week.

Contact: Randolf Jefferies

20 The Green, Hinton,

Devon HN3 2CC.

5 Redland Road

Barford BF2 8VR 21 st May, 20- Randolf Jefferies 20 The Green

Hinton Devon HN3 2CC

Jefferies Dear Mr in

I was most interested by your advertisement on 'The Independent' and I am writing for obtain further informations about your country cottage holidays.

In particular, I would like knowing in which parts of the country N our cottages are located as my friends and I are interested to stay as far away from large cities as possible. I would like to know too if it would be possible renting a cottage for six people for up to six months and whether pets are allowed as my friends and I have three well-behaved dogs we are planning to take with us.

I should, therefore, be terrible grateful if you will send me full details of your larger more isolated cottages and any brochures you may have.

Thanking you in advance for your help. I look forward to hear from you as early as possible.

Yours faithfully

Sandy Melville SANDY MELVILLE

5 GI OBF 7 Editing for phrasal verbs

In the following passage most (but not all) of the phrasal verbs have either the wrong verb or wrong particle. If a correction is required, write it in the space provided. Look at the example (0).

Although ?10 seemed a lot for a guided walking tour, I'd charged up like most of the others staying at the hotel. The tour was supposed to start at 9 0'clock, so we were getting a little angry and were just about to give in and go and have a cup of coffee together when the guide finally turned out at reception 30 minutes late. She said she had left home on time but had had to go back as she'd forgotten the tour maps - it came out to be her first day on the job! First of all, she sorted off which of us already had maps and which didn't. We eventually set off more than an hour behind schedule and started making to the old town. Although there were only about ten of us, I found it hard to hear her commentary as she seemed to have singled out the three or four people closest to her to talk to. As we were walking along I asked her if we could go and see a beautiful old church, but she replied rather abruptly that we had to stick in the itinerary. After that, I decided I'd better write down my ?10 and rely on my own map and intelligence for a more personal tour of the city. O paid

1 2

3 4 5

6 7

8 9 10

1 1

12 13

14 15

16 8 Wordcheck - Collocations

Complete the following sentences with suitable word combinations. See the example.

I I've never done it before but I'll give it a try.

2 When I asked him where room CIO was, he justhis shoulders and told me to ask someone else.

3 After the bank robbery, the thieves went into ..... ..... ...... in an old barn for six months.

4 We advise all our clients to ..... ..... ...... out travel insurance.

5 It's pretty quiet now but when the holiday season is under ..... ..... ...... it's absolutely packed with people.

6 Ski instructors must .fairly interesting lives, mustn't they? 7 I hope Bobby won't make himself the life and ..... ..... ...... of the party tonight. It's so embarrassing!

8 The group's mission is to ..... ..... ...... peace between nations and help different peoples understand each other better.

9 your .boy! Speak when you're spoken to!', shouted the old man angrily.

10 As the inspection day approached, the manager .. us all under tremendous pressure to make sure everything was in order.

6 Language Matters

I Relative clauses I .2 Different endings

Each of the sentences below can end in several different

Focus on Grammar, SB page 84 ways. Choose the possible endings from the box below

and add a suitable relative pronoun where necessary.

1. 1 Relative pronouns The first one is shown as an example.

Where possible, remove the relative pronouns in the following sentences and make any other necessary I What's the name of that town changes. Look at the example given. a which was featured in that IV documentary last week?

b c d 2 Have you still got that book a b

c 3 Wasn't it Elizabeth a b

c 4 Which is the month a I Who's that man Lisa's talking to? b

2 I'm calling about the advert that appeared in c yesterday's 'Evening Echo'.

you wanted to have off author I can never remember the name of lived in China until she was 16 had to be invented to make the year longer mayor was arrested for corruption was reviewed in The Times last week the restaurant sacked for being rude to customers

most people get married

I lent you last term was almost completely destroyed during the war

Richard Burton was born boyfriend wants to go and live in Italy 3 Isn't that the hotel where Greg and Sally had their wedding reception?

4 The gentleman with whom you spoke last time is no longer with the company.

5 That's the couple whose house was burgled last week.

6 The bulldog that attacked that little girl has been destroyed.

7 The reason why the accident happened has never been clarified.

8 Is this the picture to which you were referring? 9 She always chooses a moment to call when everyone's out of the office.

10 That's the car that we were thinking of buying.

I .3 Reduced relative clauses

Decide which of the following sentences contain reduced relative clauses and which do not. Put a tick (V) in the appropriate column as in the example.

I The man called Max at the office and asked him to meet him later that day.

2 The man called Max in the film was played by Patrick Swayze.

3 Plums used to make me sick when I was a boy.

4 The player hurt in the tackle had to be taken to hospital.

5 Coffee made with this new percolator tastes better than ever!

6 The shark attacked in the shallows, causing panic among the bathers.

7 The player hurt his knee in the tackle but played on.

8 Coffee made Brenda feel agitated so she gave up drinking it.

9 The shark attacked in the shallows swam away losing a lot of blood.

10 Plums used to make jam must be very ripe.

1.4 Fill in the gaps

Complete the following sentences with a suitable reduced relative clause and any necessary prepositions. Each sentence must have a passive meaning. Look at the example given.

I Children born on or before 1st September should have been vaccinated.

2 Any books ..... ..... .... .. ..... to the library more than three days late will be subject to a fine.

3 Meat ..... ..... ..... ..... .. oil or butter contains much more cholesterol than meat which has been grilled.

4 Patients ..... ..... ..... ..... .. the new wonder drug showed no greater signs of recovery than those receiving traditional medicine.

5 Did you know that grapes .. to dry in the sun turn into raisins?

6 Tickets ..... ..... ..... ..... .. phone must be paid for within 24 hours.

7 The management declines all responsibility for

property ..... ..... ..... ... . from cars ..... ..... ..... ..... .. t car park.

8 The skeleton the building site last month turned out to be over 2,000 years old.

9 Yes folks, it's true. Clothes new

'Spumo' won't lose their colour. We guarantee it!

10 Looking round a junk shop one day, Stanley came across a picture by Rembrandt.

I l Dogs Britain from another European country must spend three months in quarantine.

12 Baggage unattended may be destroyed.

2 like, as and alike

>Study Box, SB page 85

Put like, as or alike in the appropriate places in the following sentences. One is shown as an example.

I Several of the businessmen got a little rowdy and started behaving like complete idiots.

2 JustI suspected, my letter had been delivered to the wrong office.

3 'The Watkins brothers are really , aren't they?'

'Yes, just two peas in a pod.'

4 Nothing can go wrong providing you do exactly you're told. 5 The fundamental injustice of the law was that it did not treat all offenders

6 There's no need to talkthat in front of the children!

7 they had feared, the company decided to make 200 workers redundant.

8 Cheryl must have been terrified. She came running out of the house .a bat out of hell!

as vs like between these two is:

driver.

table to rest his notes on.

yours. A as = in

e.g. She He used like =

e.g. She He's got

useful the similar

a distinction capacity works as a his briefcase to works like briefcase of taxi as a

a beaver. like

Now complete the following sentences with the Focus on Grammar, SB page 89 expressions you have made. The first one has been done 3.1 Comparatives and superlatives for you. Complete the following sentences with a suitable 1 Doesn't little Amy look nice in her new dress? comparative or superlative form of the words in Oh yes, she's as pretty as a picture. brackets. Look at the example given. 2 Alf is he can't see much without his glasses. 1 According to a computer, Spanish is (easy) the easiest foreign language to learn. 3 Oh no! We'll have to change the tyre, it's

2 Dogs are intelligent but not (intelligent) 4 If we don't get some rain soon, we'll never grow chimpanzees. anything in the garden, it's 3 They say it's (good) to have loved and 5 I had a good night's sleep last night, so I'm lost than never to have loved at all. this morning. 4 Even (carefully) prepared plans can go wrong. 6 I wouldn't give Colin any of my money to invest, he's

5 England isn't (mountainous country) Scotland. 7 Tim's been in bed all week with flu and he's

6 Reykjavik is the world's (northern) 8 Freda's once she makes up her mind capital city. she's going to do something, nothing you can say 7 Your composition is full of mistakes because you will stop her! didn't spend half (time) on it 9 'My word! David's lost a lot of weight.' you should have! 'Yes. Do you think he's OK? He looks 8 Don't worry, you'll be OK with Gerry, he's (careful to me!' driver) you could wish to have. 10 'Mrs Copley's daughter has been offered a place at 9 In the Alto Adige region of Italy, German dialect is university.' spoken much (frequently) Italian. 'Yes and she's She's already told half 10 Sumo wrestlers must be (heavy) the town.' athletes in the world. 11 Young Alan is really helpful on the farm. He's 3.2 as ... as and he'll do anything you ask him to. 12 I'm afraid Grandad won't hear you unless you shout. Using a good monolingual dictionary, check which words in Column A go with the ones in Column B to He's 3 Comparison 3.3 Complete the sentences

form common comparative expressions with as ... as (a) ... Look at the example provided.

I prettyA a pancake

2 weak 3 freshC a kitten

4 thinD a bone 5 stubbornE an eel

6 slipperyF a daisy

7 proudG a picture

8 strongH a mule

10 deaf K a peacock

12 blind

4 Degrees of comparison

Using the language in the boxes below, complete the comparisons between the two couples as in the example.

slightly about more/less/fewer exactly a great deal nearly twice half five times over much/far as much as considerably as many as

Age MARTIN FIONA RUPERT RACHEL 39 42 37 29 Height 1m 77cm 1m 68cm 1m 76cm 1m 65cm Weight 96kg 48kg 75kg 59kg

3 hrs Working day

Annual income 9 hrs

?42,000 5.5 hrs 6 hrs ?16,500 ?32,000 ?8,000 Exercise per week I hr 2 hrs 4 hrs 1.5 hrs

I (AGE) Rachel is considerably younger than Fiona.

2 (AGE) Martin isRupert.

3 (WEIGHT) Fiona weighsMartin.

4 (WEIGHT) Martin weighsRupert.

5 (HEIGHT) Rupert isMartin.

6 (HEIGHT) Fiona isRachel.

7 (WORK) Martin worksRachel.

8 (WORK) Fiona worksRupert.

9 (INCOME) Rachel earnsFiona.

10 (INCOME) Martin earnsRachel.

11 (EXERCISE) Rupert takesMartin. 12 (EXERCISE) Rachel takesFiona.

5 Linking and logical devices - addition, concession, contrast

Complete the following sentences with suitable linking devices. An asterisk ( * ) indicates at least two possible answers. Look at the example.

I Jenny speaks *both/not only Russian and/but also excellent Chinese.

2 does Jenny speak Russian, excellent Chinese.

3 Jenny speaks Russian. . she speaks excellent Chinese.

4 speaking Russian, Jenny speaks excellent Chinese.

5 They looked at us. ..... ..... ..... we came from another planet!

6 the doctor told him to rest for a week, he was back at work after two days.

7 we'd caught the earlier train we wouldn't have got there on time. So, stop worrying! 8 I know she's a sensible girl and . help worrying about her.

9 They played golf all morning . the torrential rain.

10 We thought it was going to be a great match. it turned out to be rather dull.

I l They've got no chance of winning the game; they're training every day.

12 Some people like boxing, . others absolutely detest it.

even if vs even though

is used before statements that

money in the world, I wouldn't buy

the plane even if we'd taken a taxi. other hand, is used before

her job even though she's just his friends even though he'd Remember

wouldn't

pay that hypothetical i.e. if I had all

have though, on that are not happy rise and to the seen the film.

are e.g. Even that car.

We Even statements

e.g. She's had a He went already even if not fact: the

caught the fact:

with promotion. cinema with

Spelling

6.2 Here is a quick checklist of the main areas of difficulty:

• silent letter combinations - know, comb, wrong, castle, etc.

• doubling consonants to maintain correct pronunciation - taped (past of tape) vs tapped (past of tap), cuter (from cute) vs cutter (from cut), etc. doubling consonant on stressed final syllable before a suffix:

0 0 0 0 0 0 differ differing defer deferring

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 benefit benefited admit admitted doubling final 'l' after no more than one vowel - travel > travelled, control > controller, vs reveal > revealed dropping final 'e' before suffixes starting with a vowel - write > writing (but age > aging or ageing), create > creating, collapse > collapsible, collaborate > collaboration final 'y' changes to (i' only if preceded by a consonant and followed by a suffix not beginning with 'i' - try > tried vs trying negative prefixes before specific letters - im + p (impolite), il + I (illogical), ir + r (irresponsible) differences between CAB and US English - colour vs color, traveller vs traveler individual oddities!

6.2 Now check the following sentences. Correct any spelling mistakes you find.

I They stoped the car to ask the way.

2 The police are patroling this area more and more.

3 We are studing the fall of the Roman Empire at the moment.

4 It is debateable whether the death penalty is an effective deterrent.

5 I keep forgeting where rve left my keys.

6 I remember we stayed in a lovely guesthouse near the centre of town.

7 Jane seems much happyer now that she's living on her own.

8 Unfortunately, Frank panicked and crashed the car.

9 The college provides residential accomodation for all its students.

10 It's doutful whether they'll get beyond the semi-finals.

7 Emphasisers Some of the emphasisers placed before the adjectives in the sentences below have been used incorrectly. Make any necessary corrections. Look at the example given.

extremely I The old castle is an absek*e?y attractive place to visit at sunset.

2 Oh, I'm awfully sorry, I didn't see you sitting there.

3 By the time we got home we were very exhausted and went straight to bed.

4 Jack was truly angry about not getting the promotion he wanted.

5 You said there was some petrol in the car but it was completely empty.

6 I wish I'd brought my umbrella. We're going to get extremely soaked in this rain.

7 We were totally happy to hear that you've passed all your exams.

8 The way Luisa can switch between three languages is very impressive.

9 Most people found the documentary deeply shocking.

10 I'll never forget that tremendously delicious meal we had on the last day of our holiday.

8 Review writing

For questions 1-15 read the film review below and then decide which word best fits in each space. The exercise begins with an example (O).

Having seen the (O) on TV for this latest Sam Spadacci film, I knew I was in for something a little different! The main ( l ) of the film (2) with the fall and eventual rise of Frankie Longo, (3) by the new Hollywood superstar Larry Zardini. The

(4) which has some brilliant one-liners, was written by Spadacci's old associate, Matt Dusi.

Everything starts off fairly predictably - a young Italo-American kid, mixed up with the local Mafia - it seems to be the usual (5) of Spadacci's own roots. But then, after going in and out of jail for a couple of years, Frankie 'gets cuisine' and suddenly discovers he's a marvellous cook! Some (6) are a little slow-moving as we (7) on Frank's culinary prowess - did we really need to spend five minutes of the film watching Frank's perfect souffle rising in the oven?

Soon Frankie is cooking for the rich and famous, including the Mafia big cheese Joe d'Ancona - a wonderfully over the top (8) by veteran Bruno Marmo - and eventually the President! Inevitably, in (9) of his efforts to go straight, Frankie is caught up in a secret

(10) to assassinate the President. Without giving too much away, Frankie apparently goes along with the Mafia while really sabotaging things. There are some crazy ( l l ) , including gangsters exploding out of a giant birthday cake! The (12) maintains the almost slapstick feel with a manic tempo at times.

(13) some of the dialogue is a little laboured at times this is, all in (14) a thoroughly entertaining bit of fun, which I

(15) whole-heartedly. 0 A commercial B episode C trailer D broadcast I A storyline B narrative C contents D commentary 2 A concerns B shows C describes D deals 3 A designed B set C played D cast 4 A chapter B script C speech D story 5 A study B survey C test D revision 6 A sections B chapters C acts D scenes 7 A analyse B focus C devote D examine 8 A character B part C performance D personality 9 A spite B account C despite D view 10 A plot B design C agreement D intention I l A stages B stunts C actions D productions 12 A beat B singing C record D soundtrack 13 A While B Except C Although D Whereas 14 A balance C conclusion D end 15 A offer B suggest C recommend D represent The Ages of Man

I Grammar 1.2 Past simple or present perfect? > Focus on Grammar, SB page 102

1 . 1 used to ... vs belget used to ... Study Using the verbs and any other words given in brackets,

Box, SB page 102 complete the following sentences with the most suitable

Match the first half of each short dialogue (1-10) with form of either the past simple or the present perfect. An its corresponding second half (A-J) and then complete example is given to help you.

them with a suitable form of used to ... or be/get used

to ... . The exercise starts with an example. 1

I Oh dear. I've never driven such a powerful car 2 before.

2 Don't you play tennis?

3 It must be really hard to get up at five every 3 morning.

4 I hear Roger was really shocked when he first 4 started work for the murder squad.

5 Valeria didn't really know what to do when 5

she went to live on her own.

6 I thought you didn't like opera. 6

7 I don't think I'll ever understand this new computer program! 7

8 Why did you give up your job just after the new boss took over? 8

9 Have you noticed how many people drink bottled mineral water these days? 9 10 Did Gerry enjoy his time in the army?

10 A Well, there's no rush. Give yourself a month it. 11 B Oh, not really. I it by now.

C I know. She waited on hand, foot and finger by her mum. 12 D Not really. He never could orders!

E Don't worry, you'll soon get used to it. 13

F Strange, isn't it? No-one ever when I was a lad.

G well, 1but I really enjoy it now. 14

H I justunder so much pressure. 1 Oh, 1but I haven't practised for ages. 15 J Yes, but hethe job in the end.

Maria saw (see) the doctor yesterday about that rash she has had (have) for ages now. 'How long .. you .. (live) in

Spain?' 'Two years altogether, before moving to Italy.'

OK. Who . (take) my best pen? It

(be) on my desk thirty seconds ago. In the Middle Ages people .. (not live) so long as they do now.

Oh dear, what ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (happen) to you? You look as though you .. (see) a ghost! Who. (write) William Tell? I can never remember if it ..... .. . . (be) Mozart or Rossini.

Where ........ you .. (buy) those trousers? They're fantastic!

It's definitely our favourite film, we ..... ..... ..... ..... .. see) it six times.

you ever ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (steal) apples when you . (be) a kid? Thomas (be) late for every lesson so far.

I hear you . (go) to St Petersburg on

your honeymoon. What ..... ..... ..... ..... .. you

(think) of the place?

Hello Julia. When ..... ..... ..... ..... .. you (get) here?

Ah, madam. I believe you . (witness) the accident. Could you tell me exactly what

(happen)? Hugo . (break) his leg so he can't go

skiing next month.

Ella(smoke) forty cigarettes a day for

over thirty years. Then she ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (give up)

overnight and ..... ..... .. (not touch) one since!

7 THE AGES OF MAN

1 .3 Present perfect simple and continuous

>Focus on Grammar, SB page 102

In the following sentences decide whether to use the present perfect simple, the present perfect continuous or the past simple tense of the verbs in brackets and fill in any other missing words as in the example.

I How long have you been running (run) the hotel for now?

2 When . . you (see) the doctor? I(not see) him yet.

3 1(learn) Japanese ..... ..... ..... ..... .. about six months now. It's really interesting.

4 How long you ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (live) in Japan before coming back to England?

5 Rob (finish) his novel? Oh yes. It just (be) published.

6 They (live) in that same little house the day they ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (get) married 20 years ago. I don't think they'll move now! 7 What a fantastic old car! How long ..... ..... ..... ..... .. you (have) it?

8 you .(suffer) from these pains in your chesta long time?

9 I see they still(not repair) that big hole in the road.

10 The team(not win) a single match so far this season.

I l Don't we need some groceries? Don't worry, I

(take) care of that. I (do) the shopping on the way home.

12 Maisy (phone) yet? Yes, about 10 minutes ago. She(say) she can't make it tonight.

13 How many of those chocolatesyou (eat) so far?

14 we (use) my father's garage as a

storeroom for our furniture ..... ..... ..... ..... .. the fire.

We still (not find) anywhere permanent to live.

15 Julie (eat) nothing but 'paella' her trip to Spain.

I .4 Stative vs dynamic verbs Focus on Grammar, SB page 1 03

Complete the gaps in the dialogue below using the correct form of the verbs and any other words given in the brackets. See the example.

'Why ( l) are you smelling (you smell) that cheese, Ted?'

(think) about eating it, of course.' 'Well, 1 (3) (not think) that's a very good idea. It (4) (look) a bit strange and it (5)

(definitely smell) off!'

'Maybe, but I bet it (6) .. (taste) great.' 'Well, 1 (7) . (realise) it's up to you but don't say I didn't warn you.

(Half an hour later)

'Oooh Donald, I (8) (not feel) too well.' 'Well, to be honest, that (9) .. (not surprise) me one little bit. You (10) .. (seem) almost determined to make yourself ill at times. I

(11) . (remember) the time with those oysters!'

'0K, OK. Listen, 1 (12) (need) a rest but I (13) (see) Nancy in an hour . . . 'And I (14 (suppose) you'd like me to put

her off.' 'Thanks Dougal, and I (15) .. (promise) I'll

listen to you in the future.'

2 Dictionary skills

In all of the following exercises you should use a good monolingual dictionary to help you find the answers.

2. 1 Connotation

In the following sentences, decide on the different meanings of the underlined words and if they are being used to give a positive, negative or neutral connotation.

I Phil has got incredibly hairy forearms, hasn't he? 2 It was rather hairy coming down the mountain road with no lights on the car.

3 Anna's really funny, she just makes me laugh and laugh.

4 I thought there was something a bit funny about his explanation of the accident.

5 In spite of the forecast, it turned out to be a fine day. 6 As a restorer of old paintings, she must have an eye for fine detail.

THE AGES OF MAN 7 2.2 Parts of speech

Decide the grammatical function of each of the underlined words.

7 The poor are always with us.

8 Sorry, I'm afraid I explained that rather poorly.

9 Many students are quite poor.

10 Jack's feeling rather poorly so he's staying at home today.

2.5 Word formation (derivations)

Use the correct form of the word use in each sentence.

