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Студенческий документ № 035714 из МФЮА

Министерство образования Российской Федерации

Московская финансово-юридическая академия

Учебное пособие

по дисциплине

"Английский язык"

(1, 2 части)

для студентов экономико-управленческих,

финансовых, юридических

и гуманитарных специальностей

Москва 2006

Евсеева А.Ю.

Учебное пособие по дисциплине "Английский язык" для экономических, финансовых, юридических и гуманитарных специальностей, Ч.1-2. - М.: МФЮА, 2006. - с.

Рецензенты:

Рекомендовано к использованию в учебном процессе на заседании кафедры

"Иностранных языков" МФЮА

(протокол № __ от "__" _ 2005 г.)

Типография Московской финансово-юридической академии

Тираж _______ экз.

?МФЮА, 2006

С О Д Е Р Ж А Н И Е

PART I. 4 UNIT 1. CITY OR VILLAGE? 4

ADVENTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT LIFESTILES 4

UNIT 2. MOSCOW: THE LORD OF THE RINGS 7

UNIT 3. WEATHER PROVERBS 11

UNIT 4. APPEARANCE 15

UNIT 5. TRAVELLING 19

UNIT 6. TODAYS TRAFFIC 24

UNIT 7. THE INTERNET 29

UNIT 8. PHONE POWER 34

UNIT 9. GREENPEACE'S HISTORY 37

UNIT 10. OXFORD UNIVERSITY 41

UNIT 11. OXFORD MUSEUMS 44

UNIT 12. CHOOSING A U.S. UNIVERSITY 53

UNIT 13. HARVARD UNIVERSITY 56

UNIT 14. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY 61

PART II. 65 UNIT 1. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 65

UNIT 2. HOW TO "SURVIVE" IN THE USA. GENERAL GUIDELINES 70

UNIT 3. THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND ................................................................................................74

UNIT 4. HOW TO "SURVIVE" IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. GENERAL GUIDELINES 78

UNIT 5. CANADA 85

UNIT 6. HOW TO "SURVIVE" IN CANADA. GENERAL GUIDELINES 89

UNIT 7. BUSINESS CULTURE 93

UNIT 8. THE CAREER LADDER 97

UNIT 9. BUSINESS HOURS 100

UNIT 10. BUSINESS LETTERS 105

UNIT 11. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 112

UNIT 12. MEMORANDA. REPORTS 115

UNIT 13. OFFICE DOCUMENTATION 120

UNIT 14. BUSINESS TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS 124

РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА 127

PART I.

UNIT 1. CITY OR VILLAGE?

ADVENTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT LIFESTILES

The place where you live plays a very significant role in your life. There is a great difference between living in a city and living in a country. The living style, the personality, the relationship between people change according to the place where you live.

Living in a city has both advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side, it is often easier to get education and to find work, and there is usually a choice of public transport, so you don't need to own a car.

Also, there are many social activities to colour your life. When you are bored you can find a lot of interesting things to do and places to see. For example, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, go to the theatre, cinema or to concert.

What is more, when you want to relax, you can usually find a park where you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and read a book. All in all, city life is full of bustle and variety and you need never feel bored.

However, for every plus there is a minus. For one thing, you might have a job, but unless it is very well-paid, you will not be able to afford many of the things that there are to do, because living in a city is often very expensive. It is particularly difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. What is more, public transport is sometimes crowded and dirty, particularly in the rush hour, and even the parks can become very crowded, especially on Sundays when it seems that every city dweller is looking for some open space and green grass. Last of all, despite all the crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city.

It seems that city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who like the excitement of the city and don't mind the noise and pollution.

However, many people, when they get older, and particularly when they have young children, often prefer the life in the countryside. They make this choice not only because of the peace and fresh air. The relationship and the sincerity between people are more close in the country than the city. The city people think only about money, money, money... their goals are designed according to that reality. They are very formal and they are very sincere only when they come face to face with someone in the upper class. They only have dialogue if they need help or if they want to have a profit from you. They are never happy with what they have as they always want more and more.

The pure country people are more reliable, helpful, sincere and spontaneous. They like helping each other whereas the city people never deal with the other people's matters.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in the city?

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in the village?

3. What is the difference between activities in the city and in the village?

4. What lifestyle do young people prefer? Why?

5. What do old people prefer: city or village? Why?

6. What is the difference between city and country people?

7. Do you agree that city people think only about money?

8. Why are country people more open and sincere then city people?

9. What do you think is better for children: city or village?

10. Where do you prefer living: in a city or in a village?

Exercise 2. Match the words as they are used in the text from the UNIT1 and make a few sentences with them.

1. significant a. dweller

2. living b. a choice

3. public c. help

4. rush d. museums

5. fresh e. transport

6. city f. between people

7. relationship g. style

8. to visit h. hour

9. to make i. role

10. to need j. air

Exercise 3. Make these sentences negative.

1. The place where I live is quiet.

2. To my mind, living in a city has a lot of advantages.

3. Nowadays it's easy to find a good job.

4. I like this girl very much because she's very sincere.

5. This park becomes very crowded on Sundays.

6. She's very rich: she can afford to go to the restaurant every day.

7. These people think only about money.

8. Public transport in my town is crowded and dirty.

9. My sister likes her job very much because it is very well-paid.

10. Living in a city is very expensive.

Exercise 4. Write down the questions for the sentences from the exercise 3.

Exercise 5. Match the word with its definition.

1. relationship (n)

2. accommodation (n)

3. bustle (n) 4. variety (n)

5. crowd (n) 6. sincerity (n)

7. profit (n) 8. reliable (adj)

9. significant (adj)

10. appealing (adj)

11. expensive (adj)

12. sincere (adj)

13. social (adj)

A. costing a lot of money

B. the quality when someone is sincere and really means what they are saying

C. the quality when someone or something can be trusted or depended on

D. attractive or interesting

E. when smth. is sincere, honest, true, and based on what you really feel and believe

F. place for someone to stay, live, or work

G. busy and usually noisy activity

H. a large group of people who have gathered together to do something.

I. relating to human society and its organization, or the quality of people's lives

J. the way in which two people or two groups feel about each other and behave towards each other

K. a lot of things of the same type that are different from each other in some way

L. money that you gain by selling things or doing business, after your costs have been paid

M. having an important effect or influence, especially on what will happen in the future

UNIT 2. MOSCOW: THE LORD OF THE RINGS

For his epic fantasy Ronald Tolkien borrowed magic rings from ancient

myths and historical legends. As for Moscow, it had its own rings from the very beginning. In fact, it came into being as a city of rings. Like many ancient cities it

was founded as a fortress. When first mentioned in the chronicles in 1147, it was a wooden fortress on a high hill at the confluence of two rivers, the Moskva and the Neglinnaya. In the latter part of the 4th century Prince Dmitry Donskoy replaced the oak walls with white stone, and later Italian architects replaced them with the red brick walls that we admire today.

Moscow's second ring, what is called Kitay-Gorod, has practically disappeared. Nothing is left but a fragment of the wall behind the Metropol Hotel and another fragment in Kitaygorodsky Passage near the Rossia Hotel. But if you descend into the underground crossing on Slavyanskaya Square, you will see a section of the bulky white-stone foundation of Kitay-Gorod's biggest tower, the Varvarskaya (of St. Barbara). Kitay-Gorod was not a complete ring. Its walls, which embraced a neighborhood of wealthy merchants, adjoined the Kremlin on the side of Red Square. The fortress was built in 1536-1538 by Petrok Maly (Pietro the Minor), an Italian architect.

Moscow periodicals of the 1830s wrote: "Laying out boulevards is a happy invention. It has made our old capital incredibly beautiful."

The Boulevard Ring, Moscow's third ring, also began as a fortress, White City. It embraced settlements north of the Kremlin all the way down to the Moskva River.

White City was built under the eagle eye of the monarch's expert, Fyodor Kon, in 1586-1593. Its size and beauty earned it the name of Czar's City. This largest stone fortress in Moscow was over nine kilometers long and had twenty-seven towers, ten of which served as gates. Today, on the site of these ten gate towers are the ten squares of the Boulevard Ring. On the site of the most beautiful tower of the fortress, the Tower of Seven Peaks, now stands the Cathedral of Christ the Savior.

Moscow's longest and shortest-lived fortress, the Skorodom ("very quickly built"), was erected of logs in 1592. Two decades later it burned down during the Polish invasion. Instead of rebuilding it, Moscow erected a huge earthen wall on the site.

Two centuries have passed since the earthen walls were demolished, and a wide road appeared in their place. People who wished to build a house along the road were asked to lay out lawns and gardens before their homes. So the road came to be known as the Garden Ring. The lawns and gardens disappeared long ago. Today the avenue is lined with 20th-century buildings in the Russian Art Nouveau style and creations of Stalin's style.

Moscow's fifth and last defense line, the Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart (from the Camera Collegium, the Ministry for Taxes and Fees), was built during the reign of Peter the Great in the early 18th century. It served as the city's customs boundary, protecting it from smuggling. Only few streets have survived from the rampart and they are not connected.

Like every megalopolis, Moscow is having traffic problems which can be solved only by creating more transport rings. The map of Moscow may be compared to the cross section of a tree trunk with a series of successive growth rings, but Moscow's rings are secular rather than annual.

In the past Moscow reduced all its medieval fortresses to ring roads. Today it continues to add ring after ring. Its administrative border is marked by the largest ring, the Moscow Outer Automobile Ring Road (MKAD), built in the 1960s. This is a 109-km highway with circular traffic.

The Third Transport Ring Road is one of the largest-scale projects of recent years. Its length is 36 kilometers; 12 kilometers represent tunnels, bridges and overpasses. The Lefortovo tunnels alone are 4.5 km long and lie deep under a historical neighborhood. The capital's two other rings, serving as a surface railroad and an underground metro line, bring the total number of Moscow's rings to nine. Devotees of Tolkien's epic with its nine magic rings might have stopped at this. But Moscow keeps moving on. Now it is preparing for a fourth transport ring, for motor vehicles.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. A. Find the Russian equivalent for:

the Neglinnaya river, the Garden Ring, the Boulevard Ring, Kitay-Gorod, Metropol Hotel, Rossia Hotel, Kitaygorodsky Passage, Slavyanskaya Square, Red Square, Kremlin, White City, Tower of Seven Peaks, Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Skorodom, Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart

B. Where are they located?

Exercise 2. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why.

