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"___" _________________2014 г.

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United Nations

The United Nations is an international organisation of countries. It was created for many reasons:

* There should be peace and security in the world after the Second World War

* Countries should be friendly to each other

* Countries should help each other solve problems

* Human rights should be respected everywhere in the world.

After the Second World War the allied countries got together to discuss in which ways such an organization could be created. In 1945 50 countries got together in San Francisco and signed an agreement that created the United Nations. The United States invited the new UN to set up its headquarters in New York. The building was finished in 1952 and has been the permanent seat of the UN until today.

All countries get together in the General Assembly. It normally meets once a year, but it doesn't have any real power. It discusses problems and recommends ways to solve them. In the General Assembly each country has one vote.

The Security Council is the main body of the UN. It gets together almost every day and it has the most power. Member countries must do what the Security Council decides. There are 15 members in this council - five of them are permanent : The United States, Russia, China, France and Great Britain. These countries have a right to veto anything. The other 10 members change all the time. They stay in the Security Council for 2 years.

The Security Council makes very important decisions and all the countries have to obey them. It tries to keep peace in the world and also tries to solve conflicts that endanger world peace. It also sends peacekeepers to countries where there is trouble.

The World Court makes decisions when two countries argue about something. It has independent judges that are elected by the UN.

The Secretary General has a lot of power in the UN. He is the highest official and is elected for five years by the General Assembly. He often travels around the world to settle conflicts between countries.

At present, Ban Ki-moon is Secretary General of the UN. He was elected in 2006 and comes from South Korea . Austria also had a man in charge of the UN. Kurt Waldheim was Secretary General from 1972 to 1981.

The United Nations also has many other organisations The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) tries to find out if countries have atomic weapons. Its seat is in Vienna. The World Health Organisation is a UN programme to help control diseases all over the world. UNICEF is an organisation to help children in need in poor countries.

The United Nations needs a lot of money to keep up all of these organisations and programmes. It gets most of its money from the world's rich countries like the United States (about 25 %), Japan, Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy. A lot of the money is used for peacekeeping missions.

In the past few years-after the end of the Cold War-the United Nations have played a more important role in the world. In 1991, the UN voted to take action against Iraq, which invaded Kuwait. But if important countries do not agree in the Security Council, like in the Iraq War of 2003, the United Nations cannot do very much to prevent conflicts.

The Supreme Court - How It Works

The Supreme Court is the most powerful court in the United States. It was set up by the founding fathers of the United States in the third article of the Constitution.

The court is made up of nine members, called justices. There is one chief justice and eight associate justices. They are appointed by the president and can serve on the Supreme Court their whole lives. A justice can only be dismissed if they do something wrong or illegal. Each justice must be approved by the Senate before they take office.

The Supreme Court guards and defends the American constitution. It decides legal cases that arise between citizens, states and the federal government. In most cases the Supreme Court hears cases that have already been decided before a lower court. When someone who has lost a case thinks that the decision is wrong, he or she can appeal to higher courts. The highest court of appeal is the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court, however, can not deal with all the cases that are brought to it. Each year it hears about 250 cases, only choosing the ones that the justices think are most important.

When the Supreme Court hears a case both parties have the chance to bring their arguments before the justices, who may then ask questions. Parties can also present written papers that show their opinion. There are no witnesses at such a hearing and there is no jury allowed.

At the end of the hearing the justices vote on the case. They must reach a decision by majority vote. Then a justice is chosen to write down the opinion of what most justices think. In many cases not all justices have the same opinion on a topic.

When the Supreme Court decides something it is final. All the other courts in the country must decide an issue in the same way. A Supreme Court ruling can be turned around in two ways. Sometimes the members of Congress amend the constitution, or the Supreme Court itself may later on decide differently in a similar case.

For example, in 1895 the Supreme Court ruled that the government was not allowed to collect taxes from its citizens. Two decades later Congress passed the 16th Amendment, which gave the government the right to collect money from the people.

In another issue the Supreme Court changed its view on what it thought about how blacks and whites should live together. In 1896 it decided that blacks and whites should have separate public places, like schools, bus stops etc... In 1954 the court ruled that sending blacks and whites to different schools was against the constitution.

In the past 200 years the Supreme Court has made decisions on almost every aspect of American life. Here are some of them:

* In 1857 the Supreme Court decided that slaves, even if they were free, could not become American citizens. After the Civil War the 14th Amendment overturned the decision and made blacks citizens.

* In 1873 the court decided that women did not have the right to become a lawyer. In 1920 an amendment gave women the right to vote. But for many decades afterwards men and women were treated differently in society.

* In 1973 the Supreme Court declared that women should have the right to abortion in the first three months of pregnancy.

* In 200 the Supreme Court made a decision on the presidential election between George Bush and Al Gore. It did not allow Florida to recount its votes. Bush won the state and became president.

* In 1964 the court ruled that newspapers could not be punished if they printed something wrong about a person unless they knew it was wrong.

* Over the past decades the Supreme Court has also had different opinions about the death penalty. In 1972 it stated that the death penalty was unconstitutional in some states because it was a cruel form of punishment. After most states introduced lethal injection to kill inmates the court reversed its opinion in 1976.

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20 Кб, 8 сентября 2015 в 10:51 - Россия, Москва, МАЭП, 2015 г., docx
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