31 Haven't you got another dictionary? This one's absolutely ..... .... ..... . . .

32 The computer disks got wet so they were no longer

I l headed 15 nut

19 cash 12 luck 16 eared 20 hearted 17 sleeper 14 brained

18 drink 2.3 Metaphors and Idioms

Which of the following words can come after the word hard and what do they mean? (four do not exist)

2.4 Collocation

Match the verbs in Column A with the correct parts of the body in Column B and try doing the actions! With five of the verbs it is not really necessary to add the part

of the body - which are they? 34 I think your time could be more ..... ..... ...... spent than reading comics all day.

35 . of the photocopier are kindly requested to 21 wink A your lips report any breakdowns to the secretary. 22 snap B your head 23 nod C your eyelashes 24 shrug D your thumbs 2.6 Pronunciation and stress 25 flutter E your nose For words 36 to 40 cross out the silent letters. For 41 to 26 twiddle F your hands 45, draw bubbles to show the correct stress, e.g. 27 pick G your eye cOrrUct. 28 clench H your shoulders 36 buoy

39 comb

42 photographer 45 original 37 wrestling

40 sword 43 difficulty 38 knick-knack

41 guitar 44 calculator 29 pout I your fingers

30 clap J your fist 33 Before buying a . .. car, it's a good idea to have it checked by a mechanic.

7 THE AGES OF MAN

3 Reported speech

Focus on Grammar, SB page 105

Put the following sentences into reported speech. Pay particular attention to the type of reporting verb (avoid said). The first one has been done for you.

I 'That's correct. The new ringroad will be built through the wood.'

The government official confirmed that the new rjngroad would be built through the wood.

2 'Don't worry. I'll repair the back door this weekend'.

Colin 3 'Alright, it's true. It was me who scratched the car.'

Karen

4 'If you don't give me ?5,000, I'm going to tell the police all about it.' Maurice

5 'You must come to Dave's party with me on

Saturday.' Hilary

6 'Oh, by the way, Terry's house is still for sale.'

Silvia 7 'Honest to God, I've never seen this money before in my life.'

Mr Penfold 8 'Don't go walking in the fog, it can be very dangerous.'

The mountain guide

9 'Oh, just a minute, was it Leonardo or Michelangelo who painted the Mona Lisa?' He couldn't

10 'Well, I'd like you all to know Nina and I are getting married next year.' Julian

I l 'Oh, I'm easily the best tennis player at the college.'

Jemima 12 'Would you mind repeating the question, Dr

McPherson?'

Dr Bianchi 13 'The service in this restaurant is incredibly slow.'

George 14 'I think it might be better to wait until the manager gets here.' The shop assistant

15 'Well, Jack, if I were you, I'd eat less and take more exercise.

The doctor

Reported speech

someone said it is not always tense of what was said if it is

next week,' said Gus.

shortly afterwards would say: next week. assured

reporting to change

worry, reporting us he's When necessary still true:

e.g. 'Don't Someone

Gus what the

I'm coming this coming 4 Expressions with make

Make an appropriate question using the verb make to produce each of the following answers. Look at the example given.

I Q: How much does he make?

A: About $100,000 a year. He's just been promoted again.

2 Q: What A: Let's see . Just gone three.

3 Q: Do you reckon George . a good boss?

A: Not really. He's too arrogant.

4 Q: So, why can't you .. this evening? A: Because I've got to go to a college meeting at eight.

5 Q: What A: Um . . . 138. Is that right?

6 Q: Do you think we

A: I'm not sure. But we mustn't give up.

5 Discourse cloze

Read through the following text and choose from the list A-J the best phrase to fit each space. Some of the suggested answers do not fit at all. The exercise begins with an example (0).

The Roots of Discipline

Humour is strong and flexible. Tragedy is brittle. If we change all our children's misdeeds into tragedy, (0) u.. . If all their mistakes are exposed and judged, as before the High Court, they will swiftly feel themselves to be victims of an unyielding system. Soon they feel that not only what they did was bad,

(1) But if a child can make mistakes in safety, (2) or through laughter, his trust and feeling of parental acceptance is not destroyed. The lesson will, however, still be learned. Humour defuses a situation; (3)

Quite simply, the best way to convey discipline to our children is to discipline ourselves. We are the signposts to our children's futures, (4)

It makes sense to take responsibility for our own actions, and respect and accept our own feelings (5) .... . We are then less likely to hide behind a liberal or an authoritarian mask that is unable to reflect the full range of our feelings. A and they are always looking to us to see where to go

B if we wish to develop as human beings

C but that they are intrinsically bad, too

D as we travel through life together

E but also that their parents are totally out of control

F learn through the warmth of a cuddle

G seriousness augments it

H which is, of course, its greatest strength

I before we discipline the child

J they soon learn the unhappiness of existence

THE AGES OF MAN 7

6 Wordcheck - Age

Fill in the missing words in the grid below to reveal another hidden word associated with age. Look at the example given.

1 E L D E R L Y

2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 1 Word used to describe old people.

2 Young child who is learning or has just learned to walk.

3 Physical strength to do something over long periods of time.

4 No longer young but not yet old.

5 Someone aged between 13 and 19.

6 If you are aged between 70 and 79 you are in your

7 A child with special gifts or great ability.

8 A very young child.

9 If you are 32, you are in your thirties.

8 Personally I Compound adjectives

Word formation, SB page 1 20

Complete the following sentences with compound

adjectives to describe character. The first letters are

given to help you. See the example provided.

1 My God! You're so empty-headed. How could you

leave a broken bottle in the children's play area?

2 Fanny's become really b-h . since she won the tennis tournament!

3 You needn't worry about shocking my parents, they're very b

4 Emma is terribly t..... ..-s ; she takes offence at the most innocent remarks.

5 Don't bother asking Lisa for a loan, she's really

t 6 If you want some sensible suggestions, go and ask Julia - she's pretty l.

7 Be careful how you treat him, he's so s t he's likely to blow up at any moment!

2 The . . . the . . . - comparatives

Study Box, SB page 1 13

Complete the following sentences with a suitable comparative form. The first one is shown as an example.

1 The hotter (hot) the curry, the better (good) she likes it!

2 The . (interesting) the book, the

(likely) I am to try and finish it in one evening!

3 The . (easy) a job is to do, the

. (highly) paid are the people who do it.

4 The .. (wine) he drank, the . (clearly) he spoke.

Speaking 5 The(close) it got to the time of the interview, the she became.

6 The(humid) it became, the (bad) they felt.

7 The(far) we climbed up the mountain, thethe clouds became.

8 the more determined I am to succeed.

9 The less students contribute in class,

10 the less fluently one speaks a foreign language.

3 Phrasal verbs >Focus on Vocabulary, SB page 1 13

Complete the following sentences with a suitable phrasal verb from the box below. Remember to use the correct tense or grammatical structure. The first one has been done for you.

face up to fall back on tick off steer away from fight out tune in work out put down eke out I Don't forget to tune jn tomorrow at 8.15 to find out who killed Lady Redfern in the last episode of our Radio Murder Mystery series.

2 When packing, I always make a checklist so I can things as I put them in the suitcase.

3 I think it would be best if you

.. your complaints in a letter addressed to the manager.

4 They'll eventually have to .... ..... .... ..... .....

. the fact that the company is going to be closed down.

5 It is said that Isaac Newton .

. the law of gravity after he'd been hit on the head by an apple!

6 I try and ..... ..... .... .

talking about politics with Steven but he always gets back to it sooner or later.

7 When I was a student, I ..... ...

what little money I had by buying only second-hand clothes.

8 There's only one place left and I'm not deciding who

should have it. You'll have to ..... ..... ..... ..... It

..... ..... ..... ..... .. amongst yourselves.

9 When we both lost our jobs at the same time, it was lucky we had our savings to

10 The old lady had no trouble in the thief at the identity parade.

4 Grammar

Focus on Grammar, SB page 1 1 8

4. 1 The Passive

Match up the beginning of each sentence in Column A with its ending in Column B and add a suitable passive verb form in the space provided. The first one is shown as an example.

I In the past, small amounts of cocaine used to be used.

2 Salt on roads.

3 Central heating

4 In the future, many of today's hereditary diseases

5 Not so long ago, teeth

6 In my grandfather's time, a driving licence

7 Undeveloped film

8 150 years ago, Gaelic

9 'Graded readers' are books in which the language

10 Hand gestures

I l The world's tropical rainforests

12 In India, cows

A to mean different things in different countries. B to direct sunlight

C much more widely in Scotland than it is today D by the Romans.

E so quickly that they may all have gone by 2035!

F when there is snow and ice.

G in the production of Coca-Cola.

H as sacred animals.

I at a post office without having to take a test!

J without any anaesthetic!

K so that learners can read them more easily. L through genetic engineering.

PERSONALLY SPEAKING 8

4.2 Fill in the gaps

Complete the gaps in the following passage by putting the verbs in brackets into an appropriate passive form. You will also have to put any other words in brackets in the correct place. Look at the example given.

Well, last month most of the lambs (l) were sold (sell) at the market, although we've still got ten, which (2) (probably send) next week. When all the lambs have gone, the sheep (3) (take) to another part of the farm. After that, we usually start on the fruit, although the blackcurrants (4)

(already pick) because it was an early season this year.

The plums can't (5) (pick) for another three weeks by law as they (6) (spray) only seven weeks ago. Of course, they still have (7) (gather) by hand, unlike the blackcurrants, which (8) (harvest) by machine nowadays. The plums and blackcurrants (9) (both make) into jam and preserve. Then we have what's called the 'bag fruit', which is apples and pears. Since the fruit doesn't have to be in good condition (10) (make) into cider and perry, it (11) (treat) pretty badly. For example, there are no skilled pickers involved, the trees (12) (just shake) until the fruit drops to the ground, where it (13) (collect) and ( 14) (put) into bags. As you can imagine, handling the bags is a very dirty job as the juice leaks out everywhere. But I hope the whole process

(15) (automate) before much longer.

4.3 make/cause, etc.

Add a suitable ending to each of the following sentences using an infinitive verb form with or without to. Look at the example provided.

I Reading an article about the (greenhouse effect' persuaded Gary to travel by bicycle more frequently.

2 The lack of rain caused most of the plants

3 The park-keeper wouldn't let the children

4 Driving while under the influence of alcohol causes people

5 The TV pictures of the damage caused by the flood made us all

8 PERSONALLY SPEAKING

6 What the doctor said about lung cancer and heart disease convinced Moyra

7 The customs officer asked Boris

8 The examination invigilator didn't let anyone

9 Living and working in a foreign country usually forces you

5 Writing - Informal letter

Use the following notes to write a letter of invitation to a friend. You must use all the words in the same order as the notes. You may add words and change the form of words where necessary but do not add any extra information. The first one has been done for you.

1 many thanks postcard Greece - get last week.

2 glad hear have good time - apart sunburn!

3 hope get over it - feel better now. 4 anyway reason write - Kim and I party

Saturday 19th celebrate end exams.

5 know rather long way come but wonder you like

stay weekend.

6 both hope able make it.

7 can let know come by next Friday?

& Hope hear soon Dear Sam,

I Many thanks for your postcard from Greece, which we got last week.

2 3 4 5

Informal letters

points when writing an

DON'T

Dear begin Dear Friend

under use the formal endings Yours sincerely/faithfully. Remember the following informal letter:

DO write the salutation (e.g. Sally) against the left hand margin.

begin the first paragraph the first letter of the correspondent's name.

indent the following paragraphs slightly in from the left hand margin.

end with Best wishes or Love (depending on how well you know the person)

6 Wordcheck - Character and personality

In each of the following groups of words there is one that doesn't fit. Underline the odd word out. The first one has been done for you.

I critical defensive sarcastic persistent 2 keen restless eager ambitious 3 harsh unfeeling impatient insensitive 4 diligent talkative friendly chatty withdrawn timid calm 6 carefree attentive careful cautious 7 happy content cheerful charming 8 trustworthy dynamic reliable dependable

PERSONALLY SPEAKING 8

7 Lexical cloze Read the following text carefully and choose the answer which best fits each space. The first answer has been given as an example.

Smile Power The expression on your face can actually dramatically (O) f.. your feelings and perceptions, and it has been proved that (l) .... smiling or frowning can create corresponding emotional responses. The idea was first (2) .... by a French physiologist, Israel Waynbaum, in 1906. He believed that different facial (3) affected the flow of blood to the brain, and that this could create positive or negative feelings. A happy smile or irrepressible

.. increased the blood flow and contributed to joyful feelings. But sad, angry expressions decreased the flow of oxygen-carrying blood, and created a vicious (5) .... of gloom and depression by effectively (6) the brain of essential fuel.

Psychologist Robert Zajonc rediscovered this early (7) and (8) that the temperature of the brain could affect the production and synthesis of neurotransmitters - which definitely influence our moods and energy levels. He argues that an impaired blood flow could not (9) .... deprive the brain of oxygen, but create further chemical imbalance (10) inhibiting these vital hormonal messages. Zajonc goes on to propose that our brains remember that smiling is associated with being happy, and that by deliberately smiling through your tears you can (Il) .... your brain to release uplifting neurotransmitters - replacing a depressed condition (12) . . a happier one. People suffering from psychosomatic (13) depression and anxiety states could (14) .... from simply exercising their zygomatic (15) .... - which pull the corners of the mouth up and back to form a smile - several times an hour.

0 A effect B alter C arrange D reduce I A desperately B determinedly C deliberately D decidedly 2 A put off B put down C put by D put forward 3 A aspects B looks C expressions D appearances 4 A laughter B sadness C humour D depression 5 A cycle B spiral C circle D vortex 6 A cutting B starving C removing D eliminating 7 A result B subject C research D experiment 8 A advises B wants C demands D suggests 9 A even B only C ever D always 10 A by B without C when D from Il A make B persuade C allow D decide 12 A through C after D with 13 A disease B illness C infection D ailment 14 A recover B improve C benefit D progress 15 A muscles B nerves C veins D bones Progress Test Two

Units 5-8

I Structural cloze

For questions 1-15, complete the following story by writing each missing word in the space. Use only one word for each space. The exercise begins with an example (O).

A summer job 'Oh good, you're here at last. I was wondering what time you'd (O) arrive,' snapped the boss. 'I've been waiting for you

(1) three quarters of an hour!'

I apologised and explained that the early morning traffic had been (2) heavier than I'd expected.

'Oh dear! I don't suppose you're (3) to getting up so early after your time at university. To be honest, I'm surprised you were (4) to get here before midday,' he added sarcastically. I smiled and said nothing.

The job was driving a bus around Stratford (5) Cheryl, the boss's daughter, gave a description of the places of interest we were passing.

We set off at half past nine with a bus full of tourists. Suddenly Cheryl hissed into my ear, 'How (6) .

have you had your licence? You drive (7) a complete lunatic! Slow down or they won't see anything.'

Sorry,' I said, gritting my teeth. (I'll (8) my best.'

At I l o'clock, the tourists and Cheryl went into Anne Hathaway's cottage so I decided to go and have a cup of coffee. The cafe was a (9) further away than I realised and I had to stand in the queue for ages - it

(10) have taken me 20 minutes to get served. When I got back to the bus, Cheryl was furious.

'Where on earth have you (l l) shouted Cheryl.

'l just went for a coffee. Your father said it (12) be OK,' I protested.

When we got back, Cheryl told her father about my dreadful behaviour. But before he (13) .. to open his mouth, I said 'Look, I've had just about enough of this. Don't bother to sack me, I won't be (14) .. In tomorrow!' and walked out.

I later found out that they had had four different drivers in (15) many weeks. 2 Phrasal verbs

Complete each of the following sentences with the appropriate form of a suitable phrasal verb. An example sentence is provided.

Example: Hal had no trouble in calling up all the data we needed on the computer screen.

I Giving up my job to go and live abroadto be the biggest mistake I've ever made.

2 Jane has always her brother even when he was accused of murder and everyone else refused to speak to him.

3 This watch used to belong to my great-great-grandfather. It's been

from father to son for five generations.

4 My karate instructor always Robert to demonstrate techniques as he's the best in the class.

5 I've got to drive, so I think I'd betterorange juice, thanks all the same.

PROGRESS TEST TWO

3 Word formation

Read the texts below. Use the words in the box to form one word that fits in the numbered space in the texts. The exercise begins with an example (0).

From what we had read in the (0) advertisement, it promised to be the holiday of a lifetime - not only a quality hotel in a top (l) .. resort, but also (2) ..... ..... ..... .. . . . cheap with it! We should have known it was too good to be true! We arrived at the airport to discover we only had

. tickets and there was no guarantee we would be flying. Luckily, two places became free at the last minute and we took off. The flight lasted at least (4) . as long as it should have and by the time we arrived, we were both feeling rather (5) . , probably because of the dubious in-flight meal we had had. We were met by our guide, who seemed (6) .

incompetent and understood very little of what we said to him. Instead of the hotel we had seen in the photograph back home, he took us to a squalid little guesthouse much (7) ... away from the resort than we were expecting. We wanted to explain that there had been a dreadful mistake but it was (8) . . trying to complain - nobody could understand us! How to be sensitive

When asked to talk about themselves, some people, particularly men, become rather (9) .

Others become (10) . , unable to sit still or look at their inquisitor. Others, however, become extremely (I l ) . delighted to have been given the opportunity to talk about themselves. Jenny falls into this latter category. One innocent question about her health can result in half an hour's in-(12) ..... ..... ..... ... description of her backache or sleepless night. What's more, you daren't interrupt her for fear of offending her legendary (13) .. and being described as an (14) ..... ..... .... . egotist with no interest in other people! I have now learned that all is futile and one simply has to grin and bear it. ADVERTISE

2 SURPRISE 3 STAND

4 TWO 5 POOR 6 LANGUAGE

7 FAR

8 USE 9 DEFEND 10 REST

11 TALK 12 DEEP

13 SENSE 14 FEEL

15 RESIST

PROGRESS TEST TWO

4 Register cloze

Read the following information sheet about hiring a car while on holiday in Greece and use the information to complete the numbered gaps in the informal letter to a friend. Use no more than two words for each gap. The words you need do not occur in the information sheet. The exercise begins with an example (O).

GENERAL CAR HIRE CONDITIONS

1 Cars should be booked at the same time as your holiday. If added later, a fax or telex fee may be incurred.

2 A small charge (c. ?5 per day) to offset extra insurance costs is made for additional drivers and payable locally.

3 Drivers must be at least 23 years of age for Groups A, B and C, 25 years of age for other Groups, and have held a full UK driving licence for 12 months. All drivers should be entered individually on the contract to be completed when collecting the car - you will need passport, driving licence, 'Hellas' voucher and a credit card.

4 Damage to the tyres, engine or underside of the car is not covered by insurance in Greece. A credit card imprint or cash deposit of approximately ?100 will be required on delivery of the car, returnable at the end of the hire period on condition that the car is returned with no damage to the above.

5 Outside normal office hours (0800-2000) an outof-hours delivery charge is payable locally, normally c. ?15.

6 Child seats and roof racks are available on request only and at a charge of c. ?3 per day payable locally.

7 Cars may be booked for periods of less than 7 days but the daily rate increases - please telephone us for a quote. Car hire prices are calculated on 24

hour periods.

Dear Fabienne,

Sorry it's taken me so long to get back in touch but I've been up to my eyes in work. Anyway, / did manage to find out about hiring a car if you book your holiday with

'He//as'. The first thing is to book the car when you pay for your holiday or there'// be some extra (0) charges. If David's going to

another ?5 a day. , you'// / know have you're to both pay (2)

twenty-three bub have you both (3) for more bhan 12 months? /f you haven't, you won't be a//owed to drive/ Also, don't forget to (4) your names on the contract you sign bothin

Greece. They'// also ask you for a deposit ?100 to (6) .

damage you might do to the car: Butany

long don't as worry, you bring you'// the (7) car back . this in one back (8)so

! Child seats don't come as standard, so you'// have to (9) for /itt/e Rory when you're there. /t'// (10). one you another ?3 a day,

PROGRESS TEST TWO

5 Lexical cloze Read the following text carefully and choose the answer which best fits each space. The first answer has been given as an example (O).

Stress-related hair loss

When stress levels become so high that they affect the immune system it can have a (0) Q. effect on the body and the hair. Hair loss itself causes immense stress and then it can become a vicious ( l )

Bonnie Kinnear, 50s, housewife: 'Last year my life was quite stressful due to my husband's high-profile career being constantly in the (2) . At this time I began to develop an (3) . . scalp which was wrongly diagnosed as psoriasis, for which I was (4) . . steroids. Over the next two months my scalp became worse, and hair began to fall out, leaving

(5) .... patches, which was devastating.

Having to look good and be a support to my famous husband was stressful because wherever we went people would look at us. I had lost at (6) .... one third of my hair and, in (7) . , visited a high-profile Mayfair trichologist. Without any (8) .... I was ordered to buy ?300 (9) .... of products and my head was massaged by a girl who proceeded to turn my hair into what is (10) . . as 'bird's-nest syndrome'. It took four hours

My GP (12) .... me to seek help from Andrew Bernie. I was diagnosed with a stress-triggered (13) .... where the skin cells multiply fast, grow down the hairshaft and bind with sebaceous matter to strangle the hair. I visit Andrew regularly for (14) . . I am also trying to (15) .... my stress levels, which is easier now my hair is returning. O A hard B heavy C profound I A cycle B effect C closure D circle 2 A daylight B spotlight C searchlight D starlight 3 A intense B enlarged C inflamed D inflicted 4 A prescribed B ordered C allowed D recommended 5 A empty B bald C dark D hairy 6 A once C least D first 7 A reply C hope D desperation 8 A experiment B diagnosis C study D result 9 A worth B value C price D cost 10 A supposed B known C seen D referred I l A replace B untangle C return D reset 12 A suggested B forbade C convinced D reported 13 A state B symptom C outcome D condition 14 A treatments B dates C services D appointments 15 A destroy B assess C manage D measure PROGRESS TEST TWO

6 Discourse cloze

For questions 1-6, read through the following text and then choose from the list A-J the best phrase or sentence to fill each of the spaces. Write one letter (A-J) in the correct space. Some of the answers do not fit at all. The exercise begins with an example (0).