1. Moscow was founded as a stone fortress.

2. Moscow was first mentioned in the chronicles as a wooden fortress on a high hill at the confluence of two rivers, the Moskva and the Yauza.

3. The walls of the wooden fortress were replaced with red stone by Dmitry Donskoy.

4. Moscow's second ring is called Kitay-Gorod.

5. Nothing is left of the Kitay-Gorod.

6. Kitay-Gorod was a complete ring around Kremlin.

7. The Boulevard Ring also began as a fortress.

8. White City was built under the eye of Fyodor Kon.

9. Fyodor Kon was Russian monarch in 1586-1593.

10. Kremlin was called the Czar's City for its size and beauty.

11. White City was the largest stone fortress in Moscow.

12. White City had twenty-seven towers, two of which served as gates.

13. The ten squares of the Boulevard Ring used to be ten gate towers.

14. The Cathedral of Christ the Savior stands on the site of the Tower of Seven Peaks.

15. Moscow's shortest-lived fortress was the Skorodom.

16. The Skorodom burned down in 1592.

17. Instead of rebuilding the Skorodom, Moscow built the road in its place.

18. The Garden Ring is called so because people who wished to build a house along the road were asked to lay out gardens before their homes.

19. The Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart was built during the reign of Peter the Great.

20. Only few connected streets have survived from the Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

1. Is Moscow having any traffic problems at the moment?

2. How can these problems be solved?

3. How many road rings does Moscow have at present?

4. What does the author of the UNIT compare the map of Moscow to? Why?

5. How is the city's administrative border called?

6. When was the Moscow largest ring built?

7. How long is the largest road ring?

8. How long is the Third Transport Ring Road?

9. Are there any tunnels, bridges and overpasses on the Third Transport Ring Road?

10. Does Moscow have transport rings only for cars?

Exercise 4. Find ten different verbs in the UNIT and make sentences in the past simple with them.

Exercise 5. Match the English words with their Russian equivalents.

1. 1. found

2. mention 3. replace

4. disappear 5. descend

6. cross

7. adjoin 8. build

9. stand 10. erect

11. rebuild 12. demolish

13. appear

14. lay out 15. serve

16. create 17. reduce

18. continue 19. add

20. mark

A. примыкать

B. появляться

C. отмечать

D. упоминать

E. разрушать

F. исчезать

G. уменьшать

H. добавлять

I. служить чем-либо

J. продолжать

K. пересекать

L. создавать

M. восстанавливать

N. заменять

O. стоять

P. основывать

Q. возводить

R. спускаться

S. строить

T. разбивать (сад, парк)

UNIT 3. WEATHER PROVERBS

People have been forecasting the weather for centuries. They once looked to plants and animals for hints about what the weather would do. For example, before it rained, some people often observed that ants moved to higher ground, cows lay down, pine cones opened up, frogs croaked more frequently, and sheep's wool uncurled. Over the years, people began to notice other natural clues to upcoming weather, and several weather "sayings" grew up over the years.

When looking at weather proverbs, keep this in mind: they are usually based on someone's observations and not on scientific studies. Because climates and weather patterns differ throughout the world, a weather proverb based on observations in one location may not be valid in another location. Some proverbs arose simply from coincidence, not weather patterns, and therefore may seldom hold true. But under certain circumstances, some proverbs do hold up to science.

Here are some that, under the right circumstances, have proven valid.

"Red Sky at night, sailor's delight. Red sky in the morning, sailor takes warning."

When the western sky is especially clear, there is often a red sunset. That's because as the sun sets, its light shines through much more of the lower atmosphere, which contains dust, salt, smoke and pollution. These particles scatter away some of the shorter wavelengths of light (the violets and blues), leaving only the longer wavelengths (the oranges and reds.) If an area of high air pressure is present, the air sinks. This sinking air holds air contaminants near the earth, making the sunset even redder than usual. This would be the "red sky at night." In the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere, weather systems most often approach from the west. Since high pressure generally brings fair weather, this type of red sky at sunset would indicate that clear weather is approaching, which would "delight" a sailor. If the sky is red in the eastern morning sky for the same reasons as above, then the high pressure region has most likely already passed from west to the east, and an area of low pressure may follow. Low pressure usually brings clouds, rain or storms, a warning for sailors.

"Clear moon, frost soon."

If the atmosphere is clear, the surface of the earth will cool rapidly as heat is radiated away at night. There is no "blanket" of clouds to keep the heat that the ground absorbed during the day from radiating back up into space. If the temperature is low enough on these clear nights and there's no wind, frost may form.

"A year of snow, a year of plenty."

A continuous covering of snow on farmland and orchards delays the blossoming of fruit trees until the season of killing frosts is over. It also prevents the alternate thawing and freezing which destroys wheat and other winter grains.

"Halo around the sun or moon, rain or snow soon."

The halo around the sun or moon is a layer of cirrus clouds made of ice crystals. These ice crystals act as tiny prisms, forming a white or sometimes colorful halo around the sun or moon. It often indicates an approaching warm front and an associated area of low pressure. Rain or snow will not always follow, but there is a higher probability of it after a halo is seen, and the brighter the circle, the greater the probability.

"Rainbow in the morning gives you fair warning."

In the morning, when the sun is in the east, the shower and its rainbow are in the west. As the weather in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere moves mostly from west to east, the morning rainbow indicates that rain is moving from the west toward the observer.

"When the stars begin to huddle, the earth will soon become a puddle."

When clouds increase, whole areas of stars may be hidden by clouds with groups of stars, still in the clear sky, seem to huddle together. The clouds are increasing, so the chance of rain is increasing too.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why.

1. People have been forecasting the weather looking to plants and animals for hints.

2. If ants move to higher ground and cows lay down, that is the sign of snow.

3. All weather proverbs are usually based on scientific studies.

4. A weather proverb based on observations in one part of the world is always valid in another one.

5. A red sunset is a sign of a rain.

6. If the sky is red in the morning there will be no rain.

7. If the atmosphere is clear, the surface of the earth cools very quickly.

8. If in winter you can see a lot of stars in the sky at night the day will be cold.

9. A continuous covering of snow on farmland destroys wheat and other winter grains.

10. The halo around the sun or moon is a layer of cirrus clouds made of ice crystals.

11. The halo around the sun indicates an approaching warm dry weather.

12. The morning rainbow indicates that rain is moving from the west.

13. Stars seem to "huddle" together because other groups of stars are completely hidden by clouds.

Exercise 2. Match each word with a word from the line to make compound words.

pressure stones drift storm warning rain wave pour clouds

1 thunder 4 down 7 snow

2 cirrus 5 heat 8 gale

3 torrential 6 hail 9 low

Exercise 3. What kinds of weather do you think caused the following to happen? Write a sentence which could go before each of these.

1 We had to sit in the shade every afternoon.

2 The sweat was pouring out of us.

3 I can hardly breathe; I wish it would rain to cool us down.

4 Cars were skidding out of control.

5 Even the postman had to use a boat to get around.

6 They had to close the airport; the snow was a metre deep.

7 We were able to sit in the garden in the middle of winter.

8 The earth became rock-hard and a lot of plants died.

9 It blew the newspaper clean out of my hands.

10 A row of big trees had been uprooted like matchsticks.

11 I could hardly see my hand in front of my face.

Exercise 4. What types of weather are bad and good for doing these things?

Example: Skiing bad: mild weather which makes the snow melt; good: cold, clear days

1 Planting flowers in a garden 4 A day of sightseeing in a big city

2 Having an evening barbecue 5 Camping out in a tent

3 Going out in a small sailing boat 6 Looking at ships through binoculars

Exercise 5. This chart shows anyone who wants to visit the West of Ireland what weather to expect at different times of the year. Make a similar chart for your country or home region.

December-March April-June July-August September-November

The coldest months; usually quite wet; snow on high ground Generally cool, often wet and windy -but improving The warmest months; bright with showers; cool sea breezes Often mild becoming cold; mist and fog

Exercise 6. Form adjectives from the nouns.

noun adjective noun adjective sun wind cloud ice fog shower heat humidity

Exercise 7. A. Find the definitions for the underlined words. (cold weather)

In Scandinavia, the chilly days of autumn soon change to the cold days of winter. The first frosts arrive and the roads become icy. Rain becomes sleet and then snow, at first turning to slush in the streets, but soon settling, with severe blizzards and snowdrifts in the far north. Freezing weather often continues in the far north until May or even June, when the ground starts to thaw and the ice melts again.

(1) change from solid to liquid under heat (2) dirty, brownish, half-snow, half-water (3) snow blown by high winds (4) cold, but not very (5) change from hard, frozen state to normal (6) deep banks of snow against walls, etc. (7) staying as a white covering (8) rain and snow mixed (9) thin white coat of ice on everything

B. Match the word with its definition. (warm, hot weather)

1. close A. warm and uncomfortable

2. stifling B. hot and damp, makes you sweat a lot

3. humid C. warm at a time when it is normally cold

4. scorching D. very hot, often used in negative conUNITs

5. boiling E. hot, uncomfortable, you can hardly breathe

6. mild F. very hot, often used in positive conUNITs

C. Match the word with its definition. (mist and fog)

1. haze A. mixture of fog and pollution

2. mist B. cloudy air near the ground which is difficult to see through, associated with cold weather

3. fog C. light mist, usually caused by heat

4. smog D. light fog, often on the sea, or caused by drizzle

D. Match the word with its definition. (wet weather)

1. damp A. a very large amount of water that covers an area that is usually dry

2. drizzle B. heavy rain that doesn't stop for a long time

3. downpour C. thunder and heavy rain

4. torrential rain D. high winds and rain together

5. flood E. a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live

6. storm F. a lot of rain that falls in a short time

7. thunderstorm G. weather that is a combination of light rain and mist

8. hailstones H. slightly wet, often in an unpleasant way

9. drought I. a small ball of frozen rain

Exercise 8. Say whether these sentences are true or false. Change the false sentences to make them true.

1. When it's foggy you need sunglasses

2. It gets quite chilly in the desert in the evening.

3. Thunder makes a noise.

4. Lightning can kill people.

5. A shower is a type of wind.

6. If it is humid, the air will be very dry.

7. Heavy rain means that it is pouring with rain.

8. It often pours with rain in the desert.

UNIT 4. APPEARANCE

It is useful to be able to estimate and describe characters. There are however, two aspects of the subject. Personal appearance, physical features, stature and build, clothes or individual details which make one person different from another. Such description is often given of missing persons. There will be little indication of character in these cases.

Yet clothes and appearance are often an index to character, not only the kind of clothes people wear, but how they wear them. A person who takes little interest in his or her appearance, is not likely to be a methodical or tidy person.

Characters may be described in several ways: by description, by suggestion, by conversation, or by action.

Simple description is perhaps the easiest, but also the least satisfactory method, e.g. you may say John Brown is a very methodical and tidy person, which is a plain statement of fact. If, however, you describe some of his habits which help to build character, such as his neatly- parted hair and clean shoes, his careful and accurate work, tidy desk, and so on, all this will suggest his character far better. If you wish to add that John is also cheerful and good-tempered, you can do so by describing what he says and what he does. If you listen to a person's talk, you soon have some idea of his character. You should remember, also, that "Actions speak louder than words" and by telling how people act, you will be indicating their character.

If you wish to describe people well, you should notice such things as habits, mannerisms, amusements or hobbies, clothes, particularly hats and shoes. Habits and amusements can also tell us much. Character shows itself through such details as one's voice, walk, features, eyes, mouth, hands, rouge, or other make-up.

Yet we cannot say that a person is wholly good or bad, any more than we can say that a high forehead always denotes intelligence or a big chin indicates a strong will.

(After "English Every Day" by R. E. Houseman)

EXERCISES Exercise 1. Explain why it is useful to be able to estimate and describe character.

Exercise 2. Briefly state the four ways of describing character. Say which method the author finds the more satisfactory, and why. Express your agreement or disagreement.

Exercise 3. Mark the explanation nearest in meaning to the word or phrase in italic.

1. Estimate character: (A) find out a person's true worth; (B) see the difference between people's characters; (C) form an opinion of a person's character.

2. Personal appearance: (A) the way a person looks; (B) the way a

person dresses; (C) the way a person walks and talks.

3. Physical features: (A) the size of a person's hands, feet; (B) the parts

of the face (forehead, nose, etc); (C) the colour of the hair.

4. Stature: (A) a person's health; (B) state of mind; (C) the natural height of a person.

5. Build: (A) the shape and proportions of the body; (B) the look in

person's eyes; (C) the way a person laughs.

6. Missing person: (A) somebody who has lost his way; (B) a person

who is lost to others; (C) a person who is absent.

7. Habit: (A) (an example of) usual behaviour; (B) a family tradition; (C) a national holiday.

8. Suggest: (A) describe directly; (B) indicate indirectly; (C) express one's opinion.

9. Good-tempered: (A) very temperamental; (B) calm and pleasant; (C) honest and kind.

10. Mannerism: (A) a peculiar way of behaving, speaking, etc, that has become a habit; (B) the way in which anything is done or happens; (C) a person's manners.

Exercise 4. Two of the words in each group below are similar in meaning. Check the word which doesn't suit and explain why.

1. appearance; look; manner.

2. character; feature; characteristic.

3. stature; statue; height.

4. build; habit; shape.

5. indication; index; description.

6. kind; sort; mannerism.

7. methodical; analytical; systematic.

8. clean; tidy; neat.

9. careful; exact; accurate.

10. denote; explain; indicate.

11. temper; intelligence; intellect.

Exercise 5. Choose the answer that expresses most accurately what is stated in the passage. Only one answer is correct.

The idea behind the sentence "Yet we cannot say that a person is wholly good or bad, any more than we can say that a high forehead already denotes intelligence or a big chin indicates a strong will" is that:

1. there is as little connection between a high forehead and intelligence, or a big chin and strong will, as there is between the kind of character a person has and his appearance, habits, mannerisms, etc;

2. the goodness or badness of a person is in direct proportion to the height of his forehead and the size of his chin;

3. it is as impossible to decide whether a person is wholly good or bad on the basis of his appearance or character as it is to say that a person is intelligent because he has a high forehead, or has a strong will because he has a big chin.

Exercise 6. Pick out all the words from the UNIT relating to: (A) appearance; (B) character.

Exercise 7. Name the traits of character suggested by the following. Say which, in your opinion, are good, and which are bad, and why.

A person: 1. takes little interest in his or her appearance; 2. shows great interest in one's appearance; 3. is always well-dressed; 4. wears loud clothes; 5. has neatly-parted hair and clean shoes; 6. works carefully and accurately; 7. never leaves a job half-done; 8. works hard; 9. never lies; 10. hardly ever lies but never tells the truth; 11. never speaks the truth; 12. thinks of nobody but himself; 13. secretly believes that he is better than others; 14. is always glad to help others; 15. knows all the answers and therefore never asks for advice; 16. gladly takes advice 17. thinks carefully before taking a decision; 18. is cold and unfeeling; 19. does the most unexpected things; 20. is bright and pleasant; 21. enjoys discussing other people's personal matters.

Exercise 9. Match the adjectives from the line with the definitions.

moody, sensitive, easy-going, cheerful, self-confident, thoughtful, dull, opinionated, big-headed, pushy

1 with a happy character

2 with a relaxed manner or attitude

3 believing in your own abilities or character

4 having a frequently changing state of emotions or attitude and often feeling angry

5 holding strong views and refusing to listen to other opinions 6 easily hurt, very aware of others' feelings and moods

7 thinking about treating other people with care

8 always trying to get what you want (aggressively)

9 believing, and telling everyone, that you are the best

Exercise 8. Translate the statements and give your opinion.

1. First appearance deceives many.

Phaedrus, c1 Macedonian Inventor and Writer

2. Think not I am what I appear.

Byron, Lord, 1788-1824 British Poet

3. Beware, so long as you live, of judging men by their outward appearance.

La Fontaine, Jean De, 1621-1695 French Poet

4. Regardless of how you feel inside, always try to look like a winner. Even if you are behind, a sustained look of control and confidence can give you a mental edge that results in victory.

Ashe, Arthur, 1943-1993 African-American Tennis Player

5. Clothes and manners do not make the man; but when he is made, they greatly improve him.

Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813-1887 American Orator, Writer

6. Things are seldom what they seem.

Gilbert, W. S., 1836-1911 British Librettist

7. The most beautiful woman I ever knew was hanged for poisoning three little children for their insurance-money, and the most repellent man of my acquaintance is a philanthropist who has spent nearly a quarter of a million upon the London poor.

Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan, 1859-1930 British Author

8. You are only what you are when no one is looking.

Edwards, Robert C.

9. The one, who has a great nose, thinks everybody is speaking of it.

Fuller, Thomas, 1608-1661 British Clergyman Author

10. Nothing so much prevents our being natural as the desire to seem so.

La Rochefoucauld, Francois De, 1613-1680 French Classical Writer

11. The best mirror is an old friend.

Proverb

12. A little man often cast a long shadow.

Proverb, Italian

13. We see things as we are, not as they are.

Rosten, Leo, 1908-1997 Polish Born American Political Scientist

14. The world is governed more by appearances than by realities, so that it is fully as necessary to seem to know something as to know it.

Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852 American Lawyer Statesman

15. Only shallow people do not judge by appearances. The true mystery of the world is the visible, not the invisible.

Wilde, Oscar, 1856-1900 British Author

UNIT 5. TRAVELLING

Modern life is impossible without travelling. Thousands of people travel every day either on business or for pleasure. They can travel by air, by rail, by see or by road and each mean has its advantages and disadvantages.

Some people say that travelling by train is a very exiting thing. You can see interesting places of the country you are travelling through. Modern trains have very comfortable seats, and there are also sleeping carriages and a dining-carriage which make even the longest journey enjoyable. You can also travel by sea, enjoying the trip on board of ship. There are tennis and badminton grounds, a swimming-pool, a cinema and a dancing hall there.

Some people prefer travelling by car. If you come to a foreign country you can rent a car and make a wonderful trip.

A lot of people like hiking. They adore living in a tent, making a fire and preparing meals on it, gathering mushrooms and berries in the forest.

But the fastest and the most convenient way of travelling is flying. Even though it is the most expensive way, a lot of people chose it nowadays. There are a lot of businessmen who have to communicate with people from other countries. Every day they must sign a lot of contracts, sometimes within one day. So planes are the only possibility to do it.

Travelling by air has some disadvantages too. One of them is a difference between the time you are accustomed to and the new time. At first you won't be feeling very well because of it and it can take you long to get used to it.

After you arrive at the airport, look at the departures board which shows the flight numbers, departure times and destinations you have to be prepared for one more inconvenience: Customs and lots of other formalities. The rules for passengers who are going abroad are similar in most countries: you'd rather fill in the customs declaration before you go through the Customs and talk to the customs officer. He may ask any passenger routine questions about declare the things, spirits, tobacco, presents. Then you go to the check-in desk where your ticket is looked at, your things are weighed and labeled. Most airports have at least 2 classes of travel, first class and economy class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than 2 years of age has free luggage allowance. Generally this limit is 20 kg for economy class passengers and 30 kg for first class passengers, excess luggage must be paid for except for some articles that can be carried free of charge. At the check-in desk they also check your ticket and give you a boarding card for the plane with your seat number on it.

The next formality is filling in the immigration form and going through passport control. The form has to be filled in block letters. You write your name, nationality, permanent address and the purpose of your trip. In most countries there is also a security check when your carry-luggage is inspected. This is an anti-hijacking measure, and anything that might be dangerous or disturbing to other passengers must be handed to one of the crew and only returned to the owner after the plane has reached its destination. After fulfilling all these formalities you go to the departure lounge where you can have a snack, read a paper, buy something in the duty-free shop and wait for the announcement to board the plane.