Indo-European Languages

Today, most European languages, and many Asian languages as far east as India, are very similar to each other. (0) .V.. about memorising French word lists in school, these so-called (Indo-European' languages resemble English and each other in terms of vocabulary and grammar (1) . ... . Only

140 of the modern world's 5,000 tongues belong to this language family, (2) Thanks to the global expansion of Europeans since 1492 - especially people from England, Spain, Portugal, France and Russia - nearly half the world's present population of five billion now speaks an Indo-European language as its native tongue.

When, however, we go to parts of the world (3) .... , we realise how unusual Europe's linguistic similarity is, and how it calls for explanation. (4) , in areas of the New Guinea highlands (5) .... , we find languages as different as English is from Chinese being spoken in neighbouring areas.

(6) .... until some people speaking the mother tongue of the Indo-

European language family began to dominate and pushed almost all other European languages out of existence. A as well as French

B Eurasia must have originally been as diverse C For example

D which must have originated outside Europe

E yet differ in this respect from all the world's other languages

F In spite of this

G where contact with the outside world began only in the 20th century

H but their importance is far out of proportion to their numbers

I with great linguistic diversity

J No matter how much we complain

Mind Your I Inversion after negative introductions

> study Box, SB page 127

Complete the following sentences to make a more dramatic version of the sentence printed above it. The first one has been done for you.

1 You mustn't press this red button under any circumstances.

Under no circumstances must you press this red button.

2 She'd only just stubbed out one cigarette when she lit another.

Hardly 3 We didn't see a soul all day.

Not 4 As soon as I put the phone down, it rang again!

No sooner 5 He spoke so quietly that I didn't hear a thing he said.

so 6 They didn't win a game all season.

Not 7 Life is like that.

Such

8 She didn't realise who he was until she'd been speaking to him for ten minutes. Only after

9 Kate not only spilled wine on the carpet but she also broke six glasses.

Not only 10 I'd never seen such a gigantic fish before!

Never

Manners 2 Modal verbs

> Focus on Grammar, SB page 1 28

Complete the following sentences using a suitable modal verb to express obligation or permission together with the verb in brackets. The first one is shown as an example.

I You must go (go) and see that new play at the Adelphi. It's marvellous!

2 Guests (leave) their valuables in the hotel safe if they wish.

3 It was lucky we ..... ...... (change) any money as all the banks were shut.

4 We. (rush) after all. The plane was over an hour late taking off.

5 You(have) a special licence to drive lorries weighing over two tons.

6 Sorry to interrupt, Professor Cripwell. .

1 (ask) you a quick question?

7 In the future, European citizens .... ..... ..... ..... (travel) from one country to another inside Europe

without going through customs.

8 We really . (have) the car washed. It's

absolutely filthy!

9 I've no idea where the inn is. So when we get to the

village, we (ask) for directions.

10 Unlike many other countries, young men in Britain (do) compulsory military service as it

was abolished in 1957.

Il You used .(build) a house more or less anywhere on your land 100 years ago. Today you

(put) a shed in your garden without planning permission!

12 . (discuss) this any further? I'm sure we've all got a good idea of the problem now.

13 You. (keep) the receipt. They won't take it back without one now.

14 I hope we (build) an extension on the back of our house next year.

15 At my last job, we ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (make) any personal phone calls from the office. We the public call box in the street!

3 Collocations

Focus on Vocabulary, SB page 130

3. 1 Collocations - verb + noun

Complete the following sentences to make common word partnerships, or collocations. The first one has been done for you.

I William takes himself rather seriously, I'm afraid.

2 The government broke their not to put up taxes.

3 The town council plans to a public meeting to discuss the new car park.

4 Thomas wasted a lot of money on ineffectual advertisements but, in the end, he just put it down to

5 Kevin's always cracking terrible that only he laughs at!

6 A break from the everyday routine everyone a lot of good.

7 Laura raised an interesting at the staff meeting yesterday.

8 Jo was asked to an explanation for her extraordinary behaviour.

9 The doctor tried to put me at my about the operation but I couldn't help being worried.

10 The consultant advised us to bring our computer system up to , describing what we've got as antiquated and practically obsolete!

I l The manager told us to give to the publicity campaign as that was the most important thing to get finished.

12 She was trying to him a compliment but it came out all wrong.

13 Amanda an excuse about visiting a sick friend but I don't think she really wanted to come.

14 I made a real when I asked her about her husband. How was I to know they'd just split up?

15 It was getting very late but nobody seemed to want to make a to break up the party.

3.2 Collocations - verb + adverb

Complete the following sentences with a suitable adverb. See the example.

1 Everyone welcomed us so warmly we felt like royalty! 2 He must have said something absolutely hilarious because everyone was laughing up......... 3 Kimiko cat. denied having stolen the money.

4 She also de... ... resented the fact that I thought she might have done.

5 I later apologised pr.. . when it came to light that the money had simply been misplaced.

6 We complained bi................ about the noise outside our bedroom window but nothing was done about it.

7 You're absolutely right. I agree with you whole-

8 I biregret not going to Brazil when I had the chance.

9 We congratulated themon their wonderful achievement.

10 I'm sorry but I fl................ refuse to do such a stupid thing!

3.3 Collocations - adjective + noun

Match each adjective in the first box with its corresponding noun in the second box and form common collocations to complete the sentences that follow. See the example provided.

ADJECTIVE family

social warm fond distant candle-lit unkind kind wedding

sunny relaxed close firm prior NOUN dinner remark climber welcome atmosphere handshake engagement smile get-together invitation friend farewell relative reception 1 I didn't enjoy my meal very much as it was a working lunch.

2 Regretfully, we will be unable to attend the Reunion Dinner due to a ..... ...

3 Thank you so much for your ..... ..... ..... ..... . . . We'd

love to come. MIND YOUR MANNERS 9

4 Fred is rather two-faced - hes always got some to make about his so-called friends.

5 Apparently, the famous composer William Walton is a of Richard's, although they've never met.

6 And now ladies and gentleman would you please give a very to our next guest, Mr Danny Muller!

7 I'm dreading it. I'm best man and I've got to make a humorous speech at the

8 Vincent is a terrible He's always trying to get himself invited to the most exclusive parties.

9 As they parted they whispered a knowing they would never meet again.

10 I always try and greet business contacts with a and a

I l My mother's birthday is a chance for us all to meet up and have a

12 I'd rather you didn't speak like that about Rachel, she happens to be a of mine.

13 I love going round to Roddy's - there's always such a

14 Gerry proposed to Amanda halfway through a romantic

Collocations

know which words frequently collocations (word partnerships). A your knowledge of collocations

key word words that come after stop

BUS pass fare station with common key words.

idea create last

make very important to form to help

'key word

describing wrong

crowded night your It is go good is to

verbs catch miss get on stop Try to to

build up grids':

words own grids 4 Dictionary skills

In each of the following exercises you should use a good English/English dictionary to help you find the answers.

4. I Opposites - prefixes

Find the opposites for the following words using the prefixes in the box. The first one has been done for you.

dis- ln- Ir- mis- non- un- I formal informal

2 mobile 3 rational

4 comfortable 5 smoker

6 relevant 7 reliable

8 respect

9 soluble 10 behave

I l logical 12 comfort

13 spell 14 polite

15 legible

16 resident Negative prefixes

words that start with the

misinform, mislay misnamed prefixes occur before certain usually before a word usually before a word - usually before a word

Record

(adjectives) Remember

(irrational, in groups negative prefix: misbehave, that

(illogical, with I

(impersonal, with m with r same

e.g. spellings:

e.g. il- beginning im- beginning ir- beginning those

misguided, certain illiterate) -

immature) or p irreparable) 4.2 Synonyms and antonyms

Write a (near) synonym and antonym for each of the following adjectives.

SYNONYM ANTONYM

17 cheeky 18 brainy

19 skinny

20 handy 4.5 Pronunciation

Some e.g. /k/, /z/, learnt. Do sent? If not, /o•./, /9/,

phonetic /p/ but you know check

/?/, Phonetics

are quite easy to understand a few which need to be sounds these symbols repredictionary. symbols there are what in a

/3•./, /tJ/ nought thorough enough cough through though bough plough trough tough drought dough rough borough thought The combination of letters 'ough' can be pronounced in seven different ways in English. Put the words in the box below in the correct list depending on the pronunciation of 'ough'.

4.3 Phonetics Find the pronunciation key at the beginning or end of

your dictionary. Use it to help you match the following words with the vowel sound they contain. Write the correct phonetic symbol in the box after each word. again

how

no words sounds

/u:/ /o:/ /u:/ 2 caught/?/ saw coffee too

/o:/ /3:/ /a:/

6 curt

7 coot/1 / 5 Type 3 and mixed conditionals

4.4 Spelling vs pronunciation

Similar spelling does not always mean similar pronunciation in English. Decide if the following pairs of words have the same vowel sound. Write S (same) or

D (different) in the box. Re-write the following sentences so that they mean the same as the sentences before them. An example is given.

I We couldn't have a picnic because it started raining. If it hadn't started raining, we could have had a picnic.

2 Jane doesn't live anywhere near London so she didn't apply for that job in the City. 9 bomb comb Jane would .

10 low tow3 I only found out because Louis mentioned it to me 11 weightin passing.

12 stove gloveIf Louis

13 pour sour4 Ronald is in prison because a detective recognised 14 laughter daughterhim from an identikit picture.

15 food mood If a detective ..... ..... ..... ..... ............................... .. . 16 rear pear5 Harry beat me at tennis - but only because he's such 17 none donea terrible cheat!

18 mown townwouldn't ..... ..... ..... ..... .......................... . . . .

Harry 6 You left the map in the car - that's why we're lost! If you .

7 We know nothing about engines, so we weren't able to fix the car when it broke down. We might .

8 I didn't prepare anything special because I didn't know they were coming.

MIND YOUR MANNERS 9

6 Writing - Report writing

You are writing a report for 'Bocia', the manufacturers of the new 'Bambo' pushchair, based on the results of interviews with mothers and fathers all over the country. The aim of the interviews was to find out how good the pushchair is. Expand the following notes into a full report using the phrases in the box below. You may also use subheadings e.g. Introduction, Observations, Recommendations, etc. Write about 250 words.

The aim of this report is to . . . It is based on .

It was found that . . . A/The majority/minority of people In the words of . . . On the whole . It is interesting that .

It is recommended that . It is advisable for 'Bocia' to . . .

Bocia' might consider . . . To sum up/summarise . . . On balance

Notes for report on new 'Bambo' pushchair

Number of people interviewed: 150

Interview locations: London, Bristol, Birmingham, Gloucester, Glasgow, Leeds.

Sam le comments:

'Compared to our old pushchair, this is fantastic - it's so light and manageable. Mrs Roberta Long, Gloucester

'My little boy really likes going out in it - so it must be comfy, mustn't it?' Mr Adam Blair, London

'Well, we quite like it but it's a bit stiff to open and close really. That's our only complaint.' Mr and Mrs Osmonth, Leeds

'It folds up really small and fits in the boot of the car no problem. The only thing is it's always getting stuck in little holes.' Mrs Joy McCarthy, Glasgow

Analysis:

Good points light easy to steer Bad points good for carrying shopping difficult to open and close attractive design and colours wheels too small so it gets stuck in comfortable for baby holes on rough ground small when folded wheels difficult to lock as

4 positions for baby, from sitting mechanism is too small to operate up to lying flat by foot

Suggestions (with diagram):

make wheel locking mechanism larger increase size of wheels 5!

Memorandum

All members of EFL staff From: Jack Boot (Director of Studies)

Date: 16 June cc: The Principal

RE: STUDENT FEEDBACK QUESTIONNAIRE

am afraid there were a large number of (O) complaints about the school at the end of this course. The following is a summary of the most recurrent comments.

Lessons

(1) seems to be a problem with many teachers, in fact one managed to be on time only once during the course. There also seems to be a feeling among students that the lessons weren't (2) . and that too many games were played in class. Many of our students find such activities rather (3) .

Facilities Various students noted that the classrooms are in a (4) .. of repair and that we need to pay greater and more immediate attention to (5) .

regards the new self-access centre, many students praised the wide se]ection of (6) but commented negatively about its (7) .... . . at the top of the library building, which, it seems, makes it somewhat (8) . for students. Another more positive element in the school is the "Munch House". Many students commented favourably about the (9) . . but also pointed out that the sandwiches are often (10) . and that soft drinks are frequently in short (11) particularly during hot weather.

Catering

The food lacks (12) with a great deal of the same food appearing day after day. It also seems that the tood is far too (13) ..... ... . for international students.

Activities There were numerous negative comments in this area. The sports activities seem very (14) organised with students having no clear instructions as to where or when to play. Certain members of the activities staff were also described as

(15) Finally, it is clear that many students are being charged again for activities they paid for in (16) such as barbecues and discotheques.

propose to hold an emergency meeting to discuss how best to address the most urgent issues outlined above. The meeting will be this Friday 23 June starting at 4.30pm in the staff room.

All staff are expected to attend. 7 Register cloze

For questions 1-16, read the following comments from a language school student questionnaire and use the information to complete the numbered gaps in the formal memorandum to staff. Use no more than two words for each gap. The words you need do not occur in the students' comments. The exercise begins with an example (0).

Typical answers to feedback questionnaire:

Classes 'My teacher was late for class every day except the first Monday!' 'I came to England to study English not to play games - I'm not a child!!!'

Facilities

'My classroom (A35) is a mess - can't the repairmen fix the cracks in the walls and stick the wallpaper back on? Only one of the lights was working during the whole 4-week course!'

'I liked the books and things in the selfaccess centre but it's in a bad place right at the top of the library on the fourth floor! Why not put it somewhere students spend more time?'

'The "Munch House Cafe Bar" is OK - I liked the new chairs and tables. Some of the sandwiches were off and they always ran out of coke when it was hot!'

Food

'I didn't like the food at all it's always the same - chips, chips, chips!' 'All the food is boring - it has no real taste.'

Activities 'I liked the tour of the city but the sports were terrible, nobody knew where to go or what time to arrive!' 'Tom Shark was very rude to the students and we had to pay for things I thought I'd paid for when I paid for the course - like the BBQs and discos!'

1 0 State of the Union

I Grammar 'Not very, . . I'm looking for.' (job satisfaction) 1 . 1 Review of -ing forms and infinitives 5 'I was told Rudy emigrated because he didn't like the Focus on Grammar, SB page 1 75 weather.'

(That's just a joke! he went away was Complete the following sentences with either the because he'd been caught stealing credit cards.' infinitive or the -ing form of the verb given in brackets. 6 'Is that the man you saw breaking into the house?' See the example given. 'I don't think so. ..... ...... .... .. ... I saw was much taller.' 7 'I'm sure New York was first settled by the British.' 1 Living (live) alone is becoming more common 'That's not right. .. who first settled there nowadays. and they called it New Amsterdam!' 2 I'm really looking forward to .. (see) you 8 'Did you enjoy yourself at the cinema last night?' again next week. 'Well, unfortunately ..... ..... ..... Bladerunner, was 3 Can't we just . . (have) a quiet evening at sold out. So we went to see some terrible film whose home for once? name escapes me. 4 It's always difficult ..... ..... ...... (know) if and when 9 Shakespeare who wrote the Canterbury you should get married. Tales?' 5 Come on, you kids! Stop . . (shout)! You're 'You're joking, aren't you? It was Chaucer, of course!' driving me crazy. 10 'Surely English is the most widely spoken language 6 When they split up, Paula made David .... in the world.' (give) back all the presents she'd ever given him. 'Well, actually ..... .... ... .. by most people is 7 The most important thing in any relationship is

. (understand) what makes your partner Mandarin Chinese.' 8 Maurice and Fiona have always let their children 2 Collocations with do/make/ . (do) exactly what they want. have/get 9 With the advances in medical science, it seems that you're never too old .. (have) children any >Focus on Vocabulary, SB page 1 8 1

more.

10 When the baby was small I have to admit that I had Use suitable collocations with do, make, have or get to to wear earplugs at night .. (get) a good complete the sentences below. An example is provided. night's sleep.

1 I .2 Cleft sentences and introductory it 2 Focus on Grammar, SB page 1 80

Complete the following dialogues with some form of 3 cleft sentence to give greater emphasis. An example is given to help you. 4

I 'Didn't George get the sack?' 'No, the person who got the sack was Jim.' 5

2 'Aren't you allergic to beans?'

'No, ..... ..... ..... ..... .. I'm allergic to!' (onions) 6

3 'I thought you went to Tunisia on your holidays.'

'Oh come on, I've told you hundreds of times,

. we went to was Turkey!' 7

4 'How important is a good salary to you?'

Now come on, stop crying. You're making a fuss about nothing.

It's our tenth wedding anniversary and we're going to ..... ..... ..... ..... .. a bi. to celebrate.

Neil's never really had a steady girlfriend as he finds

it hard to .... ..... .... Look, I'm sorry about .

last night. I shouldn't have lost my temper and started shouting.

Fred and Keiko have just ..

and plan to marry next year.

I'm pleased to see you've started washing your own clothes at last. But why have I still got to

. the .... ..... ..... ..... . . . .

Sebastian is a really spoilt kid. He always

his own ..... ..... ..... ..... .. at home.

10 STATE OF THE UNION

8 The film was a real (tear-jerker' and we all sat there at the end a good

9 Look, we can't have a serious conversation if you're going to be so hysterical. You're just no at all!

10 Some men still fail to their fair of the housework.

3 Phrasal verbs Complete the following dialogue with the correct form of suitable phrasal verbs. See the example.

Jackie: Have you heard the latest?

Lesley: No, what's happened?

Jackie: Well, it seems Emma and Rory have (l) broken off their engagement.

Lesley: Really? I must say it doesn't surprise me. They were always (2) with each other and then having to kiss and (3)

They were bound to (4) sooner or later.

Jackie: Well, if you ask me, it was more than just arguments. I'm pretty sure Rory was (5) her with that (old friend' of his, Sarah, from university. I heard him (6) her to the pub with him just the other day and then, surprise, surprise, next morning Emma's complaining that Rory (7) her for their weekly visit to the cinema!

Lesley: She's better off without him) in my opinion. She's a pretty tough character she'll soon

(8) him! Jackie: Yes. Let's hope she (9) someone more sensible next time. They were never really suited. I'm just surprised she didn't (10) him sooner - he's such an egotist!

4 Dependent prepositions

Put the correct prepositions in the gaps in the text below. The first one has been done for you.

I must admit that I cringe (l) at the prospect of going to see my brother. He is, I suppose, fairly well-read (2) his field, which is medicine. However, the way he insists (3) always being right all the time, regardless (4) how well-informed his conversational adversary may be, makes me quite angry. Whenever anything concerned (5) medicine crops up in conversation, he puffs himself up and prepares to 'inform' people. His attitude (6) people who get their facts slightly wrong is insufferable. He cannot just let things go, he is just not comfortable (7) inaccuracies. It is almost as if he is dropping (8) status if he fails to pick someone up on a point. I remember him once arguing with a dinner guest for over an hour on the difference (9) the hard and soft palate! No wonder his wife is always complaining

(10) him!

5 Writing - Information sheet

You have been asked to design an eye-catching information leaflet about the dangers of household poisons to children. Using the information below, create your leaflet. Remember to use main headings and subheadings; to break up the text in order to avoid blocks; to use visuals e.g. blobs, numbers, asterisks, etc, different styles and sizes of writing, underlining, different colours, boxes and arrows.

Hundreds of children are taken to hospital every year with symptoms of poisoning. Most common causes are household products (for kids tablets sweets, bottle of bleach = lemonade, a paint brush covered in paint = an ice lolly, rat poison = talcum powder) and plants and berries in the garden.

Parents must be alert at all times - NB keep all medicines locked in cabinets or out of children's reach, fit safety catches to cupboards where cleaning products are stored; teach kids not to drink from bottles or eat brightly coloured berries in the garden.

If you think your child has been poisoned, act quickly - don't wait and see what happens! Don't make your child vomit; go straight to the Accident and Emergency ward of your local hospital; take the plant, berries or substance with you; try and find out how many tablets/berries/etc your child has swallowed.

6 Structural cloze

For questions 1-15, complete the following extract from a professional journal by writing each missing word in the space. Use only one word for each space. The exercise begins with an example.

Thinking about Family Life

Family life continues to occupy (0) a somewhat ambiguous position in public debate and policy in Britain today. On the one hand, references (1) the importance of the family, however defined (2) understood, (3) rarely absent from speeches at political party conferences or statements from religious leaders. On the (4) hand, (5) contrast to some other European countries, we do not have a minister

(6) special responsibilities for 'the family' and (7) do we have anything (8) a coherent programme that could be called a family policy.

Some sociologists might lend their support to particular programmes or social policies,

(9) the basis of the evidence as they see it. More (10) however, the popular impression would seem to be

(11) the sociologists provide the facts about family life and that (12) . facts, thus discovered', provide the basis for public statements or, possibly, public policy. For (13) sociologists may provide facts about the circumstances of lone mothers and children and these studies

(15) inform policy-makers. STATE OF THE UNION 10

7 Word formation

For questions 1-15, read the two texts below. Use the words in the boxes to form one word that fits in the same numbered space in the text. The exercise begins with an example (0).

Gender on Screen

Many (O) researchers have suggested that the media portray men and women in different and often (l ) .... .. . ... .... ways, arguing that this can lead to the (2) .. of gender stereotyping.