About half an hour before take-off, you go to a gate number, e.g. gate 14, where you wait before you get on the plane. When you board the plane, you find your seat. If you have hand luggage you can put it under your seat or in the overhead locker above your seat. If there are no delays, the plane moves towards the runway where the plane takes off.

When the plane lands you have to wait for it to stop. When the doors are open, you get off the plane and walk through the terminal building and go to the baggage reclaim. Some of the formalities are repeated when you arrive at your destination. The customer declaration and the immigration form are often filled in on board the plane. At the airport you may be met by a specially trained dog who'll make sure that you are not caring drugs, and the immigration officer might want to know on whose invitation you are coming and whether you have a return ticket.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Write down the questions for the answers.

1. Modern life is impossible without travelling.

2. People travel for different reasons: on business or for pleasure.

3. You can travel by air, by rail, by see or by road.

4. Travelling by train is very exiting.

5. Modern trains are very comfortable.

6. In a foreign country you can rent a car and make a wonderful trip.

7. The fastest and the most convenient way of travelling is flying.

8. The most expensive way of travelling is flying.

9. Planes give the only possibility to go from one country to another very quickly.

10. Travelling by air has some disadvantages: Customs and lots of other formalities.

11. The customs officer may ask any passenger to declare the things, spirits, tobacco, presents.

12. In the check-in desk they look at the ticket, weigh and label things.

13. There are 2 classes of travel, first class and economy class.

14. The economy class is cheaper then the first class.

15. The limit for free luggage allowance is 20 kg for economy class passengers and 30 kg for first class passengers.

16. If your luggage is more then 20 kg, you may have to pay excess baggage.

17. You write your name, nationality, permanent address and the purpose of your trip in the immigration form.

18. You can fill in the immigration form on board the plane.

19. The immigration officer may ask you on whose invitation you are coming.

20. At the departure lounge you can relax: have a snack, read a paper, buy something in the duty-free shop.

Exercise 2. Match each word with a noun from the line to make compound words.

control number desk card baggage lounge luggage reclaim locker

1 1 boarding 2 excess

3 passport 4 check-in

5 flight

6 overhead 7 baggage

8 departure 9 hand

Exercise 3. Match the English words with their Russian equivalents.

1. ARRIVALS A. ПРОКАТ БАГАЖНЫХ ТЕЛЕЖЕК

2. BAGGAGE CHECK IN B. ПОЛУЧЕНИЕ БАГАЖА

3. BAGGAGE CLAIM C. РЕГИСТРАЦИЯ

4. CART RENTAL END D. ТОЛЬКО ДЛЯ ПАССАЖИРОВ ПЕРВОГО

(LUGGAGE CART AREA) КЛАССА

5. CHECK IN E. ПРИБЫТИЕ

6. FIRST CLASS ONLY F. РЕГИСТРАЦИЯ БАГАЖА

Exercise 4. What do you call these?

1 The place where you go when you arrive at the airport with your luggage.

2 The card they give you with the seat number on it.

3 What you have to pay if your luggage is very heavy.

4 The bags you carry onto the plane with you.

5 The place above your head where you can put these bags.

6 The part of the airport where the plane accelerates and takes off.

7 The people who look after you on the plane.

Exercise 5. Complete these sentences with a suitable word.

1 There was a mechanical problem, and we ended up with a two-hour ....

2 The flight was ... because of the fog.

3 I went through passport control and sat in the departure ...

4 If you have nothing to declare, you follow the green sign when you go through ...

5 A woman at the check-in desk weighed my ...

6 I looked for our flight number on the departures ....

Exercise 6. Here are some lines from conversations on different kinds of transport. Where does each conversation take place? Choose from the following: car, train, bus, plain, taxi, ferry, underground.

1. Excuse me, are we landing on time?

2. - Would you like to sit by the window? - No, I like the aisle seat better.

3. Can you take us to the British Museum, please?

4. No, no! He said turn left at the pub, not right!

5. - I'm hungry! - I'll get you something from the dining-carriage.

6. Which line is it for Oxford Circus?

7. Could you possibly tell me where to get off to get to Green Park?

Exercise 7. Find the definitions for the underlined words.

Sometimes buses are punctual, but not always. Where I live, buses should run every ten minutes, but sometimes I wait at the bus stop for half an hour in a queue, and then three buses come together, and they're all full up. Other times the bus is early and I miss it.

1. line of people

2. full of people

3. operate 4. don't catch it

5. arrive at the correct time

Exercise 8. Fill in the table.

bus train plane taxi bicycle car driver drive (?) fare - - get/catch/take get on/off journey - bus station - -

Exercise 9. Сhose the right variant.

1. You mustn't (ride/drive) a motorbike without a crash helmet in the UK.

2. She told him to (get in/get on) the car and fasten his seat belt.

3. The bus (fare/ticket) is cheaper than the train.

4. Trains to the airport (travel/run) every half hour.

5. The pilot couldn't (drive/fly) the plane in such bad weather.

6. Have a look at the train (schedule/timetable) to see when the next one is due.

7. We were late, so we had to (get/ catch) a taxi.

8. They left a bit late and (lost/missed) the bus.

Exercise 10. Fill the gaps with the correct word.

Fast hour landed bus stop pilot punctual queue journey due platform full weather tip

1 Our train leaves from the ... number seven in ten minutes.

2 I waited at the ... for twenty minutes, and then two buses arrived at the same time.

3 I couldn't get on the first bus because it was ...

4 After we took off, the ... told us a bit about the plane and the journey.

5 Buses are not very ... Sometimes they come every five minutes, then

other times you have to wait for 40 minutes.

6 When I got to the bus stop there was a long ... of people.

7 The flight was fine but we had a terrible ... from the airport to our hotel.

8 1 think the next train is ... to arrive in about ten minutes.

9 We have taken off two hours late because of bad ...

10 For half an ... we were flying trough a terrible storm.

11 It was still raining when we ... in Rome.

12 In England people always give taxi drivers a ...

13 Is it a ... train or a stopping train?

Exercise 11. Insert the correct preposition.

down of off on onto to

We checked ... the flight in good time. But we were delayed due ... engine trouble.

We got ... the plane two hours late. And we took ... five hours late. But then we were diverted ... Delhi. There was a severe lack ... information. When we landed we all got ... the plane. They made sure that no one was ... board, because ... the danger of fire. We eventually touched ... in London seven hours late.

Exercise 12. Are these statements true or false in your country?

1. Trains are more punctual than buses.

2. Train fares are more expensive than bus fares.

3. Train journeys are more interesting than bus journeys.

4. Railway stations are nicer places than bus stations.

5. In city centre, taxis are quicker than going in your own car.

UNIT 6. TODAYS TRAFFIC

Common Traffic Errors

The most common traffic errors are thought to be ignoring stop signs and crossing the center line. But statistics show that in actual fact the number one driving error is failure to signal properly. This seems inconceivable now that most cars are equipped with fingertip turn signals. Yet lots of drivers do not switch on their turn signal when they should or do not turn them off at the proper time.

Today's traffic demands the use of turn signals to announce any intent to deviate from a straight-down-the-highway course, whether by turning, by passing (or overtaking) another car, or merely by changing lanes. And for any maneuver other than a sharp turn, it is necessary to turn the signal off manually.

The number two driving error is failure to dim one's lights upon meeting and when following another vehicle. Either failure can blind a driver. Even if you are on a divided highway, it is necessary to dim for oncoming vehicles.

Close following is number three. It is indeed a major cause of serious accidents, especially on expressways. Track drivers grind their teeth when they become aware of a passenger car hovering close to their rear end. They have seen enough "ran under" wrecks.

Number four is failure to pass a slow moving car, when a driver is forced to pull up behind a slow-moving car, which itself is following a vehicle going at the same speed. There isn't room for the third to overtake both cars though the car immediately ahead of him could easily pass the vehicle ahead of it. So the moral blame for any resulting accident rests with the second car in the line.

Excessive speed is number five. High speed is a widely advertised "killer on our highways." Traffic experts say it is involved in 37 percent of fatal accidents. But professional drivers who habitually move at 40 to 60 m.p.h. say that the question of speed is overemphasized.

Some more driving errors include ignoring yellow or solid "do not pass" lines, no taillights, taking drugs to stay awake, daydreaming at the wheel, stopping in a right-hand lane to make a left turn, lane straddling, and moving into the left lane to make a right turn.

But one of the most significant points made by the drivers was there ought to be more and better law enforcement.

Suggestions for Safer Driving

Before driving a strange car, reset the mirror, check the "feel" of the brakes and steering.

Never hesitate to yield the right of way, especially if the other driver is at fault. The best place for a bad driver is out of your way. When passing, wait before cutting back until you can see the passed car in your mirror.

Drive at least ten m.p.h. slower at night.

Keep the car moving at a reasonable speed, or get it off the road - completely if your windshield is dirty, so are your headlights. Be sure that they are clean each time you stop for gas.

If slowing, pump your brakes to flash your taillights.

Remember that you pass the peak of your driving efficiency between your fifth and sixth hour at the wheel. Near the end of their driving day, the professional drivers always slow down.

EXERCISES Exercise 1. Make a list of the driving errors mentioned in the UNIT and say how common they are in your country.

Exercise 2. What does a car consist of? Match the word with its Russian equivalent.

1. steering wheel

2. brake 3. clutch

4. accelerator 5. gear lever

6. mirror 7. windscreen wiper

8. windscreen

9. wheel 10. tyre

11. petrol cap 12. headlight

13. rear lights

14. seat belt

15. seat A. сцепление

B. зеркало

C. коробка передач

D. руль

E. лобовое стекло

F. задние огни

G. газ H. фарa

I. тормоз

J. ремень безопасности

K. дворник

L. сиденье

M. бензобак

N. колесо

O. шина Exercise 3. These words refer to traffic. Explain what they mean.

1. stop signs 2. center line

3. fingertip turn signals

4. driver 5. straight-down-the-highway course

6. maneuver 7. vehicle

8. divided highway

9. track drivers

10. "ran under" wreck

11. speed 12. solid "do not pass" line

13. lane Exercise 4. Match the verb with its definition.

1. ignore A. to go past a moving vehicle or person because you are going faster than them and want to get in front of them

2. cross B. to make a car, truck, bus etc move along

3. switch on C. to go over and beyond the line

4. turn off D. to officially tell people about something, especially about a plan or a decision

5. announce E. to deliberately pay no attention to something that you have been told or that you know about

6. deviate F. to allow another vehicle on a bigger road to go first

7. turn G. to go in a new direction when you are walking, driving etc, or to make the vehicle you are using do this

8. overtake H. to turn on a machine, light, radio etc using a switch

9. dim I. to depart from an established course

10. involve J. to reduce the light

11. reset K. to set again or anew

12. hesitate L. to include or affect someone or something

13. yield M. to pause before saying or doing something because you are nervous or not sure

14. drive N. to make a machine or piece of electrical equipment stop operating by pushing a button, turning a key etc

Exercise 5. Complete the following statements with the variant that most closely corresponds to the UNIT and explain why the other variants are unsuitable.

A. Now cars are equipped with fingertip turn signals ...

1. but lots of drivers don't know how to use them.

2. and drivers don't ever forget to switch them on or off at the proper time.

3. yet lots of drivers don't switch them on and off when they should.

B. Today's traffic demands the use of turn signals ...

1. when a car moves straight down the highway.

2. when a car turns, overtakes another car, or changes lanes.

3. when a car makes a sharp turn or a U-turn.

C. On a divided highway ... .

1. it is not necessary to dim for oncoming vehicles.

2. it is not necessary to dim when following.

3. drivers must dim lights upon meeting and when

following.

D. In case of an accident resulting from an attempt to

overtake a long line of slow-moving cars ...

1. the moral blame for the accident rests with the first slow-moving car.

2. the moral blame for the accident rests with the second car in the line.

3. the moral blame for the accident rests with the last car in the line.

E. A most significant point made by the drivers is ...

1. that traffic rules and regulations are never violated.

2. that there ought to be more and better order on the highways.

3. that drivers always get away with their errors.

Exercise 6. Match the English words with their Russian equivalents.

A. In the city 1. ATTENTION A. ШТРАФ 50 ДОЛ.

2. DO NOT LITTER B. ИДИТЕ (на светофоре)

3. $50 FINE С. ВЫХОД

4. PRIVATE PROPERTY D. АВТОБУСНАЯ ОСТАНОВКА

5. DON'T WALK E. ВНИМАНИЕ

6. WALK F. ЛИЧНЫЕ ВЕЩИ (багаж)

7. BUS STOP G. СТОЙТЕ (на светофоре)

8. EXIT H. HE СОРИТЬ

B. Road signs 1. DETOUR A. КОЛЬЦЕВОЕ ДВИЖЕНИЕ

2. NO PASSING B.ОБГОН ЗАПРЕЩЕН

3. RAILROAD CROSSING C. АВТОМАГИСТРАЛЬ

4. TRAFFIC CIRCLE D. ОГРАНИЧЕНИЕ СКОРОСТИ

5. TRAFFIC LINE E. МОЙКА АВТОМАШИН

6. NO PARKING F. РЕМОНТ АВТОМАШИН

7. PUBLIC PARKING G. ЖЕЛЕЗНОДОРОЖНЫЙ ПЕРЕЕЗД

8. AUTO REPAIR H. ОСТОРОЖНО. ДЕТИ

9. CAR WASH I. СТОЯНКА ЗАПРЕЩЕНА

10. SLOW.CHILDREN J. ОБЩЕСТВЕННАЯ СТОЯНКА

11. SPEED LIMIT K. ОБЪЕЗД

C. Public transport

1. Electric railway A. автобус

2. Tram B. такси

3. Trolleybus C. городская электричка

4. Bus D. трамвай

5. Double-decker E. троллейбус

6. Coach F. метро

7. Metro, underground subway G. двухэтажный автобус в Англии

8. Taxi, cab H. междугородный туристический

автобус

UNIT 7. THE INTERNET

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet switching. Owing this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. Оnе such packet switching network which has already survived a war is the Iraqi computer network which was not knocked out during the Gulf War.

The most of the Internet host computers (more than 50 %) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fair; accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions worldwide, and their number is growing by thousands each month.

The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading News, using the World-Wide Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher.

In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: users pay their service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider, and part of the fee received by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations.

But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centers already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled - but inexpensive - Chinese computer-aided-design specialists.

However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. However, because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. In spite of the fact that there are many good encoding programs available, nearly all the information being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding, i.e. "in the clear". But when it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these encoding programs may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. However, there are still both commercial and technical problems which will take time to be resolved.

Exercises:

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What is the Internet?

2. Where did it begin?

3. What was the Internet originally designed for?

4. What does the packet switching technology let you do?

5. What country are most of the Internet host computers in?

6. Why is the Internet so popular?

7. What is the most popular Internet service?

8. Why do businessmen from developing countries like using the Internet for communication needs?

9. Whom do you have to pay for sending e-mail messages?

10. How can you make money using the Internet?

11. What is the most important problem, connected with the Internet?

12. When the encoding programs are especially useful?

13. What do banks use the Internet for?

Exercise 2. Correct the sentences.

1. Million of people use the Internet.

2. The Internet were designed for military purpose.

3. The Internet provides you with the important informations.

4. There are a special technology called packet switching.

5. If one computer on the network will be broken, information will just find another route.

6. Iraqi computer network are not knocked out during the Gulf War.

7. The most the Internet host computers in the United States.

8. The Internet host computers are located in more than 100 country.

9. Nobody know exactly how many people use the Interne.

10. The popularest Internet service is e-mail.

11. A lot of people has access to the Internet.

12. Some people uses the Internet only for e-mail messages.

13. There is a lot of popular Internet services.

Exercise 3. Insert the correct preposition where needed.

1. You can find all kinds of information ... the Internet.

2. More and more companies are using the internet ... conduct their business.

3. Do you have access ... the Internet?

4. Can you contact him ... email?

5. Send ... me an e-mail when you have any news.

6. I haven't had time to check my email ... this morning.

7. The website allows you ... take a virtual tour of the art gallery.

8. A message flashed up ... my computer screen.

9. The information is stored ... computer.

10. Shoppers can send in their orders ... computer and pick up their goods later.

11. Some people make money ... the Internet.

12. Can you send this e-mail message ... me right now?

13. It is possible ... get into any of the computers.

14. We kept working in spite ... the fatigue.

15. Almost all the information being sent ... the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding.

16. There are games that can be downloaded free ... the Internet.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences.

1. The telecommunications ... in many developing countries are unreliable.

2. The businessmen prefer to ... over the Internet with their partners.

3. I had no time to send e-mail ... today.

4. People use the Internet all over the ... .

5. Internet users have to pay their service ... a fee.

6. Some people think that making ... from the Internet is easy.

7. The commercial ... of the Internet is increasing.

8. The most important Internet problem is ... .

9. It's not safe to send important ... over the network.

10. Some banks conduct ... over the Internet.

Exercise 5. Match the words with their definitions.

A. Things you can do on the Internet:

1. Surf the net A. Buy using the Internet

2. Visit a website B. Save the address of a page on the Internet so

that you can find it again easily

3. Download files C. Spending time looking at websites for fun

4. Email people D. Send someone a document using email

5. Shop online E. Look for the information at a website.

6. Bookmark sites F. Move information or programs from a

computer network to a small computer

B. People who work with computers:

1. User A. someone whose job is to study a company's computer needs and provide them with suitable software and equipment

2. Programmer B. someone who is in charge of a website

3. Web designer C. someone whose job is to write computer programs

4. Software engineer D. someone who designs websites

5. Systems analyst E. someone whose job is to take care of the

computer software

6. Administrator F. someone whose job is to look after a computer system

which has many users

7. Webmaster G. someone who tries to break into a computer system

8. Hacker H. someone who uses the computer

C. Computer problems:

1. Bug A. damaged or partly ruined information

2. Virus B. an occasion when a computer or computer system suddenly stops working

3. Error C. a fault in the system of instructions that operates a computer

4. Corrupted file/data D. a set of instructions secretly put onto a computer or computer program, which can destroy information

5. Crash E. a mistake when you are working on a computer, which means that the computer program cannot do what you want it to do

6. Worm F. a type of computer virus that can make copies of itself and destroy information on computers that are connected to each other

D. What are these?

1. Computer A. a very small light computer that you can carry with you, and that you use to store information such as telephone numbers, addresses, appointments.

2. Chartroom B. a very small computer that you can hold in your hand

3. Laptop C. a place on the Internet where you can write messages to other people and receive messages back from them immediately, so that you can have a conversation while you are online

4. Keyboard D. a cafe with computers where people can pay to use the internet

5. Monitor E. an electronic machine that stores information and uses programs to help you find, organize, or change the information

6. Palmtop F. part of a computer with a screen, on which you can see pictures or information

7. Personal digital assistant (PDA) G. a small computer that you can carry

with you

8. Internet cafe H. a system that allows you to send and receive messages by computer

9. Email I. a board with buttons marked with letters or numbers that are pressed to put information into a computer.

OCUS: computer Exercise 6. Explain what these things you do with your computer mean:

1. start up/power up your computer

2. open a file or document

3. enter information

4. click on an icon

5. cut and paste pieces of UNIT

6. copy files or programs

7. scroll up and down the page

8. delete things you do not want

9. burn CDs or DVDs

10. close a file or document

11. save your work

12. shut down your computer

UNIT 8. PHONE POWER

Telephone history begins at the start of human history. Man has always wanted to communicate from afar. People have used smoke signals, mirrors, jungle drums, carrier pigeons and semaphores to get a message from one point to another. But a phone was something new. Some say Francis Bacon predicted the telephone in 1627, however, his book New Utopia only described a long speaking tube. A real telephone could not be invented until the electrical age began. And even then it didn't seem desirable. The electrical principles needed to build a telephone were known in 1831 but it wasn't until 1854 that Bourseul suggested transmitting speech electrically. And it wasn't until 22 years later in 1876 that the idea became a reality. But before then, a telephone might have been impossible to form in one's consciousness.