(3) films are sometimes considered to be a 'male' genre with a limited range of characters for audience (4) . Stallone,

Schwarzenegger, Willis and Van Damme are (5) . names, whose character types are fairly (6) . .The subject (here) of such movies will usually be male, white, young, aggressive, vengeful, strong, invulnerable and (7) using weapons and moving the narrative along. It is (8) . the body of the masculine hero that provides the focus of the spectators' gaze and visual pleasure. o 1

2 3

4 5 6 7 8 RESEARCH

LIMIT PRODUCE ACT

ENJOY HOUSE PREDICT

EMOTION

PRIMARY 10 STATE OF THE UNION

Nappy Alarm Some babies bawl when they have a wet nappy, others carry on gurgling (9) leaving their mothers none the wiser and the baby at risk of nappy rash. Now novice British inventor, Paul Kimsey, has come up with a (10) alarm which warns parents when it's time to change their baby's wet nappy. The electronic device placed in the nappy alerts the parent by sounding a (11) bleeper carried on a belt or in a bag. Mr Kimsey, 36, came up with the idea seven years ago after witnessing the (12) suffered by a relative's baby. He was

(13) to develop it at the time as he was too busy running the family car mat manufacturing business. He has fine-tuned his idea ( 14) since that first (15) 9 CONTENT

10 RELY

WARN 12 COMFORT

13 ABLE 14 CONSIDER

15 BRAIN 6 The day after that, they usually go on their h - a romantic holiday for two!

7 A man with no intention of getting married may be described as ac b

8 An ois someone from your past who you used to have a romantic relationship with.

9 is a man whose wife has died.

10 On official forms you may be asked to state your s in other words whether you are married or not.

11 sis another word which often appears on official forms. It means husband or wife.

12 A famous male actor or singer adored by female fans is a h

8 Wordcheck - Relationships

Complete the sentences below with vocabulary connected with relationships. The first letter of each word is given to help you. See the example.

I Often the most difficult part of a relationship is asking the person out on the first date.

2 People looking for a partner sometimes place advertisements in the 1............. h. column of a newspaper or magazine.

3 An a................ a...... is someone who gives advice to people who write to a magazine about their personal lives.

4 On their wedding day, the woman is the 1).......... and the man is the g................ .

5 After getting married most couples hold a r.............. . to which they invite all their friends and relatives.

I I Last Chance to See

I Relative clauses I .2 Relative clauses with prepositions

Some of the relative clauses below are not acceptable

Study Box, SB page 1 88 either in terms of grammar or level of formality. Make

any necessary corrections as in the example.

1 . 1 Relative clauses - punctuation

Decide if the following sentences, which all contain I relative clauses, are punctuated correctly or not. Make any necessary corrections, as in the example. 2

I Mark's father, who used to be a diplomat' speaks 3 eight foreign languages.

2 Children, who don't have brothers or sisters, often 4 find it hard when they first go to school.

3 Have you still got that second-hand computer you 5 bought from that chap you met in the pub we used to go to? 6

4 The Irish doctor, who used to work at this surgery,

has moved to Leeds. 7

5 Do you remember that little cinema we saw all those old black and white movies at? Well, it's been pulled 8 down!

6 We went to the first performance of the play which 9

turned out to be a complete disaster!

7 It rained all day which meant we couldn't go out at 10 all.

8 DNA which is 98.4% identical in humans and was Watson and Crick in 2

The person you need to speak to is out of the office at present.

What was the name of that card game you were talking about?

The vegetation on that these animals depend is under threat.

Oh, look! There's that pen for which you've been looking.

We have established that this is the window through which the criminals made good their escape. Although his parents called him Marcus, 'Ginger' was the name who he was generally known by. But that chap from whom we bought the car said it was guaranteed!

The process the vast majority of nuclear power is produced by is known as 'fission'.

The department for which Mr Roberts is responsible has again failed to reach its production targets.

Those kids after whom she looks are really terrible!

Phrasal verbs chimpanzees discovered by

1944.

2. 1 Tense and structure

9 The Paris which is in Texas has very little to do with the Paris in France. Complete the following sentences with phrasal verbs

carry out dip into spring up cut down hold up cut up make up 10 'Zorro', Mrs Nimmo's favourite cat whose tail was from the box below. Use the correct tense or structure. bitten off by a dog isn't very good at balancing any An example is given.

I Are all animals' bodies made up of cells?

2 Don't forget to ..... ..... ..... ..... ... ..... ..... ...... ..... the potatoes into small pieces before boiling them or they take ages.

3 It's not quite the sort of book you'd want to read from cover to cover but it's quite interesting to . now and then.

4 It's a miracle the roof didn't fall in as one of the

walls which had been ..... ..... ..... ..... ... it ..... ... suddenly collapsed.

CHANCE TO 5 Modern computers are capable of the most complex operations in micro-seconds.

6 A lot of fast food restaurants have in the town centre over the last couple of years.

7 You need fifteen players to a rugby team.

8 We had to the old oak tree after it was damaged in the storm.

2.2 Different meanings

Use a good English/English dictionary to find different uses for the phrasal verbs in the box in 2.1 and complete the sentences, using the right tense. The first one is shown as an example.

It took me over an hour to get made up for the part of Othello.

2 If you want to lose weight, you should on the amount of dairy products you eat.

3 some story about

catching the wrong train to explain his lateness.

4 Joe and Sally are always having quarrels but they always in the end.

5 The start of the concert by the late arrival of the group.

6 I can't afford a summer holiday this year unless I my savings.

7 Three masked men tried to the security van last week.

8 Monty accidentally trod on the rake, which . and hit him on the

nose!

3 Expressing the future

>Focus on Grammar, SB page 1 89

Put the verbs in brackets in the most suitable form

(active or passive) of the future. The first one has been done for you.

I Are you doing (do) anything special on Friday

evening? 2 Mandy (finish) her exams by this time next week.

3 The train (get) in at 5.15, which means we (have) about half an hour to get to the conference centre.

4 Look out! That boy(fall) of his bike!

5 The new sports centre(open) next month but I doubt if it(complete) by then!

6 The Prince (give) a speech to local community leaders this evening.

7 we(live) in this house for exactly five

years next Sunday.

8 Congratulations! We hope you (be) very happy together.

9 The play (not start) until 8.30 so I think

(have) time to eat something first.

10 'Anna looks rather fat these days.'

'Oh, don't you know? She (have) a baby.' I l Just think, this time on Thursday we (fly) to Los Angeles.

12 Don't worry, I (phone) the plumber first thing tomorrow morning.

13 Do you think you (finish) that report by the end of the week?

. (give) you a lift to the airport on Monday or ..... ..... ... .... ..... Fred . (take) you?

15 We'd better hurry up, I think they .. ..... (close).

LAST CHANCE-TO SEE I I

4 Quantifiers - each/every, 5 Linking and logical devices - either/neither, etc cause and result, purpose and time Focus on Grammar, SB page 1 92 Complete the following sentences with suitable linking devices. An asterisk ( * ) indicates at least two possible Correct any incorrect uses of quantifiers in the following sentences. The first one is shown as an example. answers. Look at the example provided. 1 It was necessary to use a microscope *in order to/so 1 None of the supermarkets in our town sells fresh as to/to establish the existence of organisms in the drinking water. 2 Our two children are very alike: every one has red 2 They got to the shop at 6 a.m. hair and green eyes. would be able to get the best bargains in the sale. 3 Which of these two umbrellas is yours? None. 3 You'd better take your cheque book with you 4 How much are these second-hand books? ?1 every . it costs more than you expect. one. 4 The apple crop this year has been terrible 5 You can go either way at the fork in the road: they all . the unseasonal frosts we had in May. lead to the beach. 5 . there was a train strike, we had to 6 Is Phyllis a nurse or a dentist? Neither. She's a spend an extra two days on Otranto. psychiatrist. 6 The man was ..... ..... ..... ..... ... rude .. the 7 I'm afraid I know a few words of Italian so I can't manager had to ask him to leave the restaurant. really communicate. 7 Vince didn't get to bed until 5 a.m. ..... ..... ..... ..... ... 8 All student is responsible for cleaning his own room. he's feeling exhausted this morning. 9 Each CD in her collection was by the same group! 8 Erica's new boss turned out to be ..... ..... ..... ..... ... a 10 There seems a little point in continuing our tyrant ..... ..... .... ..... .... she resigned after a week! discussion if you are not prepared to make any 9 The new model is slightly larger and concessions. more expensive. 11 We asked a young couple for directions but none of 10 * ..... ..... ..... ..... ... you arrive in Bombay, give us a call them knew where the street was. to let us know everything's OK. 12 I've seen all Meryl Streep's films and she's brilliant in 11 We won't be able to forward the goods every one. . we receive your cheque. 13 We're having a cocktail party for few close friends 12 I had the chance to reverse into the next Friday if you'd like to join us. parking space someone else drove straight into it. 14 Does either of them happen to live in Cavendish 13 had dropped off to sleep Road? .. next door's dog started howling at the 15 Each tyre on the car had been deliberately slashed by moon. vandals. 14 he ate all the sandwiches.

he drank all the wine. ..... ..... ..... ..... ... both and all

auxiliary verbs but before main

New Zealand. for breakfast.

These verbs: e.g. They Do you

They have

We both/all are placed

can both/all both/all both/all have after

swim. speak French? been to black tea he collapsed on the sofa!

15. Steve was upstairs having a shower, the burglars were downstairs helping themselves to his stereo, computer and TV.

I l CHANCE TO

6 Writing - Formal letter

The following letter is in response to the job advertisement shown below. Complete the letter with suitable words or phrases. Look at the example.

DESK EDITOR 34 St Mary's Way

Buxton

Derbyshire BU4 8JS

(l) 14th October 20- Mr A E Phillips

East Sussex BN7 1XU

Dear Mr Phillips

I am interested (3) for the (4) . desk editor which (5) . in 'The Independent' yesterday .

applying is that I (7) . for 10 years as an assistant editor in a small publishing company concerned mainly with books on leisure and hobbies and I am now (8) a post which would (9) more responsibility and independence to make editorial and organisational decisions .

I am used to and enjoy the challenge (10) to tight deadlines to produce high quality books. I have fast and accurate keyboard skills and am familiar with all modern publishing computer software .

I would be able (Il) interview at any time which is to you.

Olivia James LAST CHANCE TO SEE

7 Discourse cloze

For questions 1-5, read through the following article and then choose from the list A-J the best phrase given below it to fill each of the spaces. Some of the suggested answers do not fit at all. The exercise begins with an example (O).

Small is Beautiful

Fritz Schumacher, most famous for his work 'Small is beautiful', wasn't really an environmentalist at all. He was an economist, a philosopher, a wordsmith, a baker of bread and planter of trees and, together with Barbara Ward, one of the first pioneers (O) .kJ. sustainable growth.

The subtitle of Small is Beautiful is 'Economics as if people mattered'. And that informs all his economic writing. It was, for instance, incomprehensible to Schumacher that politicians could so obsessively pursue the goal of endless economic growth (1)

If idolised as the most essential task of society, economic growth bears bitter fruit and tends to defeat itself. Set it up as the supreme national objective and you will inevitably promote greed, impatience, ruthlessness and envy, destroying those fundamental virtues (2)

But he was no believer in zero-growth either, (3) 'To replace the idea of rapid economic growth by the idea of zero growth, that is to say, of organised stagnation, is to replace one emptiness with another.'

That kind of pragmatic balancing act is classic Schumacher doctrine (4) It characterises his lifelong preoccupation with the scale of things; it wasn't that he thought everything big was automatically ugly but rather that we'd lost the art of gauging 'human scale' in terms of what works best in practice for individuals and society.

In the gentlest of ways, he often remonstrated with environmentalists for being oblivious to such social and economic concerns. He couldn't understand why they were more concerned with the damage being done to wildlife than with that being done to the human mind (5) . (the rotting of brains of millions of workers could be classed as the worst pollution of all.' A even though this was the standard ecoposition in those days B without which society cannot function satisfactorily

C and typical of environmentalists of his day

D through exposure to degrading and soulless work

E of the classic all-consuming capitalist Western civilisation

F without ever assessing the real benefits they derive from that growth

G and often advocated the benefits of 'a culture of poverty'

H and one of the reasons he is still so relevant

I without any form of quality of life

J of what we now call

I l CHANCE-TO

8 Wordcheck -The environment

Match the two-word collocations in columns A and B and then use them to complete the sentences below. The first one is shown as an example.

illegal national logging long lead-free rare natural forest conservation petrol poaching skof+ege policy species rights habitat parks lifespan fire 1 Climate change and desertification is leading to serious water shortages for people, animals and plants in some countries.

2 The use of is being promoted to improve air quality in many large cities with a great deal of traffic.

3 Every developing country needs a clear to avoid destroying their natural resources for quick money.

4 A large area of vegetation and many animals were destroyed in the

5 The White Rhino is now a very indeed with only a few thousand animals still alive.

6 for ivory accounts for the slaughter of hundreds of 'protected' adult elephants every year.

7 Larger mammals often have a very

- some live for over 120 years!

8 Selling the to ancient forests results in only short-term wealth and longterm environmental disaster.

9 With so many forest areas being destroyed, a great deal of wildlife is losing its

10 Many countries now see the advantages of setting up

in which animals and plants are legally protected.

Progress Test Three

Units 9- 1 1 I Structural cloze

For questions 1-15, complete the following passage by writing each missing word in the space. Use one word only for each space. The exercise begins with an example (0).

A mountain excursion

My friend, Nigel, (0) who had just completed an advanced orienteering course, had somehow (1) . me to go on an excursion across the mountains with him. When we set out just after lunch, it had been clear and sunny but for the past hour or so it had been getting foggier and foggier. We had been walking along under a blanket of thick fog for about half an hour (2) Nigel suddenly turned to me and announced we were lost!

'Oh, that's marvellous!' I said. 'First of all you (3) me come on this stupid hike with you, you lead me up a mountain in the fog and now you tell me we're lost! I thought you knew (4) to read a map.

protested Nigel. 'it's just that all the landmarks have been covered by this fog.'

'OK, OK, but it's getting dark now, what are we going to do?' I asked.

'We'll have to find somewhere to spend the night,' he said ominously.

We walked on a little way (6) we came up against an old stone wall (7) seemed to be part of an old farmhouse (8) 1 supposed had been abandoned by its former occupants.

(Well, it looks like survival tactics from now on,' said Nigel, apparently enjoying the idea. 'The (9) it gets, the better I like it,' he added with a grin, (10) me to wonder if he wasn't getting a little overexcited.

'Right, (I l) .. we need now is some firewood. (12) I go and get some, you stay here and unpack the survival kit from the bottom of my rucksack,' ordered Nigel as he disappeared into the fog.

(13) .. about five minutes, he came back with an armful of sticks which appeared to have been cut into convenient lengths and just left on the mountain.

'OK, ['m going to try and fix up a shelter against the wall. In the you get a fire started,' he barked.

No (15) . had I got the fire started than I heard a movement. I turned round to see a little old lady looking at me rather angrily.

'What on earth do you think you're doing in my field? For goodness sake put that wood back, I need it to repair the fence with.'

PROGRESS TEST THREE

2 Phrasal verbs Complete each of the following sentences with the appropriate form of a suitable phrasal verb. An example is provided.

Example: I enjoy looking through the encyclopaedia from time to time.

I Sheila her duties well enough but she's just not interested in her job.

2 When I woke up, everyone else had gone to bed and the fire had

3 We were on holiday there when the civil war

4 Don't forget to your job application before this Friday.

5 There was so much snow that our village was completely and food had to be brought in by helicopter.

3 Error correction

In most of the lines of the following text there is a mistake connected with the verbs (tense, form, agreement, etc). Underline each mistake and write the correction in the space at the end of the line. If there is no mistake in a line, put a tick (V) in the space. The exercise begins with two examples (O).

Solving the elk problem

Motorists who find themselves driving along the lonely roads through Sweden's extensive pine forests were more relaxed these days. Small plastic bottles which are being hung from roadside trees had calmed their deepest fear - colliding with an elk!

Each bottle contain a pungent blend of animal fat and wolf's urine. The idea is simple - because wolves are hunting elks the smell makes the elks to avoid the roads like the plague.

'It really works, we're very exciting about it,' said spokesman Lars Olofson, adding that 25,000 accidents have been caused by elks every year, according to research he's just completed.

The cost of protecting the roads will have been cut by the new potion, which cost only 2 krona per metre compared with 40 krona per metre for the traditional metal fences used before. The wolf cocktail had been invented two years ago by Mr Olofson's father, who used it to stop elks to eat his onions.

'It's a top-secret formula,' added Lars, 'if everyone started using it, the elks would soon have become desensitised to it and perhaps they would no longer feared their old enemy - the wolf!' O

1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 1 1 12 13

14 15 16 are

PROGRESS TEST THREE

4 Discourse cloze

For questions 1-6, read through the following text and then choose from the list A-J the best phrase to fit each of the spaces. Write one letter (A-J) in the spaces. The exercise begins with an example (O).

Mystery of the dying frogs

Many of the world's amphibians, particularly frogs and toads, are becoming extinct faster than scientists can determine the causes. At the Third World Congress of Herpetology, held in Prague in August, (0) u.. Serious declines and several probable extinctions have been reported from the Pacific North West of America, from Central America and from Western Australia. While most amphibian declines around the world are attributable to habitat destruction (1) . , some species (but not all) have declined rapidly in nature reserves, national parks and other areas (2) .

Karen Lips, of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, has found large numbers of dead and dying frogs along streams. The disease which has killed them seems to be moving southwards through the mountains of Central America. One symptom is a thickening of the skin, (3) . . . . . This appears to be caused by a protozoan parasite. A similar organism may also be responsible for the deaths of thousands of frogs in the mountains of Queensland, Australia. Urgent research is under way

Typically, herpetologists have had to respond to these declines

(5) . . . . . Now, recent work by Ross Alford, of James Cook University, Australia, has suggested one way to detect a decline early on; measure a frog's limbs. His study has shown that fluctuating asymmetry (random variation in the size of paired structures on the left and right side of the body) increases in the limbs of frogs (6) . A to determine if this is indeed the case

B set aside for the protection of biodiversity C as quickly as possible under the circumstances

D as their population size declines

E in all these three areas

F into the effects of DDT on amphibians in the US and Kenya

G after they have occurred

H which effectively smothers the frog

I which have built up immunity to such diseases

J it became clear that the phenomenon is a global one

PROGRESS TEST THREE

5 Word formation

Read the texts below. Use the words in the boxes to form one word that fits in the same numbered spaces in the texts. The exercise begins with an example (O).

Afraid of giving

Just as women are afraid of receiving, so men are afraid of giving. To extend himself in giving to others means to risk (O) . failure , correction and disapproval. These consequences are most because deep inside his unconscious he holds an (2) . belief that he is not good enough. This belief was formed and reinforced in (3) ..... ..... ..... ..... .. every time he thought he was expected to do better. When his

. went unnoticed or were deep in his unconscious he began forming the belief that he was not good enough. A man is particularly vulnerable to this belief. It generates within him the fear of failing. He wants to give but is afraid he will fail, so he doesn't try. If his biggest fear is (6) . he is naturally going to avoid any (7) Cross-cultural misunderstandings

Many visitors to Britain find the natives (8) frequently rather strange and occasionally totally (9) . . One of the most common complaints is that we are cold and

. In fact, all we are trying to do is to 'mind our own business' and not to interfere in other people's. This may also make us appear

. in foreign visitors. We are also seen as far too (12) . forever going round saying 'Sorry' and 'I beg your pardon'. Again, our main concern is to avoid any degree of

. On the other hand, foreign visitors often appear (unintentionally)

. to the British. What to a Spaniard is a wholly (15) .. click of the fingers to attract attention is highly insulting to a British barworker and practically guarantees a drink-free evening! o FAIL 1 PAIN

2 CORRECT 3 CHILD

4 ACCOMPLISH 5 APPRECIATE

6 ADEQUATE

7 NECESSARY 8 BEHAVE

9 COMPREHEND 10 FRIEND

11 INTEREST 12 APOLOGY

13 EMBARRASS

14 POLITE 15 OFFEND

12 Living Dangerously

I Collocations and idioms

Fill in the gaps in the sentences below to create suitable collocations and idioms connected with risk and danger. The first one has been done for you.

1 Chris was cautioned by the police for exceeding the speed limit.

2 Every time you make a parachute jump you're taking your life in your own h

3 Modern society has become so (safe' that people pay

good money to e themselves to more risk!

4 Teenagers often show a r disregard for their own safety.

5 Val was d with death, driving so fast on an icy road.

6 The popularity of so-called a holidays is indicative of how important thrills are in our lives.

7 This crossroads is a notorious accident b five people have been killed here in the last six months.

8 People need to be trained to deal with fires before they get out of h

9 An enormous crowd gathered to watch the motorbike riders do their dstunts.

10 We had a really n escape - the avalanche missed our cabin by a few metres.

11 You're really playing with f if you agree to take part in that dishonest deal.

12 I'm not risking my n. in that old car. I'd rather walk!

13 With no money and nowhere to spend the night, Walter was in a bit of a tight c....................... .

14 George is skating on very thin one more mistake and the boss is going to fire him.

15 Going into my headmaster's study really felt like entering the lion's I was terrified!

2 Emphatic structures

Rewrite the following sentences to make them more emphatic. Look at the underlined words and any other words given in brackets to help you. See the example in number one.

I We'd never seen such a huge wolf.

Never had we seen such a huge wolf.

2 I'd really like to try bungee-jumping. (The thing . . . )

3 The greatest cause of accidents is inexperience not recklessness.

4 There wasn't a fire escape anywhere in the entire hotel!

5 Visitors must not approach the cages under any circumstances.

6 Most young people need a sense of danger in their lives. (What )

7 We didn't see a living soul for over two months! 8 They weren't rescued until three days after the accident. (It

9 She'd no sooner left hospital than she went skydiving again!

10 I really love the rush of adrenalin I get when I go skiing.

3 Phrasal verbs

> Language check, SB page 205

3. 1 Tense and structure

Complete the following sentences with phrasal verbs from the box below. Use the right tense or structure. The first one is shown as an example.

get over bring out put down to cut off put out 1 Quick action by the police prevented fighting from breaking oub between rival groups of fans after the football match.

2 Sports commentators have ..... ..... ..... ..... ... her poor

performance ..... ..... ..... ..... ... ..... ..... ..... ..... ... lack of training.

3 The magazine article ..... ..... ..... ..... ... .. ..... .....

the more unpleasant side to the actor's personality.

4 The gas supply was ..... ..... ..... ..... ... . for about four hours as they had to repair some leaking pipes.

12 LIVING DANGEROUSIX

5 Herbie asked them to their cigarettes as he is allergic to smoke.

6 As Consuelo didn't speak any English, it was rather difficult for her to what she wanted us to do.

7 In the Middle Ages, there was very little you could do if a smallpox epidemic near your home.

8 I phoned to let them know which plane I'd be on but I was before I could tell them.

3.2 Different meanings

Use a good English/English dictionary to find different uses for the phrasal verbs in the box in 3.1. The first one has been done for you.

I I hear FIAT have brought out a new model but I haven't seen it yet.

2 I know they split up over three years ago but he's never really her.

3 Jack shouldn't have spent so much time and money on the publicity campaign - still, he'll just have to . it . experience.

4 He looked a bit different last time I saw him, maybe because he'd . his ponytail .

5 She ..... ... ..... .. ..... .. ......... . . . . .. .. the problem of lack of time by hiring a house-cleaner.

6 The prison is supposed to be high security but twelve prisoners month.

7 The radio station ..... ..... ..... ..... ... ..... ... warning about the severe weather only minutes before it arrived!

8 She's an exceptional teacher. She .

. the best in all her pupils.

4 Past tenses

> Focus on Grammar, SB page 205

Correct any mistakes you find in the following sentences. Not all of them are wrong. See the example given.

were watching I There was a power cut while we we*ehed the film on TV last night.

2 Did you ever get into trouble at school when you were a kid?

3 Florencia never saw snow until she went to Scotland.

4 Just how many patients did Dr Harris examine so far this week?

5 Oh, what a lovely hat! Where have you bought it?

6 Mr Wolf has worked at the bank for 25 years before his retirement last May.

7 I've been writing ten letters this morning - I need a rest!

8 By the time we got to the theatre the play already started.

9 How long did you live in Italy for? Three years but then I got homesick.

10 I was sitting on the train for ten minutes when I realised I'd left my suitcase on the platform!

Il Exactly what were you doing at eleven o'clock yesterday evening, sir?

12 When I looked out of the window, I realised it had snowed for hours and there was no chance of getting back down the mountain.

13 That's the third time Sam crashed the car this month!

14 Just think, this time last week we rode a camel in the desert!

15 Of course it has rained. Look how wet the road is.

LIV'NG DANGEROUSLY 1 2 5 Conditionals

Focus on Grammar, SB page 205

5. 1 Conditional 3

In the following sentences, put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense to form 3rd or mixed conditionals. Put any other words in brackets in the correct place. An example is given.

1 If I hadn't seen (not see) it with my own eyes, I wouldn't have believed (not believe) it!

2 . (still live) in Cardiff if we

. (not find) someone to buy our house last year.

3 If Hilary ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (look) out of the window at that moment, she ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (not spot) the criminals trying to break into her car.

4 Nobody ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (ever guess) he was a thief if he .. (not catch) red-handed taking money from the safe.

5 Henry ..... ..... .... ..... ... (not ever get) that job at the bank if he .... ..... ..... ..... ... (not go) to school with the manager's son.

6 Just think, if I .... ..... (take) that job with the export/import company, I .. (live) in Sao Paulo now, not Manchester!

7 If the doctor ..... ..... ..... ..... .. (not notice) the defect when I was a child, I .. (be) practically blind by now.

8 . (be) home in bed ages ago if you . (not lose) the map!

9 Frank ..... ..... ..... ..... . (not be) here today if that boy . (not know) how to do artificial respiration.

10 If you .. (listen) to the traffic report on the radio this morning, we .. (not sit) here in this jam!

5.2 1st, 2nd, 3rd and mixed conditionals

Rewrite the following sentences as conditionals. The first one is shown as an example.

1 Eric was with us so we didn't get lost.

If Eric hadn't been with us, we would have got lost.

2 We got soaking wet on Sunday and now we've all got colds.

If ..... ..... ..... ...

3 I'm afraid I don't know so I can't tell you. If ..... ..... ..... .... ..... ..................

4 Because the train was 10 minutes late I managed to catch it.

1 . 5 The weather could be bad on Saturday, in which case we'll have to cancel the barbecue. we .... ..... ..... ..... ..... .... .... .....

6 I'm living in Italy because I got married to an Italian.

l . 7 Sorry I didn't phone you but I lost the bit of paper with your number on it.

8 We don't get on very well because she's so aggressive. If ..... ..... ..... ......

9 There's the possibility of a train strike on Monday so I might not be able to come.

If ..... ..... ...... ..... ..... ..... ..

10 We've got a broken window because you and your friends were playing football in the back yard! we ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... ..... . . . . .

1 1 They're so reserved that I speak to them very infrequently.

1 . 12 I missed the end of the film so I don't know who the murderer was.

If ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... . ...

13 Jimmie's father might buy him a new bike; it depends on him passing his exams. If ...

14 As we'd already seen the film we didn't go to the cinema.

we ..... ..... .... ..... .... ..... ..............

15 Zoe tripped and fell just as she was about to win the race.

zoe .... ..... . . . . . .

12 LIVING DANGEROUSLY

Conditionals more formal equivalent: straight to my office.

late, go straight to my office.

price, we'd make no profit.

the price, we'd make no profit. uncommon form.)

I would have met her. would have met her.

Each

Type l: If Type 2: If

Type 3: If conditional you arrive

Should you we reduced

Were we to

(N.B. This is she had

Had she has a late, go arrive the reduce a very phoned, phoned, I 6 Dependent prepositions

Complete the following sentences with the correct prepositions. The first one has been done as an example.

1 Exercising without first warming up can lead to injury.

2 John takes a very irresponsible attitude ..... ..... ..... his own safety - he never wears a crash helmet.

3 We sat there speculating . how the accident might have happened.

4 There were so many people queuing ..... ..... .. . a go on the 'Wall of Death' that we decided to try the 'Ghost Train'.

5 Fiona's twisted ankle prevented her . going

6 Many people seem to enjoy exposing themselves

7 You need to be able to devote a lot of time ..... ..... ..... practice if you want to become a top athlete. 8 Walking in the snow for over six hours led .

frostbite in Carl's toes.

9 We spent loads of money .. new equipment for our camping holiday.

10 At weekends, our husbands indulge . . war games. They're like big kids really.

7 Writing -Article

You have been asked to write an article of about 250 words for a local newspaper advertising a new Adventure Park which is opening next week just outside the town. Expand the following notes to write your article to attract as many people as possible to the Park.

Name: Tarnford Towers Adventure Park

Opening: next Saturday at noon

Cost: cheapest in Britain - lots of 'family deals'

Clients: suitable for all the family - toddlers, teenagers and adults, something for everybody

Rides: ten fantastic rides - full of thrills - ranging from traditional water splash (bit boring?) to 'Screwball'-type of crazy high-speed spinner and 'The Abyss' - vertical drop for 10 rt16tres totally exhilarating and many others.

Other attractions: small zoo - penguins (feeding times 11 arn and 5 pm), carne's, rhinos and 'Uncle Ted's Farmyard' with chickens, sheep, goats, etc for younger kids

Facilities: large playground for little kids, cafe-style restaurant, pub, souvenir shop (full of great stuff), refreshment kiosks around the park, plenty of toilets, huge

8 Structural cloze

For questions 1-15, complete the following extract by writing each missing word in the space. Use only one word for each space. The exercise begins with an example.

A rescue (0) was underway in the Scottish

Highlands last night ( l ) a team of six climbers fell 500ft on Creag Meagaidh in Invernessshire. Initial reports (2) that several of the party were seriously injured. Helicopters from

RAF Kinloss and HMS Gannet were scrambled

(3) the scene of the accident, (4) happened around 4.30 pm yesterday. The RAF Sea King was flying the injured mountaineers to a rendezvous point from

(5) the naval helicopter was taking

(6) on to Raigmore Hospital, 35 miles (7) the north. A hospital spokesman said that (8) the six climbers, two were stretcher cases and the (9) four were 'walking wounded'.

It is understood the six climbers were all roped (10) when they came off the 3,700ft mountain, which ( l l) four miles north of the southern tip of Loch Laggan. The fall was witnessed by (12) team of climbers, (13) managed to raise the alarm shortly before 5 pm.

The Cairngorm and Lochaber mountain rescue teams, (14) with sister units from RAF

Kinloss and Leuchars, were called (15) in the biggest night-time rescue operation in the Highlands this year. LIVING DANGEROUSLY 1 2

9 Wordchecl< - Fire

There are 18 words connected with fire and fire fighting in the box below. You will find 6 horizontally, 8 vertically and 4 diagonally. Three have been found for you.

Mind and Body

I Pronouns - object, reflexive 2 Your colleague keeps interrupting you when you're speaking. and reciprocal I'd rather you Correct any mistakes in the use of pronouns in the 3 It's ten to nine and your sister has to be at the following sentences. See the example in number one. station by nine!

Come on, it's time you I When her sister left home, Mary finally had a 4 You lost your temper at work this morning and now bedroom all to he-F herself. you're sorry. 2 OK. Let's meet ourselves outside the disco at ten. I wish I 3 Did you do all this by you or did someone help you? 5 Your brother is pretending not to have seen his old 4 We were shown around the factory by the Chairman girlfriend. himself. Why are you acting as though 5 Some of the people hurt itself trying to climb over 6 You think your friend might lose his job and he the fence. should think about this possibility. 6 You should enclose a self-addressed envelope if you But suppose you want them to send the material back to yourself. 7 A friend has rather stupidly given your phone 7 John really prides himself on his Italian number to an insurance agent. pronunciation and no one has the heart to tell him I'd rather you it's terrible! 8 Someone who's rather wealthy is always complaining 8 I don't really understand it myself but my wife does. about having no money. 9 How many other people from Bath went to the Oh, stop talking as if you meeting besides you? 9 You're depressed because you have to go back to 10 Oh come on, can't you make ourselves a cup of tea? I work tomorrow. haven't got time. If only I I l I'm not surprised they're splitting up, they never 10 A passenger on a boat stopped you from falling really talked to themselves. overboard by holding on to your belt! 12 People say that talking to yourself is the first sign of If he madness. I l The cold, cloudy British weather is getting you 13 Us as parents can fully understand how you must down. have felt. I really wish 14 We are looking for a penfriend for each of ourselves. 12 You dream of being rich and travelling round the world in your own plane. 15 They arrived early in the morning and had the whole beach to them.

Past tenses for

hypothetical situations

we use past tenses to talk or state which isn't true/isn't happen:

she's not happy at the moment exam. = she didn't study

Remember about an happening

e.g. I wish If only she'd

that imaginary or wasn't she was studied in English action true/didn't happy. = for the 16 Nicola and Kim are so happy together, it's as though they were made for themselves.

2 Past tenses for hypothetical situations

Focus on Grammar, SB page 213

Complete the sentences to express your thoughts for each

of the following situations. Look at the example given.

1 Your dream is to be able to surf.

wish I could surf!

3 Vocabulary

3. 1 Word building Language Check, SB page 2 1 7

Complete the sentences below with suitable nouns or adjectives formed from the words given in brackets. See the example provided.

I Tony is a terribly competitive (compete) person. 2 Most adolescents go through periods of great (insecure).

3 Limited exposure to the sun's rays can be (benefit) to health.

4 Daniel shows very little (aware) of how others see him.

5 The confusion over the diplomats' names caused a great deal of (embarrass).

6 Although she appeared calm, you could hear the (anxious) in her voice.

7 I've always regarded him as a man of great (sincere).

8 Monica was always very (resent) of the fact that she was never given the chance of going to

university. 9 I'm really fed up with her air of superiority - she's just so (dismiss) of everyone else's ideas.

10 Oh, it's a delightful little restaurant. Tasteful decor, excellent food and, most important (attend) waiters!

3.2 Adjectives

Make any necessary corrections to the adjectives in the sentences below. The mistake may be either of logic or word formation. The exercise starts with an example. 18 I couldn't help thinking that all their lavish praise was really unsincere.

19 I'm afraid Joan is very disattentive in lessons.

20 He's not very good-looking but, there again, he's not inattractive either.

4 Phrasal verbs

Fill in the gaps in the following passage with suitable phrasal verbs in the correct form. The first one has been done for you.

Top dogs and underdogs

The people I work with (l) fall into two main groups - those who do the bullying (the aggressors) and those who get bullied (the victims). Their distinctive behaviour is most apparent in meetings. The first thing that (2) them ..... ..... ..... ..... . is their body language. I've even seen a (victim' (3) .

their chair for an (aggressor' and (4) standing for an hour instead! When it comes to speaking, a typical 'victim' will (5) in mid-sentence if an aggressor' so much as looks in their direction! And even when a 'victim' is talking heatedly about something important, an 'aggressor' can easily (6) . him or her . and state their own view. Not only that but after the meeting the (victim' usually finds himself (7) . the wishes of an 'aggressor'. Bearing all this in mind, I have decided to (8) . all sorts of aspects of psychology and get each group to (9) .

unemotional

I I The British are generally regarded as an race.

12 What's wrong? You seem very uncontented with your job these days.

13 No one is completely unvulnerable to stress.

14 The police were not fooled by their unconvincing story.

15 1 wouldn't trust him at all. He's one of the most unhonest men I know.

16 They seemed unaware that there was anyone else in the room.

17 The children were impatient for the film to start. the fact that they need to change their behaviour patterns.

13 MIND AND BODY

5 Dictionary skills

In all of the following exercises you should use a good English/English dictionary to help you find the answers.

5.1 Collocations

Some of the following sentences, which contain actions and parts of the body you do them with, are incorrect. Correct any mistakes, as in the example. fingers

I Please stop drumming your on the table - it's driving me mad!

2 Steve screwed his face up in pain when he accidentally banged his head on the low doorway.

3 The station guard shrugged his arms unhelpfully when I asked him where the nearest bank was.

4 I couldn't help clapping my palms with joy when I heard I'd finally passed my driving test.

5 Bill's such a spoilt child - if he doesn't get his own way he stamps his legs and screams until you give in.

6 The old woman shook her fist at the children stealing apples from her garden.

7 Everyone nodded their necks in agreement at the director's proposal for increasing sales.

8 I cupped my hands and drank greedily from the mountain stream.

5.2 Metaphors and idioms

good

you can way to remember

have remember. Learning idioms and metaphors

an idiom or a metaphor is to draw a picture of it (it doesn't have to be very good) - this will than simply writing it down! Use the 4-column method shown below.

grid, you can test yourself by covering everything except the pictures with a piece of paper to see can't, slide the piece of paper to the right to reveal the first letter. Try it, it works. A help you

PICTURE

Once if you remember better

created this If you Match up the beginnings and endings of the following sentences and add a word from the box below to make a suitable metaphor or idiom.

ears teeth teeth heart foot heels thumbs eye hand 9 Sally's prepared to fight tooth and ...... .

10 I really put my .

I l When I was at school

12 The debate got completely out of .... ..... ..

13 The train was about to leave as we got to the station

14 It's no good warning Judy about Harry;

15 I keep dropping things today;

16 Robin lied through his

17 Can you keep an ... on my luggage,

18 Sorry, but I just can't make it to the dinner party;

A but we just caught it by the skin of our ..... ..... ..... .. .

B to keep possession of her house.

C when the police asked him about his movements last Friday evening.

D I tried to learn Shakespeare's sonnets by .

E she's head over ..... ..... ..... .. in love with him.

F I'm up to my ..... .... ..... ... in work.

G I've got to go to the toilet for a minute.

H I seem to be all fingers and ..... ..

I when I asked her about her job - she's been sacked!

J when two old ladies started hitting each other with their handbags.

6 Expressions of concession

Study box, SB page 2 1 8

Use a suitable expression of concession to complete the following sentences. Initial letters are provided to help you. See the example.

I Although she didn't have the right qualifications, she was offered the job.

2 We can't seem to save any money n how hard we try!

3 we enjoyed our time in India, we wouldn't want to go and live there again.

4 They managed to find their way out of the jungle i not having a map or compass.

5 w we appreciate how much work you've put into the project, it's just not what we wanted.

6 You'll end up spending lots of money w airline you fly with.

7 difficult it might seem now, you'll be glad you did it in the end. 8 D they phoned well in advance, all the tickets had been sold.

9 I'm sorry but we're going to have to economise, w you might think. 10 we tried, we just couldn't make ourselves understood.

7 Vocabulary

Focus on Vocabulary, SB page 220

Complete the following sentences with suitable collocations connected with the body. Initial letters are provided to help you. The first one has been done for you.

I Jake sounded relaxed but his body language showed he was feeling threatened.

2 It was a h. so they were lucky nobody was killed.

3 We were so far away we tried to communicate using h.

4 Steve wants a serious h. about our relationship - I'm dreading it!

5 I'm sorry. I spoke without thinking. It was a r...

6 Annie gave us a quick ..... .... ..... of her life as a double agent during the Cold War.

7 And then there was an e . . . n................. as the gigantic wave crashed down on to the boat.

8 Carla is very insecure. She never makes e................... when talking to you.

9 I have terrible b. .. My toes turn blue in the winter months!

10 Judy told us a h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s. . . . . . . . about finding giant spiders under the bed when she was living in the Amazon.

13 MIND AND BODY

8 Word formation

For questions 1-15, read the two texts below. Use the words given to form one word that fits in the same numbered space in the text. The exercise begins with an example (O).

Take care in the sun

The sun should be enjoyed but (O) overexposure can cause sunburn, leading to ( l ) skin ageing and increased risk of skin cancer. It is the ultraviolet rays which cause this; even in the UK they can damage your skin, and UV is much more (2) the nearer the equator you go. You should stay out of the sun during the 2 hours around midday, use shade at other times) a sun hat and (3) woven but loose clothing. (4) creams suitable for your skin type can help protect (5) exposed parts of the body. A further sun related risk is heatstroke, caused by (6) Avoid strenuous activity during the hottest hours and make sure you drink plenty of (7) drinks (best is water which has been boiled or soft drinks from sealed cans or bottles) to replace body fluids. Plastic surgery

Most impressive is Dr Ohana's (8) to the individual needs of his patients, honed by (9) experience and his earlier career as a doctor. Born in Marrakech in 1951, Ohana grew up in an (10) household. When Ohana was 10, however, his father severed the nerves and tendons of a hand and he could no longer play a musical instrument. Moved by the devastating effect this had on his father and his

(11) route to (12)

Ohana decided to become a doctor. He became a surgeon, specialising in cancer patients. It was during this period that he learnt the

(13) of finding out how patients feel He believes it to be a crucial element in cosmetic surgery. 'No matter how able a surgeon is, the success of an operation depends entirely on why the patient has come for a

(15) he says. EXPOSE 1 MATURE

2 POWER

3 TIGHT 4 PROTECT

5 AVOID 6 HEAT 7 ALCOHOL 8 SENSITIVE

9 CHILD 10 ART 11 PAIN

12 RECOVER

13 IMPORTANT 14 EMOTION

15 CONSULT 8 Writing - Character reference

Read through the following character reference written for someone who has applied for a job as a member of staff at an exclusive Health Farm and make any changes you think are necessary. See the example.

Ms Maria Hempel

Dear Sir or Madam,

I'm dropping you a line in support of Ms Maria

Hempel' s application to become a resident health and fitness trainer at your place. I've known Maria for getting on for about ten years in her job as aerobics instructor at the gym which I'm manager of ' Ava 1 on Club' is its name.

The first thing I must say about her is that she' s brilliant at teaching aerobics. The feedback forms I get people to fill in have all rated her extremely highly. The only little niggle some of the older people had was with her pink hair but I expect she' 11 change that if ghe gets the job at your posh place .

I also know she has been following a health and nutrition course and has just passed the exams and got another certificate .

But Maria is not just a good instructor she's also always on time, never away through illness, and a humorous and well-liked member of the gym instructors ' team who gets on like a house on fire with everybody.

In a nutshell, I'd say Maria will make an excellent member of staff for you. We'll all be sad to see her go from here and I' 11 certainly find it hard to get anyone as good as her again.

Best wishes,

Jim Long 85 Testing Times

I Review of grammatical and syntactical structures

Focus on Grammar, SB page 229

Most (but not all) of the sentences in the following sections contain classic mistakes. Correct those you find. See the example provided.

1. 1 Tense forms and time will have finished

I By this time next month we +44-?sk all our exams!

2 I'd rather you don't smoke indoors. Can't you go out on the balcony?

3 Is this the first time you taste Spanish food?

4 You're always leaving the lights on - it's a terrible waste of energy!

5 I really wish I was born somewhere warm, like Australia!

I .2 Conditionals

I If only you told me it was her birthday, I'd have brought a present.

2 If you'll offer us a larger discount, we'll pay within ten working days.

3 To be honest, we'll all be quite relieved unless he comes to the meeting.

4 We'd be back in the tent now if you didn't lose the map.

5 Had we not seen the rock in time, we would definitely have crashed.

I .3 Structures after verbs

I They tried to stop us to play cricket in the park.

2 She suggested me to speak to the Principal about my problem.

3 I'm interested to learn as much about Zimbabwe as possible before my trip next month.

4 Remember buying a card for your mother. It's her birthday next week.

5 The printer seems to be broken. Why don't you try to plug it in?

I .4 Modals/Modal perfects

I Don't touch that - I think it can be poisonous!

2 It mustn't have been Jack you spoke to, he doesn't work here any more.

3 Although he had broken his leg, he could swim to the shore.

4 Might you have left your handbag on the bus, do you think?

5 They told us we needn't have taken warm clothes but when we got there it was absolutely freezing.

1.5 Passives

1 By the time we got to the canteen, most of the food was already eaten.

2 Having been made redundant, Josh decided to emigrate.

3 I think my eyes need being tested, I keep getting terrible headaches.

4 Members are requested to provide proof of identity.

5 Unfortunately, Rory's record collection got damaged when he moved house.

I .6 Linking devices

1 Despite he lived in Germany for a year, he couldn't speak a word of the language.

2 We had to cancel the course due of the low number of enrolments.

3 The reason for she studied languages was to work as a tour guide.

4 Poor dietary habits are a major reason of heart disease.

5 Football is an exciting spectator sport, however cricket can be rather boring.

I .7 Participle clauses

1 Lived in the countryside as a boy, I missed out on a lot of things.

2 Suddenly I recognised the man lying in the shop doorway.

3 Never flying before, Ronald seemed rather anxious just before take-off.

4 Terry learnt to ski while living in Canada.

5 My mother who lives in Bath is a school teacher.

I .8 Emphatic structures

I No sooner we'd arrived at the bar when it closed.