On March 10, 1876, in Boston, Massachusetts, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. Thomas Watson, his friend, fashioned the device itself; a crude thing made of a wooden stand, a funnel, a cup of acid, and some copper wire. Bell filed his application for the patent just hours before his competitor, Elisha Gray. So, these two men independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically (the telephone). What's more, though neither man had actually built a working telephone, Bell made his telephone operate three weeks later using ideas outlined in Gray's Notice of Invention, methods Bell did not propose in his own patent. Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won.

Alexander Graham Bell's success with the telephone came as a direct result of his attempts to improve the telegraph as they are both wire-based electrical systems. When Bell began experimenting with electrical signals, the telegraph had been an established means of communication for some 30 years. Although a highly successful system, the telegraph, with its dot-and-dash Morse code, was basically limited to receiving and sending one message at a time. Bell's extensive knowledge of the nature of sound and his understanding of music enabled him to conjecture the possibility of transmitting multiple messages over the same wire at the same time. Although the idea of a multiple telegraph had been in existence for some time, Bell offered his own musical or harmonic approach as a possible practical solution. His "harmonic telegraph" was based on the principle that several notes could be sent simultaneously along the same wire if the notes or signals differed in pitch.

Bell developed new and original ideas but did so by building on older ideas and developments. He succeeded specifically because he understood acoustics, the study of sound, and something about electricity. Other inventors knew electricity well but little of acoustics. The telephone is a shared accomplishment among many pioneers, therefore, although the credit and rewards were not shared equally. That, too, is often the story of invention.

What's the phone nowadays? Let's study different opinions.

"When I asked my daughter who was 16, which item she would keep: the phone, the car, the cooker, the computer, the TV, or her boyfriend, she said 'the phone'. I was really surprised. Personally, I could do without the phone entirely. Which makes me unusual. Because the telephone is changing our lives more than any other piece of technology." Martha Vann, USA.

"The telephone creates the need to communicate, in the same way that more roads create more traffic. My daughter comes home from school at 4.00 pm and then spends an hour on the phone talking to the very people she has been at school with all day. If the phone did not exist, would she have anything to talk about?" Alexandra Pappas, Greece.

" The mobile phone means that we are never alone. The mobile saved my life. I had an accident in my Volvo on the road between Otley and Skipton. Trapped inside, I managed to make the call that brought the ambulance to my rescue." Crystal Johnstone, UK.

"The mobile removes our privacy. I'm a Marketing Manager of Haba Deutsch and it allows me to ring my sales staff all round the world at any time of day to ask where they are, where they are going, and how their last meeting went." Carl Nicolaisen, Germany.

"The telephone allows us to reach out beyond our own lives. Today we can talk to several complete strangers simultaneously on chat lines (at least women do. I wouldn't know what to talk about). We can talk across the world. We can even talk to astronauts (if you know any) while they're space-walking. And, with the phone line hooked up to the computer, we can access the Internet, the biggest library on Earth." Philip Maurice, France.

Exercises:

Exercise 1. What do these dates mean to the history of the telephone?

1627, 1831, 1854, 1876

Exercise 2. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why.

1. People never wanted to communicate from afar.

2. People have used birds to get a message from one point to another.

3. Francis Bacon predicted the telephone in his book New Utopia.

4. A real telephone could be invented only at the electrical age.

5. The telephone was invented in 1854.

6. The telephone was invented by two people working together: Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray.

7. Two men rushed to the patent office within hours of each other, but Elisha Gray patented his telephone first.

8. Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson independently designed two telephones.

9. Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell had an illegal battle over the invention of the telephone.

10. Alexander Graham Bell didn't win the battle over the invention of the telephone.

11. Bell's success with the telephone came as a result of his knowledge both of the electricity and of acoustics.

12. Bell developed new and original ideas completely alone.

13. The rewards for the invention are equally shared between Elisha Gray, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson.

Exercise 3. Do you know how people used smoke signals, mirrors, jungle drums, carrier pigeons and semaphores to get a message from one point to another? Try to guess and describe.

Exercise 4. Read the second part of the UNIT. Find examples from the article of how the phone:

A. improves our life

B. makes it worse.

How does the phone affect your life?

Exercise 5. Who of the people from the list said or meant the following.

Martha Vann, Alexandra Pappas, Crystal Johnstone, Carl Nicolaisen, Philip Maurice.

1. The mobile is useful for people of my profession.

2. The telephone is changing our lives more than any other piece of technology.

3. The mobile phone means that we are never alone which is good.

4. My daughter adores telephone.

5. The mobile saved my life.

6. The phone allows you to talk to several people at the same time.

7. I can easily live without the phone.

8. We can talk to astronauts while they're space-walking.

9. The telephone creates the need to communicate.

10. Women like talking on the phone more then men.

Exercise 6. Write down the Russian equivalents. Make a few sentences with the verbs.

Predict, describe, invent, transmit, operate, propose, receive, send, develop, succeed, keep, change, create, communicate, exist, save, bring, win, allow

UNIT 9. GREENPEACE'S HISTORY

People are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not somebody else's. They join and support various international organizations and green parties. If people wake up to what is happening - perhaps we'll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the natural world and all of us with it.

"The Earth needs solutions. It needs change. It needs action." - this is the motto of the Greenpeace, the organization that exists "because this fragile earth deserves a voice".

Everything started in 1971 when a small team of volunteers and journalists, motivated by their vision of a green and peaceful world, set sail from Vancouver, Canada, in an old fishing boat. These activists, the founders of Greenpeace, believed a few individuals could make a difference.

Their mission was to "bear witness" to US underground nuclear testing at Amchitka, a tiny island of the West Coast of Alaska, which is one of the world's most earthquake-prone regions. Amchitka was the last refuge for 3000 endangered sea otters, and home to bald eagles, peregrine falcons and other wildlife.

Even though their old boat, the Phyllis Cormack, was intercepted before it got to Amchitka, the journey sparked a flurry of public interest. The US still detonated the bomb, but the voice of reason had been heard. Nuclear testing on Amchitka ended that same year, and the island was later declared a bird sanctuary.

Since then Greenpeace has been campaigning against environmental degradation. The tradition of 'bearing witness' in a non-violent manner continues today, and such ships are an important part of all campaign work. In pursuing their mission, they have no permanent allies or enemies. They promote open, informed debate about society's environmental choices. They use research, lobbying, and quiet diplomacy to pursue their goals, which we can call our goals too as we are all children of nature. Greenpeace encourages many millions people to take action every day.

Greenpeace is a non-profit organization, with a presence in 40 countries across Europe, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. To maintain its independence, Greenpeace does not accept donations from governments or corporations but relies on contributions from individual supporters and foundation grants. As a global organization, Greenpeace focuses on the most crucial worldwide threats to our planet's biodiversity and environment.

They say, "they exist to expose environmental criminals, and to challenge government and corporations when they fail to live up to their mandate to safeguard our environment and our future." They campaign to:

-Stop climate change

-Protect ancient forests

-Save the oceans

-Stop whaling -Say no to genetic engineering

-Stop the nuclear threat

-Eliminate toxic chemicals

-Encourage sustainable trade

The one of the longest banners they've ever made summed things up: "When the last tree is cut, the last river poisoned, and the last fish dead, we will discover that we can't eat money..."

Based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Greenpeace has 2.8 million supporters worldwide, and national as well as regional offices in 41 countries.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Ask ten questions on the UNIT.

Exercise 2. Match the word with its definition.

1) a disaster A. political freedom from control by the government of another country

2) a solution B. a series of actions intended to achieve a particular result relating to politics or business, or a social improvement

3) a motto C. shelter or protection from someone or something

4) a campaign D. a short sentence or phrase, which expresses the aims or beliefs of a person, school, or institution

5) a refuge E. someone who helps and supports you when other people are trying to oppose you

6) a sanctuary F. something that you hope to achieve in the future

7) an ally G. an area for birds or animals where they are protected and cannot be hunted

8) an enemy H. someone who hates you and wants to harm you

9) a goal I. someone who establishes a business, organization, school etc

10) a founder J. a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation

11) an island K. a statement in which you tell someone that you will cause them harm or trouble if they do not do what you want

12) an independence L. a piece of land completely surrounded by water

13) a threat M. a sudden event such as a flood, storm, or accident which causes great damage or suffering

Exercise3. COLLOCATIONS Match the verbs and the nouns from the line as they are used in the UNIT.

the goal, people, green parties, a voice, a flurry of public interest, a bomb, a debate, the independence, donations, the threats

1) to join

2) to spark 3) to maintain

4) to promote 5) to focus on

6) to deserve 7) to detonate

8) to pursue

9) to encourage 10) to accept

Exercise 4. Find the synonyms.

1. disaster

2. refuge

3. solution

4. sanctuary

5. debate

6. volunteer

7. donation

8. team

9. corporation

10. boat

11. catastrophe

A. ship B. shelter

C. refuge D. discussion

E. answer

F. money G. group

H. company I. activist

Exercise 5.. Correct the sentences.

1) People understands that environmental problems are their own problems.

2) People support various international organization.

3) The Greenpeace's history has started in 1971.

4) The founders of Greenpeace believe a few individuals could makes a difference.

5) Amchitka were the last refuge for sea otters.

6) Nuclear testing for Amchitka ended in 1971.

7) Greenpeace is a not-profitible organization.

8) Greenpeace uses quiet diplomacy for pursue their goals.

9) Greenpeace focuses at the most crucial worldwide threats to our planet's environment.

10) Greenpeace offices in 41 country.

Exercise 6.. Find ten different verbs in the UNIT and make sentences in the past simple with them.

UNIT 10. OXFORD UNIVERSITY

Oxford is a historic and unique institution, the oldest English-speaking University in the world. There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.

Less than two centuries later, Oxford had achieved eminence above every other seat of learning, and won the praises of popes, kings and sages by virtue of its antiquity, curriculum, doctrine and privileges. In 1355, Edward III paid tribute to the University for its invaluable contribution to learning; he also commented on the services rendered to the state by distinguished Oxford graduates.

During the 20th century, Oxford added to its humanistic core a major new research capacity in the natural and applied sciences, including medicine. In so doing, it has enhanced and strengthened its traditional role as an international focus for learning and a forum for intellectual debate. Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class research departments than any other university in the UK.