2 Not only dirty was the hotel room, it was also freezing cold!

14 3 Only when the detective turned over the body did he realise the full horror of the crime.

4 What do we want is a direct answer not yet another carefully prepared speech.

5 That's not right. It was Tchaikovsky who wrote the '1812 Overture' not Mozart.

2 -ing forms

2. 1 ... -ing or infinitive?

Match up the beginnings and endings of the following sentences and add a suitable verb either with -ing or in the infinitive. Look at the example. 1 The train had to stop suddenly

2 I'd been calling our dog for ages

3 Poor Alison absolutely dreads

4 I remember it in a safe place

5 I meant you a ring to tell you I'd be late

6 Polly tried happy and relaxed

7 British Rail regrets passengers

8 Why don't you try the car - 9 The doctor forgot me how often

10 After a few weeks working with Gwendoline

Il Will you remember the gas bill 12 I dread what would have happened

13 Victor really regrets university 14 I'll never forget mistaken

A I had to take the tablets.

B or had I better do it myself?

C but everyone could see she'd been crying.

D but I just didn't have the time.

E to avoid crashing into a cow standing on the tracks!

F for a famous actor when I arrived at Madrid airport.

G if the lifeguard hadn't seen you.

H that all trains are subject to delay due to the snow.

I I came ..... ..... ..... ...... what an extraordinary person she was.

J before he came out of the wood with a rabbit in his mouth.

K but I've no idea where!

L before completing his degree.

M that might get it started? N and has to take half a bottle of tranquillisers before she'll set foot on a plane.

2.2 -ing forms, infinitive with or without to

In the following sentences, circle the correct form of the verbs in bold. The first one is shown as an example.

I I'd rather not to go going very far in the new car until I've got use to/drive/driving it.

2 Max dreads to/be/being made redundant as he's too old to/get/getting another decent job.

3 I spent all afternoon to/listen/listening to the neighbours to/argue/arguing about whose turn it was to mow the lawn.

4 I noticed the girl to/put/putting the watch into her pocket without to/pay/paying for it.

5 Hadn't you better to/start/starting to/revise/revising for the exam?

6 I think Rodney rather resents Jessica to/participate/participating in the conference.

7 The fire brigade had to/be/being called to/get/getting the boys down from the roof.

8 Why not to/go/going by train rather than to/take/taking the car?

9 Louise always hated her father to/tell/telling her what to do.

10 The council was to/ban/banning all parking in the city centre but there were so many complaints they've decided not to.

I l I didn't dare to/show/showing them the damage I'd done to their car.

12 We're bound to/run/running out of cash so don't forget to/bring/bringing your credit card.

13 If this is a private matter, perhaps you'd prefer me to/leave/leaving.

14 Our physical education teacher used to/make/making us to/go/going swimming in an outdoor pool even in winter.

-ing or infinitive

With the verbs remember, forget, regret and stop the choice between -ing or the infinitive depends on whether

the verb following them happens before or after. -ing before infinitive = after

e.g. Do you remember meeting me last year? meeting happened before remember Did you remember to post that letter? to post happened (or not) after remember

87 14 3 Tenses

Decide which tense is being described in each 'time line' and short description and then write an example sentence in that tense. A cross shows an individual action or event and a wavy line shows an activity happening continuously or repeatedly. Look at the example given.

1 Past Now Future

Tense simple never changing/always true

e.g. I always brush my teeth before I go to bed.

2 Past Now Future

happening now/during a period around now

e.g. Ithis month.

3 Past Now Future

past event where time is not mentioned or where the present result is more important than when the event happened

e.g. I so I'm not hungry, thanks.

4 Past Now Future

action started in past and a) continuing now b) finished but evidence remains e.g. a) Ifor an hour.

that's why my face is so red.

5 Past a) b) Now Future

event(s) in past occurring before a point of reference/another event in past

e.g. By the time the police arrived, the robbers

7 Past Now Future

activity started before and continuing up to a point of rejerence in past

e.g I . . for ten hours when I fell asleep exhausted.

1 4 8 Past Now Future

activity seen as occurring around a stated time/reference point in the future

e.g. I ..... .... this time next month.

9 Past Now Future

future event(s) happening before another future event/point of reference

. when I meet her next week.

10 Past Now Future

activity started before and continuing up to a future point of reference

e.g. I . for three years next June.

4 Review of tenses

In the following passage, put the verbs in brackets into a suitable (active or passive) tense and put any adverbial expressions in the correct place. The first one has been done for you.

I must admit that Maria's English ( l ) is improving (improve) every day. Three weeks ago she (2) .. (manage) to book us on to the Portsmouth to Santander ferry at the local travel agent's.

The night before we (3) .. (be) due to leave, she (4) .

(ring) me up to remind me to be on time. 'Don't forget the train (5) .

(leave) at 7.35 and if we (6) .. (miss) that, we (7) .. (miss) the ferry too!' she said.

'Of course I (8) . (get) there on time,' I replied, somewhat annoyed.

'You're the one who (9) .. (always turn up) late for things!'

Surprisingly, we both (10) . (arrive) at the station in time

. (catch) the train. We (12) .. (sit) on the train for about ten minutes when we realised, to our horror, that it (13) .. (go) in the wrong direction! We got off at the next station where a ticket seller informed us that there (14) .. (not be) another train to Portsmouth until 8.45. We explained that we had to catch the ferry at 10 0'clock. 'Well, if I (15) .

(be) you,' he said, 'I (16) .. (catch) the coach. That should get you to Portsmouth before the ferry (17) .. (sail). But you (18) .

(have) to hurry, it (19) . (leave) the bus station in about five minutes!'

We shot off like lightning despite the heavy rucksacks on our backs and jumped on the coach just as the driver (20) .. (shut) the doors. We

(just collapse) in our seats with a sigh of relief, when the driver announced, 'Sorry everyone but the motorway (22) .. (still repair) so we . (not get) to Portsmouth until 9.45.'

We groaned in despair. That gave us only fifteen minutes to get to the ferry terminal.

We arrived at Portsmouth bus station at 9.40 and jumped straight into a taxi. 'The Santander ferry terminal and please hurry,) I shouted, 'or it (24) .

(go) before we (25) .. (get) there!'

To our astonishment, the taxi driver calmly switched off the engine and turned round.

'(26) you .. (not hear)?' he said, smiling, 'the ferry workers (27) .. (come) out on strike last night!'

'Oh no!' I cried in disbelief. 'If only I (28) . (listen) to the news this morning!'

14

5 Writing - Report

Complete the report opposite based on the following notes. Use only one word in each space. Two examples are given for guidance.

CD tried out by 30 intermediate level EFL students all completed brief feedback questionnaire

10 also interviewed in greater depth

most liked the package - particularly chance to follow same lesson through different 'paths'

i.e. grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary 'l love following the vocabulary path.' Marina

Gomez 'My problem is pronunciation so I follow that path.' Kimiko Kamogawa

'l need to know the grammar or I'm not happy. Franz Brandt all liked the idea of personalised learning speed

authors' worry that material was 'too low level' was unjustified

• some problems with pilot version - clicked on some buttons and nothing happened! need for programmers to go through everything carefully

• main worry was over pronunciation strand students couldn't really 'monitor' themselves and continued to make mistakes which they thought correct possibility of inbuilding 'voice recognition' software?

• 17 students did not like the graphics definitely needs to be reworked

NB Most mentioned 'dull' colours

• users unfamiliar with computer mouse couldn't cope need for optional introductory lesson on using PC? Report on Boxhill Press 'Intermediate English CD ROM' (Pilot Version)

Introduction The (l) aim of this report is to describe the reaction of

(2) thirty individual students to the new 'Intermediate

English CD ROM'. It is (3) . on written

. from all of the students and face-to face

(5)with a representative number of them.

Positive notes On the (6) . the students liked the CD package. (7) ..... ..... ..... ..... .. particular, they enjoyed being able to (8) .. their preferred 'path' through each unit. (9) . to Franz Brandt, a German student, he wouldn't be happy unless he could follow the grammar path, (10) .. other students were happy to follow different paths. ( I l ) ..... ... . all students liked the fact that they could progress through the material at their (12) speed. (13) ..... ..... ..... ..... .. enough, the students all found the material sufficiently challenging at intermediate level.

Negative points

As might have been (14) . there were some technical problems with this pilot version. It for example, that several of the click boxes were inactive. In (16) .. to this, concern was expressed that less computer-literate users found mouse control difficult. More (17) . , it was by most students that the graphics were too dull. Perhaps an even greater (19) . for concern at this stage is that it is impossible for students to effectively self-assess their performance on the pronunciation path.

Conclusions and recommendations

On (20) . , it appears that Boxhill Press have produced a very promising product, which should soon establish itself as a market leader. (21) .

strongly (22) .. that certain changes be made to the pilot version, (23) .. that the programmers ensure that all click-boxes are active, that Boxhill add an optional introductory lesson for the less computer-literate, that more vibrant colours be used in the graphics, and, most (24) . , .that Boxhill investigate the possibility of adding 'voice recognition' software to the CD to make the pronunciation path more effective for self-assessment.

14

T c A N D 1 D

A T E D O T 1

B M o R Y A

1 s M

E v E S O T s

N P 1 A D

K T L P R A 1

U M

s R P N 1 c K

s w E A E G N

s s K 1 A U T

P R

R Q U E s o N

E A c E T S K c

J x N G N 1 M

A T

x 6 Wordcheck - Studying and examinations

In the grid below there are 18 words connected with studying and taking exams: 7 are hidden horizontally, 7 vertically and 4 diagonally. When you have found them all, complete the sentences with some of them. Three have been found for you.

I A student who enters for an exam is called a

2 It's a good idea to try and use some aids when preparing for the exam.

3 Another verb meaning to take an examination is

4 Stretching and breathing exercises can help you keep your exam . under control.

5 Read all the . carefully before attempting to answer them and all your answers before the end of the exam.

6 Most people try not only tothe exam but also to get a good .

7 Be careful not to spend too long on one part of the exam; remember there is a ..... ..... ..... ..... .. .

8 Stay calm and try not to ..... ..... ..... ..... .. during the exam as this can badly affect your ..... ..... ..... ..... .. .

14 7 Editing skills

In most lines of the following text there is one word which is wrongly spelled, including the use of capital letters. Underline each wrongly spelled word and write the correct spelling in the space provided. If there are no spelling mistakes in a line, indicate this with a tick (V). Look at the examples provided (O).

If you're going skiing this winter, here's a cautionary tale. Last december three friends decided to go on a cheap skiing holiday in the dolomites in the north of Italy. Being an adventureous lot, they decided to go by car, which turned out to be Dan's ancient WV Beetle. On the way there, they had no problems except for a little quarreling about whose turn it was to drive. The trouble started on there first day's skiing when Amy paniced, fell over and broke her ankle. On the second day, Charlie woke up saying, 'l think I'm dieing'.

In fact, he had caught pneumonia. On the third day, Dan tryed to be too clever and broke a leg! All of this meant they payed plenty in doctor's bills and then, with nobody able to drive, they traveled back by plane and the car went back by train! So, alt in all, it was an extremly expensive trip! O December

1 2

3 4 5

6 7

8 9 10

11

12 Progress Test Four

Units 1 2-14 I Structural cloze

For questions 1-15, complete the following story by writing each missing word in the space. Use only one word for each space. The exercise begins with an example (O).

Business affairs

Jeff Weaver knew it was going to be a tough meeting. A year ago he had been regarded (O) aa. the company's rising star in the export department, signing contracts for massive orders from state-run companies in Lavania. It looked as (l ) he had saved the company's fortunes. But all that was before the collapse of the Lavanian economy and the inevitable non-payment of most invoices.

The Managing Director, Derek Robinson, had decided to

(2) an extraordinary meeting (3) look into the matter. Jeff was now about to (4) asked to give a detailed explanation of the disaster.

Mr Robinson coughed and tapped the table. 'Right then, everyone. Let's get (5) to business. I'm sure you're all aware of the reasons for this meeting. So without further preamble, I'll call on Mr Weaver who, I hope, will be able to put our minds (6) rest about this worrying state of affairs.'

Jeff stood up and decided to go on the attack. 'Thank you, Mr Robinson. First of all, I must admit that many mistakes have been made over the past twelve months - but not just by me! I think it's clear that I am (7) used as a shield to protect a number of more senior colleagues, who (8) . have the courage to assume some responsibility for this mess. In particular, my immediate superior, Georgina Bunyon, who has never seen eye (9) .. eye with me, and who is using this crisis (10) ..... ..... ..... ..... .. a way of (I l) .. me removed from the company!

Everyone turned to look at Georgina, who was (12) .. her fists and glaring pointedly at Jeff.

(No-one (13) . have predicted the collapse of the Lavanian economy. However, to avoid further embarrassment, I have decided to resign: And with this, Jeff marched out of the meeting.

Two months later, Jeff and Georgina were sitting looking at Lake Como from the terrace of a beautiful villa (14) .. they had just bought with part of what they called their (Lavanian fund'.

'Any regrets, darling?' asked Georgina.

'Only one,' said Jeff, smiling. 'l (15) ..... ..... we'd taken twice as much!' 93

PROGRESS TEST FOUR

2 Phrasal verbs Complete each of the following sentences with the appropriate form of a suitable phrasal verb. An example is shown.

Example: We all thought the lecture would be rather boring but it turned out to be extremely interesting.

I As we didn't have an instructions manual, we had to .

. how to set up the stereo by trial and error.

2 It)s a formal occasion so we'll have to get .. to the nines - no jeans and pullovers this time!

3 Toby's .. really well at his new job. He's already been promoted twice.

4 Sarah's really lucky. She left her car in a no-parking area for five hours and,

believe it or not, she ..... ..... ...... .. . ... ..... ..... ..... .. with it!

5 Oh dear, Helen, your glass is almost empty. Let me ...................... it for you.

3 Register cloze

FIRE NOTICE

On (O) discovering a fire:

the nearest fire alarm

to (3) the fire but

(4) ................ nsks

3 Proceed to the

(5) point (to the

(6) the library)

roll call

On hearing the fire alarm:

1 Leave without stopping to

(8) 2 Proceed to the library quickly but without (9) or running

3 (10) outside the building until (11) that it is safe (12) by a senior fire officer Memorandum

To: David From: Kim RE:

As you know, we've got the all-imponant inspection coming up next week and we still haven't got any proper fire notices up!

Can you put something official-looking together on the computer - don't forget to

laminate the notices! Make sure you include the following:

• if you see/smell a fire, set off the nearest alarm

• try and put the fire out if you can but don't get burnt/trapped

• go to the meeting place (behind the library)

• wait for your name to be called out

• if you hear the alarm, get out straight away - don't try and pick up any books, coats, etc

• go to the meeting place but don't lose control or run

• don't go back into the building until the senior fire officer (that's you by the way!) says it's OK

Kim For questions 1-12, read the following memo from the Director of Studies to the new Health and Safety officer of a language school and use the information to complete the numbered gaps in the fire notice. Use no more than two words for each gap. The words you need do not occur in the memo. The exercise begins with an example (0).

Error correction

In most lines of the following text there is one unnecessary word. It is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit in with the sense of the text. For each numbered line, find the unnecessary word and then write it in the space provided. Some lines are correct. Indicate these with a tick (V). The exercise begins with two examples (0).

Note-taking Obsessive note-taking which is the occupational hazard of students. They believe they remember things best by writing them down. Writing things down, however, it is still a practice that can be abused as it can so easily lead back to a passive and unconfident attitude to books; every little point the student reads may in its context be so persuasive and that he feels obliged to include it in his notes, which also become an abridged version of the original. What the obsessive note-taker usually postpones learning by understanding till he comes to read in his notes; but as such these are not always the product of understanding, they may be lengthy and unreliable. Furthermore, reading sentence-by-sentence or paragraph-by-paragraph notetaking commits the reader to further page-by-page reading; and as we shall see later, this situation is not necessarily the best way of reading slowly and understanding a book. The reader's notes should be both the outcome of understanding and not the prelude to it. Notes written of this kind are not only far more briefer, but also better organised and more personalised.

O which

10

11 12 13 14

PROGRESS TEST FOUR

Lexical cloze For questions 1-15, read the following passage carefully and decide which word best fits each space. The exercise begins with an example (O).

Lunatics

One of the oldest beliefs in folklore is that a full moon can (0) .... a sane person into a madman. Robert Louis Stevenson's Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was ( l ) by the real-life activities of Charles Hyde, who (2) .... horrendous crimes during the full moon. In 1992, Christopher Gore began a sentence at Broadmoor hospital after being (3) .... of killing his parents. He is also (4) of killing two others - all four crimes (5) . to nights of the full moon. Perhaps because of the enormous amount of anecdotal evidence from people working in the emergency services, some scientific research has been conducted in this (6) - but the conclusions are mixed. In 1972, research at the University of Miami seemed to show that the homicide rate in the city reached a (7) . . at each full moon. In India, there is much reported violent crime around the time of the full moon but then the Indians are famously (8) in the full moon and ready to

(9) .... misdemeanours on the moon's influence. 'Anecdotally, (10) .... nurses say patients become more disturbed when the moon is full, and firemen report more ( l l) . of arson. Indeed, scientific research does show a correlation between changed behaviour and the full moon,' Dr David Nias, (12) .... in medical psychology at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, admitted recently. 'However, this blip is explained by the small number of people who believe in the 'full moon effect' changing their behaviour accordingly - in much the same (13) as believers in astrology modify their behaviour to (14) that associated with their star (15) 0 A make B turn C cause D create I A based B inspired C founded D exemplified 2 A made B produced C realised D committed 3 A charged B arrested C convicted D apprehended 4 A suspected B involved C believed D implicated 5 A connected B associated C linked D joined 6 A department B range C section D field 7 A top B peak D summit 8 A fascinated B obsessed C interested D attracted 9 A blame B accuse C explain D refer 10 A psychotic B psychopath C psychic D psychiatric I l A episodes B accidents C cases D events 12 A student B teacher C professor D lecturer 13 A degree B means C way D amount 14 A agree B concur C align D match 15 A type B name C sign D symbol Word formation

For questions 1-15, read the two texts below. Use the words in the boxes to form one word that fits in the same numbered spaces in the texts. The exercise begins with an example (0).

Graphology

Graphology is the study of aspects of people's

(0) handwriting to reveal their ( l )

A graphologist would claim to be able to

(2) you by looking at such things as how you cross your 't's or dot your (i's or whether your words slope backwards or forwards. Decreasing margins indicate (3) or subordination, whereas increasing margins show (4)

Angular joins between letters are said to show strong will power and a certain (5) to adapt. Many people are, of course, quite (6) of graphology and its claims to 'read' people's characters. When compared with the results of established psychologists' tests, graphology has been shown to be generally (7) and a poor indicator of true character. o

2 3

4 5 6 7 WRITE

PERSON CATEGORY

SECURE GENEROUS

ABLE

DISMISS RELY One good turn deserves another

On his way to the all-important job interview at St Cake's, Rupert had foolishly stopped to help someone fix an old car, which was barely (8)

This meant he arrived late and had oil marks on his shirt and jacket. He went into reception and was led into a waiting room with great (9)

There were three other candidates there, who

(10) stared in amazement at his clothes. Clearly, the ( I l ) rule was smile at noone and speak to no-one! The other three were, of course, immaculately dressed and (12) cool, calm and collected. Rupert suddenly felt completely (13) as he imagined a (14) scene with the interviewers barely able to hide their contempt for him as he sat, dirty and sweating, on the chair in front of them! After thirty interminable minutes, Rupert was finally called into the interview room. As he entered, a familiarlooking old man greeted him, 'Ah, Mr Chester, the man with the in-depth (15) of the old Rover 80!' Rupert smiled. Maybe he would get the job after all! 8

9 10 I l 12 13

14 15 ROAD SOLEMN

SPEAK

SEEM COURAGE NIGHTMARE

KNOW 97 Answer Key

Use Your Head

l . I (Suggested answers only)

2 carefully, now 3 cat, house 4 but, moreover 5 hers, mine 6 information, luggage 7 cats, houses 8 tall) funny 9 sleep, catch 10 was kidnapped, were arrested

1 .2 I adjective 2 verb 3 adverb 4 adverb 5 noun 6 adverb

1 .3 2 's it going - present continuous 3 have you been waiting present perfect continuous 4 they will have finished - future perfect simple 5 were you doing - past continuous 6 'Il be able - future simple 7 Had Julia ever been - past perfect simple 8 'Il have been working - future perfect continuous 9 've just had - present perfect simple 10 did you buy - past simple Il 'Il be sitting - future continuous 12 We had been walking - past perfect continuous

1 .4

2 to . . about 3 in 4 on (about) 5 with 6 on 7 to 8 with

9 to 10 with 2. 1

2 broke down/ran out of petrol 3 wash 4 you work

5 (should) see him 6 will we get to 7 1 have 8 1'd slap

9 you use/look after it 10 lands Il I spoke/could speak 12 you require (any) 13 it gets/turns 14 wouldn't get/have

15 there are/ you have 16 you were shipwrecked/stranded 17 1 were/was 18 it rains/ 's raining 19 you be/find yourself

20 didn't (always) have

2.2 2 Although F 3 1 but 4 Although H 5 Despite/(n spite of J 6 A despite/in spite of 7 Although C 8 In spite G 9 B in spite 10 Despite/ In spite of E

3. 1

2 OK 3 think it over 4 OK 5 look through this article

6 put it off 7 OK 8 put it down 9 0K 10 give it up

3.2 2 for it 3 it out/away 4 after him 5 it up 6 it back 7 it up

8 to it 9 it over/about it 10 it in/out Il it out 12 over it

13 it up 14 them up 15 her round

4. 1 2 underestimate, overestimate 3 understate, overstate

4 undernourished, overnourishecl 5 undercharge, overcharge 6 understaffed, overstaffed 7 undercooked (underdone), overcooked (overdone) 8 underdressed, overdressed 9 underuse, overuse 10 underprivileged, overprivileged I I underrate, overrate 12 underexpose, overexpose

IOO 4.2

2 overdressed 3 undersized 4 overstatement

5 underestimate 6 overstaffed 7 underused 8 overestimate

9 underdone/undercooked 10 overrated 11 understatement

12 undernourished 13 overcharge 14 underprivileged

6 Layout and style mistakes

2 OBramley Road

Burnville 13V2 6BZ

3 23rd Oct, 20-

Dear Paco, very nice to ... see you soon.

Looking forward to hearing from you. 6

7 Best wishes,

Missing phrases:

I hear from you 2 1 was/am glad 3 1 wonder (was wondering) if I could ask/l need (want) to ask you a 4 1'd be (terribly/really/very) grateful 5 hesitate to say no/worry

6 Anyway 7 Hope to/ I hope to

6 3 beneficial 4 complexity 5 intellectual 6 misconception

7 deceitful 8 anxiety 9 dishonest 10 explanation

Il photographic 12 inattentive 13 psychological

14 investment 15 disappearance 16 deceitful ... dishonest

17 misconception 18 explanation ... disappearance 19 beneficial ... psychological 20 anxiety 21 inattentive photographic 22 complexity 23 intellectual 24 efficiency

7 2 assimilate 3 undergo 4 reported 5 jot down 6 set yourself 7 parroting 8 prove 9 offer 10 chewing over Il produce 12 circulated

8. 1

2 an (indefinite article) 3 The (definite article) 4 can (modal verb) 5 been (be) 6 to (preposition) 7 which (relative pronoun) 8 the (definite article) 9 which (relative pronoun) 10 into (preposition)

8.2 l / 2 that 3 in 4 that 5 of 6 When 7 have 8/ 9/ 10 0f 12 / 13 up 14 the

Severe Weather 1 . 1

2 1 3 H 4 F 5 J 6 A 7 C 8 G 9 B IO D

1 .2 2 foggiest 3 stormy 4 sunny 5 storms 6 showering 7 hail

8 frosty 9 floods 10 cloud

2 2 while/whereas 3 yet 4 in contrast/on the other hand

5 while/whereas 6 but 7 while/whereas 8 Although

3 2 standstill 3 hold 4 advantage 5 hint 6 give 7 role

4 2 on ... stand-by 3 warned against 4 admission of

5 under . illusions 6 cleared of 7 into action 8 increase in

9 to tears 10 fitted with

5 (Model answer)

10 North Parade Loxley

15 April 20- The Chairman

Town Council

Loxley Dear Sir,

I am writing to express my concern about the appalling state of the road outside my house. Indeed, the road is in such bad repair that my nextdoor neighbour recently had the misfortune to get the back wheel of her car stuck in one of the enormous potholes outside my gate. She was not only most distressed by the incident but also had to pay for a breakdown truck to pull her car out.

The damage to the road surface is clearly the result of the period of extremely cold weather we had with ice and snow. That, however, was two months ago and still nothing has been done, despite the fact that the road was inspected by a member of the council immediately after the weather improved.

I must, therefore, insist that the council takes steps to have the road repaired as soon as possible. Moreover, I must urge the council to take appropriate action to ensure that situations like this are rectified more promptly in the future.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully, Fred Smith

6 2 OK or aging 3 studying 4 swimming 5 OK 6 dying 7 kidnapped 8 OK 9 paid 10 tried Il arguing 12 referred

13 played 14 OK 15 panicked

7. 1

2 both possible (got - more probable) 3 was (only) 4 getting

(only) 5 be (only) 6 both possible 7 Get (only) 8 get

(only) 9 get (only) 10 both possible

7.2 2 be required 3 be accompanied by a cheque guarantee card 4 is not allowed inside the cathedral 5 should be addressed to the manager 6 will be notified before the end of the month 7 should be received within ten working days 8 has not been granted 9 will be paid (if) for money (is) lost in the post 10 must be accompanied by an adult

8 2 into 3 back 4 off 5 about 6 into 7 into 8 by

9 from .. . to 10 to

9 Time Eaters

1 . 1 2 informal, fat/overweight 3 informal, mad/crazy/insane

4 formal, write 5 dated, radio 6 legal, stealing/theft

7 informal, quite/rather/somewhat 8 dated, go out with 9 formal, despite (the fact or thing mentioned) 10 informal, large meal Il formal, wise/prudent 12 informal, trick/deceive 13 medical, collar bone 14 informal, language

1 .2 2 collar bone 3 Language 4 meal/dinner 5 OK 6 despite

7 somewhat 8 Overweight 9 OK 10 write I l OK

12 going out (together) 13 cuts 14 stealing

2 2 B how much 3 H which 4 A what 5 how C 6 when I

7 what E 8 J how 9 G who 10 D whose

3. 1 2 'Il have (have also possible) 3 're going to crash 4 'Il have

5 'Il get 6 isn't/ 's not going to rain 7 'm just going to stay

8 probably won't remember 9 'Il get 10 'm going to sneeze

3.2 2 As soon as/ When/()nce 3 until 4 After 5 while 6 if

7 When/Once/As soon as 8 until 9 By the time

10 Once/ When/As soon as

3.3 (Suggested answers only)

2 you've finished 3 you're seeing the bank manager 4 we get there 5 've finished the exam 6 you leave the car here 7 go to bed 8 has worn off

3.4 2 're forever using 3 know 4 's going 5 leaves 6 's writing

7 always gives 8 doesn't seem, 's always leaving 9 're having

10 rescues, gets Il are you living 12 serves, returns, goes

3.5 2 be able to come 3 must have taken 4 might have left 5 could/might/may have got 6 could swim 7 was able to swim 8 could/might/may have told 9 couldn't find 10 be able to run, can't even run Il mightn't/can't have realised 12 can cause 13 couldn't have been 14 Can you see, might/could/may well be 15 could have been 16 can't be 17 hasn't been able to hear 18 might/may bite

4 Stress 2 C result 3 H caused 4 K result 5 effect D source/cause 7 L cause 8 result E 9 result A 10 G because Il J lead 12 B due

2. I (Suggested answers only)

2 Driving carelessly 3 Listening to the radio 4 Watching TV 5 Living abroad 6 Doing 7 Swimming 8 Reading 9 Having a bath 10 Biting your nails

2.2 2 of going 3 of stealing 4 about accepting 5 in doing 6 at taking 7 about seeing 8 for inviting 9 for breaking 10 of seeing Il in going 12 for forgetting 13 of telling 14 by pressing 15 after coming 16 for getting 17 while/when operating/using 18 while taking 19 In spite of eating 20 before overtaking

2.3 2 drinking 3 seeing 4 to cut 5 working, having 6 to realise

7 telling 8 to tell 9 to win 10 relying/depending, to stand

Il to pass, playing 12 wondering, coming/getting 13 worrying, to know 14 smoking, breathing 15 being, to smash 16 to take, fixing/repairing/adjusting 17 risking, getting, leaving/parking 18 promising, to help, getting

2.4 2 showing 3 following 4 sightings 5 airing 6 reading 7 saying 8 carving 9 setting 10 awakening I l hearing

12 spellings 13 beings 14 fittings 15 recording

2.5 2 K 3 J 4 A/0 5 H 6 L 7 E 8 M 9 D IO N 11 B 12 C

13 0/A 14 F 15 1

3 2 enlarge 3 smarten 4 popularised 5 purify 6 summarise

7 endangers 8 cannibalised 9 horrified 10 lengthening Il clarify 12 lessen 13 enforce 14 terrorising

15 heightened

4 2 - for 3 - in 4 - over 5 - to 6 *kh- in 7 - on 8 en- into 9 - in on

5 2 meet 3 modify 4 provide 5 answer 6 calm, doing 7 take

8 receive 9 organise 10 attends

6. 1

2 rush 3 dizzy 4 mull over 5 focus 6 result 7 vulnerable

8 boosted 6.2 2 E 3 F 4 J 5 H 61 7 A 8 D 9 G 10 B

Progress Test One

I which 2 as 3 over 4 Having 5 going 6 spite

7 While/As 8 who 9 would/might 10 without Il good 12 where 13 matter 14 queuing 15 until 16 apologising

17 understaffed 18 result 19 under 20 unless/although

2 I lead to 2 ringing up/phoning up 3 weigh up 4 let . down 5 rounded off/finished off

3 I being 2 not 3 v/ 4 for 5 so 6/ 7 with 8/ 9 as 10 When Il up 12 / 13 / 14 the 15 are 16 it 4

I intensified 2 torrential 3 dreadful 4 sleepless

5 endless/unending 6 safety 7 desperate 8 overworked

9 ailments 10 ineffective Il undergo 12 particularly

13 recognition 14 scientifically 15 harmless

5 2 as soon as/immediately/once 3 As well as/ In addition to

4 Owing/ Due to 5 during 6 Since/As 7 OK 8 so that

9 OK 10 delete however Il OK 12 in order to/so as to/to

2. 1

2 was living, met 3 Weren't you working, had 4 got, became

5 heard, was going 6 went, left 7 lived, were always having 8 was hoping 9 was living, was published 10 saw, was blowing, were gathering Il were lying, was working 12 rang, picked, put 13 never understood, always got 14 worked, went 15 was, always went, really loved, often rained

2.2 2 turned up 3 explained 4 had been held up 5 didn't find 6 had been blowing 7 (had) called 8 was lying 9 had been driving 10 (had) appeared Il (had) braked 12 (had) skidded 13 (had) managed 14 was filling up 15 was wearing 16 had tied 17 was pulling 18 opened 19 jumped 20 had swum

3. 1

2 brush up 3 drink up 4 do up 5 split/break up 6 round up 7 made up 8 gang up 9 look it up 10 speed up

3.2 2 looked on to 3 dropped off to 4 build up 5 taken aback

6 pulled up 7 stubbed out 8 go through with 9 pull out

10 started up Il pulled over 12 jumped out of 13 shot off

14 pulled off 15 ripped off

3.3 2 away with 3 up to 4 up with 5 forward to 6 up on 7 off with 8 out for 9 on with 10 round to

4 2 G The latter 3 A such 4 H the above 5 F this 6 C which

7 B Another 8 E that

5 0 0 0 0 o 2 hostess, take-off 3 check in 4 Lavatories 5 terminal

o 00 0 0 6 boarding card 7 standby 8 delay, take off

6 (Corrected mistakes numbered and shown in bold)

5 Redland Road

Barford BF2 8VR 21st May 20- Randolph Jefferies

20 The Green Hinton

Devon HN3 2CC Dear (l) Mr Jefferies

I was most interested (2) in your advertisement (3) in 'The

Independent' and I am writing (4) to obtain further

(5) information about your country cottage holidays.

In particular, I would like (6) to know in which parts of the country your cottages are located as my friends and I are interested (7) in staying as far away from large cities as possible. I would (8) also like to know if it would be possible (9) to rent a cottage for six people for up to six months and whether pets are allowed as my friends and I have three well-behaved dogs we are planning to take with us.

I should, therefore, be (10) most/extremely/terribly grateful if you (l l) would send me full details of your larger, more isolated cottages and any brochures you may have.

Thanking you in advance for your help. I look forward to

(12) hearing from you as (13) soon as possible.

Yours (14) sincerely,

Sandy Melville 7

O paid I 2/ 3 (give) up 4 (turned) out 5

6 turned (out) 7 (sorted) out 8 V 9 (making) for

10 V Il V 12 / 13 / 14 (stick) to 15 (write) off 16 V

8 2 shrugged 3 hidilhg 4 take 5 way 6 lead 7 soul

8 promote 9 tongue 10 put

Language Matters

1 . 1 2 OK 3 Isn't that the hotel Greg and Sally had their wedding reception in? 4 The gentleman you spoke to last time is no longer with the company. 5 OK 6 OK 7 The reason the accident happened has never been clarified. 8 Is this the picture you were referring to? 9 OK 10 That's the car we were thinking of buying.

1 .2 1b whose mayor was arrested for corruption? c which/that was almost completely destroyed during the war? d where Richard Burton was born? 2a whose author I can never remember the name of? b which/that was reviewed in The Times last week? c (which/that) I lent you last term? 3a who lived in China until she was 16? b (who/that) the restaurant sacked for being rude to customers? c whose boyfriend wants to go and live in Italy? 4a (which/that) you wanted to have Off? b which/that had to be invented to make the year longer? c when most people get married?

1 .3

2 yes 3 no 4 yes 5 yes 6 no 7 no 8 no 9 yes 10 yes

1 .4 2 taken back/brought back/returned 3 cooked in

4 given/treated with 5 left/allowed 6 booked by/reserved by 7 taken/stolen/removed, parked/left in 8 dug up at (on)/ found at (on)/discovered at (on)/unearthed at (on) 9 washed in/with 10 painted I l brought into/imported into 12 left

2 2 as 3 alike, like 4 as 5 alike 6 like 7 As 8 like

3. 1 2 so/as intelligent as 3 better 4 the most carefully 5 as/so mountainous a country as 6 most northern/most northerly/northernmost 7 as much time ... as 8 as careful a driver as 9 more frequently than 10 the heaviest

3.2 2 C 3 F 4 J 5 H 6 E 7 K 8 1 9 D IO L 11 A 12 B

3.3 2 as blind as a bat 3 as flat as a pancake 4 as dry as a bone 5 as fresh as a daisy 6 as slippery as an eel 7 as weak as a kitten 8 as stubborn as a mule 9 as thin as a rake 10 as proud as a peacock I l as strong as an ox 12 as deaf as a post

4 (Some variations are possible)

2 slightly older than 3 exactly half as much as 4 much more than 5 a little/slightly shorter than 6 slightly taller than 7 three times as many hours per day as 8 slightly fewer hours per day than 9 about half as much (money) as 10 over five times as much (money) as I l a great deal more exercise than 12 slightly less exercise than

5 2 Not only, but also 3 Moreover/Furthermore 4 In addition to/ As well as/Besides 5 as if/as though 6 Although/Even though/ Though 7 Even if 8 yet 9 in spite of/despite

10 However I l nevertheless 12 whereas/while

6.2 I stopped 2 patrolling 3 studying 4 debatable 5 forgetting

6 OK 7 happier 8 OK 9 accommodation 10 doubtful

7 2 OK 3 absolutely/completely/totally 4 very/extremely

5 OK 6 absolutely/completely/totally 7 very/extremely

8 OK 9 OK 10 absolutely/completely/totally

8 I A 2 D 3 C 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 B 8 C 9 A IO A 11 B

12 D 13 C 14 B 15 C

The Ages of Man

1 . 1

2 1 used to (play) 3 B 'm used to 4 J got used to 5 C 'd been used to being 6 G didn't use to 7 A to get used to 8 H wasn't used to working 9 F used to drink it 10 D get used to obeying

1 .2 2 did you live 3 took, was 4 didn't live 5 's happened, 've seen 6 wrote, was 7 did you buy 8 've seen 9 Did you ever steal, were 10 has been Il went, did you think 12 did you get 13 witnessed, happened 14 's broken 15 smoked, gave up, hasn't touched

1 .3 2 did you see, haven't seen 3 've been learning, for 4 did you live 5 Has ... finished, has just been published 6 've been living, since, got 7 have you had 8 Have you been suffering, for 9 haven't repaired 10 hasn't won Il 've taken, did 12 Has Maisy phoned, said 13 have you eaten 14 've been using, since, haven't found 15 's been eating, since

1 .4

2 'm thinking 3 don't think 4 looks 5 definitely smells 6 tastes 7 realise 8 'm not feeling/don't feel 9 doesn't surprise 10 seem Il remember 12 need 13 'm seeing 14 suppose 15 promise

2. 1 I with a lot of hair, neutral 2 dangerous, negative 3 amusing, positive 4 strange, negative 5 pleasant, positive 6 small, neutral

2.2 7 noun 8 adverb 9 adjective 10 adjective

2.3 difficult decisions Il hard-headed = practical and unemotional when making

12 hard luck = expression of commiseration when someone

fails in something

13 hard up = not having enough money to buy essential things

14 doesn't exist - hard headed

15 hard nut = informal expression for someone who is physically or mentally very strong (or thinks they are) 16 doesn't exist - hard of hearing

17 doesn't exist - heavy sleeper

18 doesn't exist - hard liquor

19 hard cash = money in notes or coins, not cheques or credit cards

20 hard-hearted = not caring about other people's feelings

2.4 21 G 22 1 23 B 24 H 25 C 26 D 27 E 28 J 29 A 30 F

Verbs not needing to add the part of the body: 21 wink 23 nod 24 shrug 29 pout 30 clap

2.5 31 useless 32 usable 33 used 34 usefully 35 Users

2.6 36 beoy 37 wrestling 38 knick-knack 39 comb 40 sword

00 0 0 0 0 41 guitar 42 photographer 43 difficulty 44 calculator

0 0 0 0 45 original

3 (Some variations are possible)

2 Colin promised he'd/to repair the back door last/that weekend. 3 Karen admitted she'd scratched the car. 4 Maurice threatened to tell the police if they didn't give/unless they gave him ?5,000. 5 Hilary insisted that I go/ went to Dave's party with her on Saturday. 6 Silvia mentioned that Terry's house was still for sale. 7 Mr Penfold swore he'd never seen the money before. 8 The mountain guide warned them not to go walking in the fog (because it could be dangerous). 9 He couldn't remember if it was Leonardo or Michelangelo who painted/had painted the Mona Lisa. 10 Julian announced/told us/informed us that he and Nina were getting married the following year. 1 1 Jemima boasted/claimed she was the best tennis player at the college. 12 Dr Bianchi asked Dr McPherson if (s)he'd mind repeating the question/to repeat his/her question. 13 George complained that the service in the restaurant was incredibly slow. 14 The shop assistant suggested it might be better to/that I (should) wait until the manager got there. 15 The doctor advised Jack to eat less and take more exercise.

4 2 time do you make it? 3 would make 4 make it 5 do you make it? 6 're going to/ 'Il make it?

5 6 2 toddler 3 stamina 4 middle-aged 5 teenager 6 seventies

7 prodigy 8 infant 9 early The hidden word: longevity

8 Personally Speaking

2 big-headed 3 broad-minded 4 thin-skinned 5 tight-fisted

6 level-headed 7 short-tempered

2 (* = Suggested answer only)

2 more/less interesting, more/less likely 3 less easy/easier, more/less highly 4 more wine, less clearly 5 closer, *more nervous 6 more humid, worse 7 farther/further, *thicker 8 *The harder something is to do 9 *the less they practise their English 10 *The more stressful the situation

3 2 tick ... off 3 put down 4 face up to 5 worked out 6 steer away from 7 eked out 8 fight ... out 9 fall back on 10 picking out

4. 1 2 is spread/put F 3 was invented D 4 will be/will have been wiped out/eradicated L 5 used to be/were extracted/taken out/pulled out J 6 could be bought/obtained l 7 should not be exposed B 8 was/used to be spoken C 9 has been/is simplified K 10 are used A 11 are being destroyed E 12 are regarded H

4.2 2 will probably be sent 3 will be/are taken 4 have already been picked 5 be picked 6 were sprayed 7 to be gathered 8 are harvested 9 are both made 10 to be made 11 is treated 12 are just shaken 13 is collected 14 (is) put 15 will be automated

4.3 (Suggested answers only)

2 to die 3 play on the grass 4 to have more accidents 5 realise how bad the situation really was 6 to give up smoking 7 to open his suitcase 8 leave the room 9 to learn to speak the language 10 lose my temper.

5 2 1 was/am glad to hear you had a good time - apart from the sunburn!

3 1 hope you've got over it and are feeling better (by) now.

4 Anyway, the reason (why) I'm writing is that Kim and I are having a party on Saturday 19th to celebrate the end of our exams.

5 1 know it's rather a long way (for you) to come but I was wondering if/whether you'd like to stay the whole weekend.

6 We both hope you'll be able to make it.

7 Can you let me know if you're coming (or not) by next Friday?

8 Hope to hear from you soon.

6 2 restless (the others describe someone with a strong desire to do something) 3 impatient (the others describe someone who is not aware of or doesn't care about other people's feelings) 4 diligent (the others describe someone who communicates well with other people) 5 calm (the others describe someone who finds it difficult to talk to other people) 6 carefree (the others describe someone who concentrates so as not to make mistakes) 7 charming (the others describe someone who feels/is feeling pleasure) 8 dynamic (the others describe someone you can place your faith in or trust)

7 1 C 2 D 3 C 4 A 5 C 6 B 7 C 8 D 9 B IO A 11 B

12 D 13 B 14 C 15 A

Progress Test Two

I for 2 much/far 3 used 4 able 5 while 6 long 7 like

8 do 9 bit/little 10 must 1 1 been 12 would 13 managed 14 coming 15 as

2 1 turned out 2 stood by 3 handed down 4 singles out

5 stick to 3 I seaside 2 surprisingly 3 standby 4 twice 5 poorly

6 linguistically 7 farther/further 8 useless

9 defensive 10 restless I I talkative 12 depth

13 sensitivity 14 unfeeling 15 resistance

4 I too/as well 2 over/at least 3 been driving 4 put/write 5 about 6 cover/pay for 7 get 8 piece 9 get/hire/rent/pay for 10 cost

5 6 C 7 D 8 B 9 A 10 B 11 B

12 C 13 D 14 A 15 C

6 2 H 3 1 4 C 5 G 6 B Mind Your Manners

2 Hardly had she stubbed out one cigarette when she lit another. 3 Not a soul did we see all day. 4 No sooner did/had I put the phone down than it rang again. 5 So quietly did he speak that I didn't hear a thing he said. 6 Not a (single) game did they win all season. 7 Such is life. 8 Only after she'd been speaking to him for ten minutes did she realise who he was. 9 Not only did Kate spill wine on the carpet, but she also broke six glasses. 10 Never (before) had I seen such a gigantic fish!