In 2003-2004 the University of Oxford's total student population numbers over 17,660. Over a quarter of these students are from overseas. More than 130 nationalities are represented among the student body. Over 6,100 students are engaged in postgraduate work. Of these, around 3,600 are working in the arts and humanities. Every year some 16,500 people take part in courses offered by the University's Department for Continuing Education. With a continuation rate of almost 98 per cent, Oxford has one of the lowest drop-out rates in the country.

Oxford is an independent and self-governing institution, consisting of the central University and the Colleges.

The Vice-Chancellor, who holds office for up to seven years, is the senior officer of the University. Pro-Vice-Chancellors are responsible for Development and External Affairs; Education; Personnel and Equal Opportunities; Planning and Resources; and Research. The Chancellor, who is usually an eminent public figure elected for life, serves as the titular head of the University, presiding over all major ceremonies.

The principal policy-making body is the Council of the University, which has 26 members, including those elected by Congregation, representatives of the Colleges and four members from outside the University. Council is responsible for the academic policy and strategic direction of the University, and operates through four major committees: Educational Policy and Standards, General Purposes, Personnel, and Planning and Resource Allocation.

Final responsibility for legislative matters rests with Congregation, which comprises over 3,500 members of the academic, senior research, library, museum and administrative staff.

Day-to-day decision-making in matters such as finance and planning is devolved to the University's five Academic Divisions - Humanities, Life and Environmental Sciences, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Medical Sciences and Social Sciences. Each division has a full-time divisional head and an elected divisional board. Continuing Education is the responsibility of a separate board.

The thirty-nine Colleges, though independent and self-governing, form a core element of the University, to which they are related in a federal system. There are also seven Permanent Private Halls, which were founded by different Christian denominations, and which still retain their religious character. Thirty colleges and all seven halls admit students for both undergraduate and graduate degrees. Seven other colleges are for graduates only; one, All Souls, has fellows only, and one, Kellogg College, specialises in part-time graduate and continuing education.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Ask ten questions on the UNIT.

Exercise 2. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why.

1. Oxford is one of the oldest English-speaking University in the world.

2. Oxford University was founded in 1096.

3. Henry II established Oxford University.

4. Oxford University won the praises of popes, kings and sages by virtue of its antiquity, curriculum, doctrine and privileges.

5. In 1360, Edward III paid tribute to the University for its invaluable contribution to learning

6. Edward III noticed that Oxford graduates rendered the invaluable services to the state.

7. Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class research departments than any other university in the UK.

8. There are students of more than 130 nationalities at the Oxford University.

9. In 2003-2004 there were more then 17,660 students from overseas at the University of Oxford.

10. In 2003-2004 over 10,000 students were engaged in postgraduate work.

11. In 2003-2004 over 6,100 students were working in the arts and humanities.

12. A lot of students leave Oxford in the middle of the studying process without getting any degree.

13. Final responsibility for legislative matters rests with Congregation.

Exercise 3. Insert the right preposition and make sentences with the verbs.

1. to contribute ... (способствовать чему-либо)

2. to comment ... (комментировать что-либо)

3. to render ... (оказывать кому-либо услугу)

4. to add ... (добавлять к чему-либо)

5. to work ... (работать в какой-либо сфере)

6. to consist ...(состоять из чего-либо)

7. to take part ...(принимать участие в чем-либо)

8. to be engaged ... (быть занятым в какой-либо области)

9. to be responsible ... (быть ответственным за что-либо)

10. to be related ... (иметь отношение к чему-либо)

11. to be founded ... (быть основанным кем-либо)

12. to specialise ...(специализироваться в чем-либо)

13. to achieve eminence ...(достигать преимущество над кем-либо)

Exercise 4. Speak on the administrative structure of the Oxford University.

What are these people responsible for:

1. Vice-Chancellor?

2. Pro-Vice-Chancellor?

3. member of the Council of the University?

4. member of the Congregation?

Exercise 5. Why are these dates important for the Oxford's history?

1. 1096 2. 1167

3. 1355 Exercise 6. Find the antonyms.

1. unique A. old

2. old B. ordinary

3. rapidly C. common

4. new D. high

5. more E. similar

6. low F. inside

7. eminent G. full-time

8. outside H. young

9. different I. less

10. part-time J. slowly

UNIT 11. OXFORD MUSEUMS

Oxford is well known for its museums and collections. They provide an important resource for scholars internationally, and welcome visits from members of the public. Admission is free, except for the Botanic Garden, where visitors are charged a small admission fee, and Christ Church Picture Gallery, which makes a small charge, with concessions for children, students and senior citizens.

* The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology was founded in 1683. It is one of the oldest museums in the world and was the first museum in Britain to be open to the public.

* The University Museum of Natural History houses the University's scientific collections of zoological, entomological, palaeontological and mineral specimens.

* The Pitt Rivers Museum is a world famous ethnographic museum, celebrating human cultural creativity.

* The Museum of the History of Science houses an unrivalled collection of historic scientific instruments.

* The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments includes historical woodwind, brass and percussion instruments; over a dozen historical keyboard instruments; and a complete bow-maker's workshop.

* Christ Church Picture Gallery holds an important collection of Old Master paintings and drawings totaling 300 paintings and almost 2,000 drawings.

* The University of Oxford Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden in Britain, and the most compact yet diverse collection of plants in the world.

* The Harcourt Arboretum, which is home to informal gardens, walks and rides. The Arboretum forms an integral part of the plant collection of the Botanic Garden.

With the opening of its doors on 24 May 1683, the Ashmolean Museum provided a setting in which the private collection emerged into the public domain. Even the use of the term "Museum" was a novelty in English.

The collection presented to the University of Oxford by Elias Ashmole (1617-1692) was in origin already half a century old by this time, having been founded by John Tradescant and displayed to the public. The contents were universal in scope, with man-made and natural specimens from every corner of the known world.

By the time it passed to Ashmole, the collection of miscellaneous curiosities had grown in scale and stature to the point where its new owner could present it to the University as a major scientific resource.

The Collections of the Ashmolean Museum are divided between five departments.

Antiquities Collections cover a wide range in both space and time. From the Palaeolithic to Victorian periods; from Egypt and the Middle East to Europe and Britain.

Cast Gallery Collection comprises casts from sculpture from museums around the world mainly from Roman and Greek conUNITs.

Eastern Art Collections cover a large area of the Orient, from the Islamic world of the Middle East through India, Tibet and South East Asia, to China, Japan and Korea.

Heberden Coin Room Collections cover coins and medals from around the world, but most notably Greek, Roman, Celtic, Byzantine, Medieval, Islamic, Indian and Chinese.

The Oxford University Museum of Natural History houses the University's scientific collections, accumulated in the course of the last three centuries.

The purpose of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History is to assemble, preserve, and exhibit the University's natural history collections and to promote research, teaching, and public education in the natural sciences based on the museum's collections.

The Pitt Rivers Museum was founded in 1884 when Lt.-General Pitt Rivers, an influential figure in the development of archaeology and evolutionary anthropology, gave his collection to the University. His two conditions were that a museum was built to house it and that someone should be appointed to lecture in anthropology.

The Museum displays archaeological and ethnographic objects from all parts of the world. The General's founding gift contained more than 18,000 objects but there are now over half a million. Many were donated by early anthropologists and explorers. The extensive photographic and sound archives contain early records of great importance. Today the Museum is an active teaching department of the University of Oxford. It also continues to collect through donations, bequests, special purchases and through its students, in the course of their fieldwork.

The Museum of the History of Science houses an unrivalled (не имеющий себе равных, непревзойденный) collection of historic scientific. By virtue of the collection and the building, the Museum occupies a special position, both in the study of the history of science and in the development of western culture and collecting. The present collection of the Museum preserves the material relics of past science, including a unique library of manuscripts, incunabula, prints, printed ephemera and early photographic material. As a department of the University of Oxford, the Museum has a role both in making these relics available for study by historians who are willing to look beyond the traditional confines of books and manuscripts as well as presenting them to the visiting public. The objects represented - of which there are approximately 10,000 - cover almost all aspects of the history of science, from antiquity to the early twentieth century. Particular strengths include the collections of early mathematical and optical instruments, together with apparatus associated with chemistry, natural philosophy and medicine.

The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, in the Faculty of Music at Oxford University, is the most comprehensive collection in Britain of European woodwind, brass and percussion.

In 1963 Philip Bate generously gave to the University of Oxford his extensive and systematic collection of European orchestral woodwind instruments. Since then he has continued to augment the Collection with gifts and loans. As a result of his original conditional of gift, that students should be able to play these historic instruments, the Bate Collection is unique in that many of its instruments are used.

There are on display more than a thousand instruments, by all the most important English, French and German makers, which show the musical and mechanical development of all wind and percussion instruments from the Renaissance and the Baroque to modern times.

Christ Church is unique among the Oxford or Cambridge colleges in possessing an important collection of Old Master paintings and drawings. The collection is strong in Italian art, from the 14th century to the 18th century: there are some good panel paintings by early, often anonymous masters. The Picture Gallery at Christ Church represents one of the most important private collections in the country and includes work by many renowned masters including Leonardo, Michelangelo, Durer, Raphael and Rubens. Naturally, for reasons of space and conservation, the entire drawings collection cannot be shown. However, a selection of drawings is always on view, and this is changed every two to three months.

The University of Oxford Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden in Great Britain. Throughout its three hundred and eighty year history the Garden has continually evolved and developed to the point that today it is recognised as a classic yet contemporary botanic garden at the heart of the University and City of Oxford.

The first major figure in the history of the Garden was Sir Henry Danvers, who gave five thousand pounds (equivalent to ?3.5 million today) to set up a physic garden for "the glorification of God and for the furtherance of learning". Today the Garden is still committed "to promoting learning and glorifying nature".

Gardening at the University of Oxford Botanic Garden is seen as a process rather than a product. During the last four centuries it has been essential that successive generations of gardeners have ensured that the Garden has been used by the University and other visitors.