2 2 may leave 3 didn't have to change 4 needn't have rushed

5 must have/have to have/need to have

6 Can/Could/May/Might I ask 7 will be allowed/able to travel 8 should/ought to/must have 9 'Il have to ask 10 don't have (need) to do/needn't do 11 to be allowed/able to build, can't put 12 Need we discuss/ Do we need to discuss 13 should have kept 14 'Il be allowed/able to build 15 weren't allowed to/couldn't make, had to use

3. 1 2 promise 3 hold 4 experience 5 jokes 6 does

7 question/point 8 give 9 ease 10 date 11 priority 12 pay

13 made 14 blunder 15 move

3.2 2 uproariously 3 categorically 4 deeply 5 profusely 6 bitterly 7 heartedly 8 bitterly 9 warmly 10 flatly

3.3 2 prior engagement 3 kind invitation 4 unkind remark

5 distant relative 6 warm welcome 7 wedding reception 8 social climber 9 fond farewell 10 firm handshake, sunny smile 11 family get-together 12 close friend 13 relaxed atmosphere 14 candle-lit dinner

4. 1

2 immobile 3 irrational 4 uncomfortable 5 non-smoker

6 irrelevant 7 unreliable 8 disrespect 9 insoluble 10 misbehave Il illogical 12 discomfort 13 misspell

14 impolite 15 illegible 16 non-resident

4.2 17 rude - polite 18 clever/ intelligent - stupid/unintelligent

19 thin - plump/fat 20 useful/convenient - useless/inconvenient

4.3 I IA/ 2 /0:/ 3 /1/ 4 /?/ 5 /D/ 6 /3•./ 7 /u:/ 8 /0:/

4.4 9 D 10 S 11 S 12 D 13 D 14 D 15 S 16 D 17 D 18 D

4.5 IOU/ rough thorough bough though enough borough drought dough tough plough

/o:/ /u:/ thought cough through nought trough

5 2 Jane would have applied for that job in the City if she had lived anywhere near/nearer London.

3 If Louis hadn't mentioned it to me in passing, I wouldn't have found out.

4 If a detective hadn't recognised him from an identikit picture, Ronald wouldn't be in prison.

5 Harry wouldn't have beaten me at tennis if he hadn't cheated/been such a terrible cheat!

6 If you hadn't left the map in the car, we wouldn't be lost!

7 We might have been able to fix the car when it broke down if we had known anything about engines.

8 1 would have prepared something special if I'd known they were coming.

6 (Model answer)

Report on the new 'Bambo' pushchair

Introduction The aim of this report is to tind out how good the new 'Bambo' pushchair is. It is based on interviews with 150 mothers and fathers in six different cities all over Britain.

Observations and comments

It was found that the majority of people interviewed had a very favourable overall impression of the pushchair. In the words of a Mrs Long of Gloucester, comparing it with her old pushchair, 'The "Bambo" is fantastic it's so light and manageable' and as a Mr Blair of London said, it must be comfortable as his little boy 'really likes going out in it'. On the whole, most people interviewed agree the 'Bambo' has the following good points: it is light and easy to steer; it is good for carrying shopping on the tray under the baby's seat; it is colourful and attractive to look at; the baby seems comfortable as (s)he has 4 different positions ranging from lying flat to sitting upright; it is easy to transport as it takes up very little room when folded. There were, however, some negative comments, which were: the opening hinge is often stiff making it difficult to unfold; the wheels themselves are rather small, which means the pushchair often gets stuck in holes on uneven or rough ground; the wheel locking mechanism on the back wheels is too small to be operated by using one's foot, which means one has to bend down to lock it by hand.

Recommendations

It is advisable for (Bocia' to make the following changes to their current model of (Bambo' pushchair: a) make the opening hinge easier to operate, b) increase the size of the wheels, c) make the wheel locking mechanism large enough to be operated by foot.

Conclusion '10 sum up, the current model is already well established as one of the best pushchairs on the market. However, acting on the recommendations stated above, 'Bocia' should be able to improve the product still further and possibly become market leader.

7 I Punctuality 2 serious 3 childish 4 poor state

5 repairs/maintenance 6 resources 7 location/position

8 inaccessible 9 furniture 10 stale/not fresh I l supply

12 variety 13 bland 14 poorly 15 impolite 16 advance

State of the Union

1 . 1

2 seeing 3 have 4 to know 5 shouting 6 give

7 understanding 8 do 9 to have 10 to get

1 .2 2 it's onions 3 the place/country 4 job satisfaction is what/it's job satisfaction 5 The reason (why) 6 The man

7 It was the Dutch 8 the film we wanted to see 9 Wasn't it

10 the language spoken

2 2 have . . . party 3 make . . commitment 4 the/that argument we had 5 got engaged 6 do . . ironing 7 gets . . . way 8 having . . . cry 9 making . . sense 10 do . . . share

3 2 falling out 3 make up 4 break/split up 5 cheating on

6 asking/inviting . . . out 7 stood up 8 get over 9 goes for

10 go off 4 2 in 3 on 4 of 5 with 6 towards 7 with 8 in 9 between

10 about 5 (Model answer)

Don't let your child's make-believe turn to Every year, hundreds of kids under the age of 5 are taken to hospital after swallowing something poisonous. Half of these children need to be kept in hospital. Some are accidentally poisoned when they think they are eating or drinking something nice.

MOST OF THESE ACCIDENTS ARE AVOIDABLE!

Safety checks you can make.

• Keep all medicines in a locked cabinet - or store them out of reach of children.

• Fit safety locks on the cupboard where you keep cleaning materials - including dishwasher and washing powder. • Teach your kids to act safely - not to eat pills or berries and not to drink from a bottle unless a grown-up says it's OK. • Be aware of plants and berries in your garden - find out which ones are harmful if eaten.

If your child has swallowed something harmful

Keep calm and read this panel carefully. If in doubt, phone

01742 313272 • Do not make your child vomit

• Immediately call the Accident and Emergency department of your nearest hospital or take your child there directly

• Take the substance, plant or berries you think your child has swallowed with you

At the hospital the staff will need to know:

• How many tablets or berries your child may have swallowed

• When he/she took them

• Whether your child has any symptoms (eg vomiting)

STAY CALM BUT ACT QUICKLY

6 I to 2 or 3 are 4 other 5 in 6 with 7 nor 8 like 9 on

10 often/frequently 11 that 12 these 13 instance/example

14 their 15 may

7 I limited/limiting 2 production 3 Action 4 enjoyment

5 household 6 predictable 7 unemotional 8 primarily

9 contentedly 10 reliable Il warning 12 discomfort

13 unable 14 considerably 15 brainwave

8 2 lonely-hearts 3 agony aunt 4 bride, groom 5 reception 6 honeymoon 7 confirmed bachelor 8 old flame 9 widower 10 marital status Il Spouse 12 heart-throb

Last Chance to See

1.1 2 no commas 3 OK 4 no commas 5 OK 6 comma before which 7 comma before which 8 comma before which and after chimpanzees 90K 10 comma before whose and after dog

1 .2

2 OK 3 The vegetation on which these animals depend is under threat. 4 There's that pen you've been looking for. 5 OK 6 . . . 'Ginger' was the name he was generally known by. 7 But that chap we bought the car from said it was guaranteed! 8 The process by which the vast majority of nuclear power is produced is known as 'fission'. 9 OK 10 Those kids she looks after are really terrible!

2.1 2 cut up 3 dip into 4 holding . . . up 5 carrying out

6 sprung up 7 make up 8 cut down

2.2 2 cut down 3 made up 4 make up 5 was held up 6 dip into

7 hold up 8 sprang up

3 2 will have finished 3 gets, 'Il have 4 's going to fall 5 is due to open, 'Il have been completed 6 is to/is due to/is going to give/is giving 7 'Il have been living 8 'Il be 9 doesn't start, 'Il have 10 's going to have I's having I l 'Il be flying 12 'Il phone 13 'Il have finished 14 Shall I give, is Fred going to take/will

Fred be taking/is Fred taking 15 're about to/going to close

4 2 . . . both (of them) have . . . 3 Neither 4 ?1 each (one) 5 . they both lead . . . I know (very) few words . . . 8 Each/ Every student . 9 OK or Every CD . . seems little point . 1 1 . but neither of them . . . 12 OK or . . . all of them 13 . for a few close friends . . . 14 0K 15 0K

5 2 so that/in order that 3 in case 4 due to/owing to/as a result of/because of 5 As/Since/Because 6 so . that 7 so 8 such that 9 consequently/therefore/as a result 10 As soon as/When/ Once I l until/till 12 Before 13 Hardly . . . when or No sooner . . . than 14 First, Then/Next/After that, Finally 15 While

6 2 166 High Street 3 in applying 4 post/position of 5 was advertised/ I saw advertised 6 My reason for 7 have worked/ been working 8 interested in/looking for 9 offer/give me 10 of working 11 to attend an 12 convenient 13 1 look forward to hearing from you. 14 Yours sincerely, 15 OLIVIA JAMES

7 8

2 lead-free petrol 3 conservation policy 4 forest fire 5 rare species 6 Illegal poaching 7 long lifespan 8 logging rights 9 natural habitat 10 national parks

Progress Test Three

I persuaded/convinced 2 when 3 make 4 how 5 do

6 until 7 which/that 8 which/that 9 harder/tougher

10 causing Il what 12 While 13 After

14 meantime/meanwhile 15 sooner

2 I carries out 2 gone out 3 broke out 4 send off 5 cut off

3 I have been hung/are hung 2 have calmed 3 contains 4 hunt 5 makes the elks avoid 6 excited 7 are caused

8 OK 9 will be cut 10 costs Il OK 12 was invented 13 stops elks eating 14 OK 15 would soon become 16 fear 4

5 I painful 2 incorrect 3 childhood 4 accomplishments

5 unappreciated 6 inadequacy 7 unnecessary

8 behaviour 9 incomprehensible 10 unfriendly I l uninterested 12 apologetic 13 embarrassment

14 impolite 15 inoffensive Living Dangerously

2 hands 3 expose 4 reckless 5 dicing 6 adventure

7 blackspot 8 hand 9 daredevil 10 narrow Il fire 12 neck

13 corner 14 ice 15 den

2 2 The thing I'd really like to try is bungee-jumping. 3 Inexperience not recklessness is the greatest cause of accidents.

4 Nowhere in the entire hotel was there a fire escape!

5 Under no circumstances must visitors approach the cages. 6 What most young people need is a sense of danger in their lives.

7 Not a living soul did we see for over two months! 8 It was not until three days after the accident that they were rescued.

9 No sooner had she left hospital than she went sky-diving again!

10 The rush of adrenalin is what I really love when I go skiing.

3. 1 2 put . . . down to 3 brought out 4 cut off over 7 broke out 8 cut off

3 .2 5 put out 6 get 2 got over 3 put . . . down to 4 cut . . . off

6 broke out 7 put out 8 brings out 5 got over 4

2 OK 3 . . . had never seen 4 . . . has Dr Harris examined 5 . . . did you buy . . . 6 . . . worked 7 1've written

8 . . . had already started 9 OK 10 1 had been sitting . I l OK 12 . . . had been snowing . . . 13 . . . has crashed . . . 14 . . . were riding 15 . . . has been raining . . .

5. 1

2 would still be living, hadn't found 3 hadn't looked, wouldn't have spotted 4 would ever have guessed, hadn't been caught 5 would never have got, hadn't been/gone 6 had taken, might/would be living 7 hadn't noticed, would be 8 would have been, hadn't lost 9 wouldn't be, hadn't known 10 'd listened, wouldn't be sitting

5.2 2 If we hadn't got soaking wet on Sunday, we wouldn't (all) have colds (now). 3 If I knew, I'd tell you.

4 1 wouldn't have caught/managed to catch the train if it hadn't been 10 minutes late.

5 We'll have to cancel the barbecue if the weather's bad on Sunday.

6 1 wouldn't be living in Italy if I hadn't got married to an Italian.

7 1 would have phoned you if I hadn't lost the bit of paper with your number on it.

8 If she weren't/wasn't so aggressive, we'd get on (much better). 9 If there's a train strike on Monday, I might not be able to

come.

10 We wouldn't have a broken window if you and your friends hadn't been playing football in the back yard.

I l I'd speak to them more often if they weren't so reserved. 12 If I hadn't missed the end of the film, I'd know who the murderer was/is.

13 If Jimmie passes his exams, his father will/is going to buy him a new bike.

14 We'd have gone to the cinema if we hadn't already seen the film

15 Zoe would have won the race if she hadn't tripped and fallen.

6 2 towards 3 on/about 4 for 5 from 6 to 7 to 8 to 9 on

10 in 7 (Model answer)

FUN FOR ALL THE FAMILY AT NEW ADVENTURE PARK Tamford Towers Adventure Park is set to open its doors to the public this Saturday at noon and, take it from me, it's an opportunity you don't want to miss! The park designers have really pulled out all the stops on this one and come up with what, for my money, is the best adventure park ever! Not only that but also the best value for the money in Dad's pocket with all sorts of special deals and discounts for families on a budget.

Once you're inside, there's something for everyone. There are ten totally new rides ranging from the Water Splash log-ride, which might be a bit tame for some of you teenagers, to the hair-raising 'Screwball' - a type of crazy high-speed spinner - and the awesome 'Abyss', which sends you plummeting to earth at over 100 miles an hour! Totally exhilarating and definitely not one for the faint-hearted!

But there's more yet! There's a small zoo with camels, rhinos and, a must-see for younger kids, penguins! Don't miss their feeding times (llam and 5pm). Then there's 'Uncle Ted's Farmyard), where youngsters can see and even touch chickens, sheep, cuddly lambs and goats. And when they're tired of the animals, there's a large playground with swings, roundabouts and slides. And when Mum and Dad need a break from all the fun, there's a cafe-style restaurant as well as the park's very own pub with beer garden - a popular retreat for fathers in need of refreshment.

And don't forget the souvenir shop (full of marvellous things), refreshment kiosks for ice creams and soft drinks - yes, there are plenty of toilets - and a huge FREE car park! So, don't forget this Saturday - be there or be square!

8 I after/when 2 state/say/indicate 3 to 4 which 5 where

6 them 7 to 8 of 9 other 10 together I l lies/is

12 another 13 who 14 along/together 15 out

9 2 . . . meet outside . 3 by yourself 4 OK 5 themselves

. to you 7 0K 8 0K 9 0K 10 . . . make us . 1 1 . to each other 12 OK 13 We as 14 each of us 15 . to themselves 16 . for each other

2 2 didn't interrupt me when I'm speaking 3 left for the station 4 hadn't lost my temper (this morning) 5 you hadn't/haven't seen her 6 lost your job, what would you do then? 7 hadn't given my number to that insurance agent 8 were poor/broke/didn't have any money! 9 didn't have to go back to work tomorrow 10 hadn't held on to my belt, I'd have fallen overboard 11 1 was somewhere warm and sunny/the weather wasn't so awful 12 were rich, I'd travel round the world in my own plane

3. 1

2 insecurity 3 beneficial 4 awareness 5 embarrassment

6 anxiety 7 sincerity 8 resentful 9 dismissive 10 attentive

3.2 12 discontented 13 invulnerable 14 OK 15 dishonest 16 OK 17 OK 18 insincere 19 inattentive 20 unattractive 4

2 sets . . . apart 3 give up 4 end up 5 clam up 6 shout . . . down/shut . . . up 7 carrying out 8 look into 9 face up to

5. 1

2 OK 3 shrugged his shoulders 4 clapping my hands

5 stamps his feet 6 OK 7 nodded their heads 8 OK

5.2 9 nail B 10 foot l I l D heart 12 hand J 13 A teeth 14 E heels 15 H thumbs 16 teeth C 17 eye G 18 F ears

6 2 no matter 3 Much as 4 in spite of 5 While 6 whichever 7 However 8 Despite the fact that 9 whatever 10 However hard

7 2 head-on collision 3 hand signals 4 heart-to-heart talk

5 knee-jerk reaction 6 thumbnail sketch 7 earsplitting noise

8 eye contact 9 blood circulation 10 hair-raising story

8 I premature 2 powerful 3 tightly 4 Protective

5 unavoidably 6 overheating 7 non-alcoholic

8 sensitivity 9 childhood 10 artistic 11 painful 12 recovery

13 importance 14 emotionally 15 consultation

9 (model answer)

Ms Maria Hempel

I am writing in support of Ms Maria Hempel's application to become a resident health and fitness trainer at your establishment.

I have known Ms Hempel for approximately ten years in her capacity as aerobics instructor at the 'Avalon Club', the gymnasium which I manage.

First and foremost, I would say Ms Hempel is an excellent teacher of aerobics. References to her in our customer feedback forms have been unanimous in their praise for her as a professional. The only slight criticism has been over her modern hairstyle. However, I am sure she would be prepared to adapt her appearance as seems appropriate should she be selected for the post.

Furthermore, Ms Hempel has continued her professional development through a health and nutrition course, which she has just completed successfully, adding another qualification to her portfolio.

Besides her professional qualities, Ms Hempel is also punctual, in excellent health, has a good sense of humour and excellent interpersonal relations with the other members of the instructors' team.

In short, I would highly recommend Ms Hempel as a prospective member of your staff. Should she get the job, it would be a great loss to us here and it will be difficult to replace her.

Jim Long

(15 May 2002) Testing Times

1 . 1 2 . . . you didn't smoke . 3 . . . you've tasted .. 1 had been born . .

1 .2 I . . . you'd/had told . . relieved if he doesn't come If you hadn't lost . . . 5 OK

1 .3

I . . . us playing . 2 . suggested that I spoke/should speak Interested in learning . 4 Remember to buy .

5 . try plugging it in?

1 .4 1 . . it may/might/could be . 2 It can't have been . 3 .

he managed to swim . . . 4 0K 5 . . we didn't need to take .

1 .5 1 had already been eaten. 2 OK 3 . . need testing . 4 OK

5 0K 1 .6 I Despite living/Although he lived . 2 . . . due to the low . . .

3 The reason (why) she . 4 . . a major cause of .

5 . sport, whereas/while/whilst cricket .

1 .7 I Having lived in the countryside 2 OK 3 Never having flown before . 4 OK 5 . . . mother, who lives in Bath, is .

1 .8 1 No sooner had we arrived . 2 Not only was the hotel room

3 OK 4 What we want is . 5 OK

2. 1

2 J running/walking/wandering 3 flying N 4 putting/hiding

K 5 to give D 6 to look/appear C 7 to inform H 8 pushing/kicking/shaking/hitting M 9 to tell A 10 1 to realise/understand 1 1 to pay B 12 to think G 13 leaving/dropping out of L 14 being/getting F

2 being, to get 3 listening, arguing 4 put, paying 5 start revising/to revise 6 participating 7 to be, to get 8 go, taking 9 telling 10 to ban 11 (to) show 12 to run, to bring 13 to leave 14 to make, go

3 (Model answers)

2 Present continuous - I am working in Dublin this month. 3 Present perfect simple - I've already eaten so I'm not hungry, thanks.

4 Present perfect continuous - a I've been waiting for an hour. b I've been sunbathing in the garden, that's why my face is so red.

5 Past continuous - a I was picking grapes in France this time last week. b I was defrosting the fridge when the phone rang. 6 Past perfect simple - By the time the police arrived, the robbers had already escaped. 7 Past perfect continuous - I had been working for ten hours when I fell asleep exhausted.

8 Future continuous - I'll be relaxing at the seaside this time next month.

9 Future perfect simple - I hope I'll have read her book when I meet her next week.

10 Future perfect continuous - I'll have been working here for three years next June.

4 2 managed 3 were 4 rang 5 leaves 6 miss 7 'Il miss 8 'Il get 9 's always turning/always turns up 10 arrived I l to catch 12 had been sitting 13 was going 14 wouldn't

I l l

Focus on Advanced English C.A.E.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

RICHARD WALTON Focus on Advanced English Grammar Practice provides additional practice to support the main grammar and vocabulary areas found In each ot the 14 units ot Focus on Advanced English.

Focus on Advanced English Grammar Practice can also be used as a freestanding workbook for students who Wish to prepare for the Certificate tn Advanced English examination,

This new editton reflects the changes to the new edition of Focus on Advanced English Students' Book and to the modified Certificate in Advanced English examination.

Focus on Advanced English Grammar Practice also contains:

• study tips to help With common grammatical problems

• space for written answers

• four Progress Tests

• a pull-out Answer Key

Focus on Advanced English C . A . E. revised edition

Grammar Practice 0-582-325714 Students' Book 0-582-32569-2 Class cassettes (set of two) 0-582-32572-2 Teacher's Book 0-582-32570? Practice Tests With Guidance 0-582-3825 72 with key edition 0-582-382580 Practice Tests Cassettes (set of tV'0) 0-58208259-9

Pearson Education

www, ongrnan-ett.com

I USE YOUR HEAD

USE YOUR HEAD

4 4

4

4

23 23

TROTTING GLOBE TROTTING 5

4

23 GLOBE TROTTING 5

23 6 LANGUAGE MATTERS

LANGUAGE MATTERS 6

4

23 LANGUAGE MATTERS 6

23 6 LANGUAGE MATTERS

4 23 LANGUAGE MATTERS 6

6

23 4

23 9 MIND YOUR MANNERS

4 23 9 MIND YOUR MANNERS

4

9 MIND YOUR MANNERS

4 23

4

23

4 LAST SEE

4 23 LAST SEE

4

23

4 4

23

MIND AND BODY 1 3

4

MIND AND BODY 1 3

23 MIND AND BODY 1 3

4

TESTING TIMES

TESTING TIMES

4 TESTING TIMES

PROGRESS TEST FOUR

4

4 PROGRESS TEST FOUR

PROGRESS TEST FOUR

4

5

ANSWER KEY

ANSWER KEY 102

101 ANSWER KEY

ANSWER KEY

ANSWER KEY

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