Today, people of all ages and backgrounds use the Garden. Undergraduates studying biological sciences and related subjects at the University of Oxford visit the Garden to learn about many aspects of plant biology. Over 6,500 school children visit the Garden each year as part of the Schools Education Program. Many of these children visit glasshouses such as the Palm House, where they find cocoa, oranges, bananas and coconuts, and the Cactus House where they can escape to the desert. The Garden ensures that adults as well as children can benefit from the Garden's Education Program. Each year more than 5,000 adults attend courses and tours at the Garden to learn more about botany, horticulture and gardening.

Six miles south of Oxford is the Harcourt Arboretum. This is an integral part of the plant collection of the Botanic Garden.

There are no walls, glasshouses or straight lines at the Arboretum - it is almost as if it were designed to be the antidote to the formality of the Botanic Garden in central Oxford.

In May and June the Arboretum is ablaze with azaleas and rhododendrons and in October the Japanese maples can brighten even the dullest day. But there is more. In spring there is a quintessentially English 10-acre woodland and in summer a 37-acre meadow full of wild flowers.

There are a lot of the plants from mountainous parts of the world. Six beds have been planted with species from the Pyrenees, the Pindhos Mountains, the Himalayas, the Drakensburg Mountains, the Chilean Andes and South Island of New Zealand.

The Arboretum has been part of the University since 1963. Today many visitors come to the Arboretum to enjoy a unique blend of Garden and Nature - the transition from one to the other being almost imperceptible.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Why are these dates important for Oxford Museums?

1. 24 May 1683 2. 1617-1692

3. 1884 4. 1835

5. 1963 (two events)

Exercise 2. Match the figures and the words as they are used in the UNIT.

1. 300 A. pounds

2. 2,000 B. objects

3. 18,000 C. miles

4. 10,000 D. school children

5. 6,500 E. musical instruments

6. 5,000 F. objects

7. 6 G. drawings.

8. 4 H. adults

9. 3.5 million I. centuries

10. 5,000 J. paintings

11. 1,000 K. pounds

Exercise 3. In which museum can you find:

4. flutes 5. ancient Greek coins and medals

6. costumes from North America including Inuit fur parkas

7. Madonna della Fortuna, a monumental wooden carving, Italy, 17th century

8. casts from different sculptures

9. Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton

10. A Pilgrim's Souvenir, Palestine, 18th century.

11. Russian paintings

12. dinosaur eggs from China

13. ethnological materials collected on Captain Cook's Pacific voyage of 1773-1774

14. Hawaiian feather cloaks

15. paintings of Albrecht Duerer

16. ceremonial ivories (aйври, слоновая кость) from the Kingdom of Benin

17. enlarged models of insects

18. ancient instruments for astronomy and navigation

19. early mathematical instruments generally for calculating

20. microscopes, telescopes and cameras

21. boxwood orchestral castanets

22. Islamic Ceramics

23. ancient medicine equipment

24. Violin and Violoncello by Henry Jay.

25. early masks worn by actors in Japanese Noh dramas

26. Head of a Young Woman (painting of Andrea del Verrocchio)

27. masks from Africa, Melanesia and North America

28. A Grotesque Head (painting of Leonardo da Vinci)

29. double-manual Harpsichord

30. works of Michelangelo

Exercise 4. Answer the questions.

1. Are Oxford museums open to public?

2. Is admission to museums is free?

3. When was the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology founded?

4. Who presented his collection to the University of Oxford in 1683?

5. Who started the collection of the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology?

6. Which museum is the first one in Britain to be open to the public?

7. What can you find in the University Museum of Natural History? In the Pitt Rivers Museum ? In the Museum of the History of Science?

8. What kind of instruments does the The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments contain?

9. How many paintings and drawings are there in the Christ Church Picture Gallery?

10. Is The Oxford Botanic Garden the oldest botanic garden in Britain?

11. Is The Oxford Botanic Garden collection the most diverse collection of plants in the world?

12. Where is the Harcourt Arboretum located?

13. How many departments are there in the Collection of the Ashmolean Museum? What are they?

Exercise 5. Write down the questions for these answers.

1. The collections of the Antiquities Department contain a wide range of objects from the Palaeolithic to Victorian periods; from Egypt and the Middle East to Europe and Britain.

2. Cast Gallery Collection comprises casts from sculpture from museums around the world.

3. Eastern Art Collections contain a lot of objects from India, Tibet and South East Asia, China, Japan and Korea.

4. There is a large collection of coins and medals in the Heberden Coin Room.

5. The coins in the Heberden Coin Room are mostly from Greece, Islamic countries, India and China.

6. The collections of the Museum of Natural History are accumulated in the course of the last three centuries.

One of the purposes of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History collections is to promote research in the natural sciences.

7. The Pitt Rivers Museum was founded in 1884.

8. The founder of the Pitt Rivers Museum is Lt.-General Pitt Rivers.

9. Lt.-General Pitt Rivers was an influential figure in the development of archaeology and anthropology.

10. Giving his collection to the University Pitt Rivers had two conditions.

11. The Pitt Rivers' conditions were that a building was built to house the collection and that someone should be appointed to lecture in anthropology.

12. There were more than 18,000 objects in the Pitt Rivers' gift.

13. The Pitt Rivers' collection augmented from 18,000 objects to half a million.

14. Many objects were donated to the Pitt Rivers Museum by anthropologists and explorers.

15. The sound archive of the Pitt Rivers Museum contains early records of great importance.

16. Today the Pitt Rivers Museum is an active teaching department of the University of Oxford.

17. The collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum grows through donations, and the work of the students.

Exercise 6. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why.

A. about the Museum of the History of Science

1. The Museum houses an unrivalled collection of paintings.

2. The Museum is well known by virtue of the collection and its building.

3. The Museum is not a department of the University of Oxford.

4. The objects of the Museum are available for study by historians.

5. The books of the Museum are not very interesting for the historians.

6. There is about a million of objects in the Museum.

7. The objects represented in the Museum are all antique.

8. There is a large collection of early mathematical instruments, but there are no optical ones.

9. There are a lot of apparatus associated with chemistry in the Museum.

10. You can find incunabula, prints and printed ephemera in the Museum.

B. about the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments

1. There is a Faculty of Music at Oxford University.

2. The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments is quite small.

3. The Collection contains the musical instruments from all over the world.

4. The Bate Collection is called so because it is located in Bate.

5. There are no European orchestral woodwind instruments in the collection.

6. Philip Bate has stopped augmenting his collection after giving it to the University.

7. Philip Bate still augments the Collection with gifts and loans.

8. When Philip Bate gave his collection to the University of Oxford he had no conditional.

9. The Bate Collection is unique because many of its instruments are used.

10. There are about two hundred instruments in the collection.

11. All the instruments are created by English makers.

12. The collection shows the musical and mechanical development of all wind and percussion instruments from the Renaissance to modern times.

13. Philip Bate gave his collection to the University of Oxford in 1963.

C. about the Picture Gallery at Christ Church

1. At Cambridge there are a lot of collections similar to the Christ Church collection.

2. The Christ Church posses about 2000 paintings.

3. The Christ Church contains paintings and drawings of old and contemporary masters.

4. The collection is strongly Italian.

5. The collection covers the period from the 12th to the 14th century.

6. All the masters of the paintings are well known.

7. The collection is one of the most important private collections in the country.

8. There are works of Leonardo, Michelangelo, Durer, Raphael and Rubens in the collection.

9. The entire drawings collection is shown at Christ Church.

10. A selection of drawings shown at Christ Church is changed every year.

Exercise 7. Translate into English.

1. Оксфордский Ботанический Сад один из самых старых в Англии.

2. История Ботанический Сада насчитывает около трехсот восьмидесяти лет.

3. Чтобы основать сад были выделены пять тысяч фунтов.

4. Целью основания Ботанического Сада было "прославление Бога и содействие в научных исследованиях".

5. Оксфордский Ботанический Сад служит для "прославления природы".

6. В настоящее время Ботанический Сад посещают много людей.

7. Студенты, изучающие биологию, очень интересуются Ботаническим Садом.

8. В оранжереи Ботанического Сада приходит много школьников.

9. В Ботаническом Саду есть специальное место, посвященное растениям пустыни.

10. Ботанический Сад предоставляет специальную учебную программу для подростков.

Exercise 8. Complete the UNIT about the Harcourt Arboretum.

1. Six miles south of Oxford is the ... .

2. It is a part of the plant ... of the Botanic Garden.

3. There are no ... there.

4. You can say that the Harcourt Arboretum was designed to be the ... to the Botanic Garden.

5. In May and June the Arboretum is ... with azaleas.

6. In October there are a lot of ... .

7. In spring there is a quintessentially English 10-acre ... .

8. There are a lot of the ... from mountains.

9. Six ... have been planted with species from different mountains.

10. The Arboretum ... part of the University since 1963.

Exercise9. Find ten different verbs in the UNIT and make sentences in the past simple with them.

Exercise10. Find the following adjectives in the UNIT and translate them.

1. famous 2. cultural

3. unrivalled 4. compact

5. diverse 6. integral

7. universal

8. miscellaneous

9. unrivalled 10. available

11. comprehensive

12. contemporary

13. integral 14. dull

15. unique Exercise 11. Match the English words with their Russian equivalents.

1. 1. mainly

2. notably

3. quintessentially

4. continually 5. naturally

6. generously 7. internationally

A. особенно, в особенности

B. естественно

C. главным образом, преимущественно

D. в международном масштабе

E. обильно, щедро, много

F. типично

G. непрерывно, все время

Exercise 12. Form adverbs by adding '-ly' to the adjectives. Translate them and make sentences with them.

1. human

2. complete 3. informal

4. wide 5. extensive

6. particular 7. systematic

8. strong

9. essential 10. successive

11. wild 12. imperceptible

Exercise 13. Insert the preposition where needed.

1. She wants to change her job ... purely personal reasons.

2. In addition ... giving a general introduction to computers, the course also provides practical experience.

3. They own a house in France as well ... a villa in Spain.

4. I believe the increasing use ... computers in education is reasonable.

5. This is a large organization with offices throughout ... the world.

6. She felt fine except ... being a little tired.

7. The word is French ... origin.

8. The phone was ringing but ... the time she got indoors, it had stopped.

9. What is the purpose ... your visit?

10. She became a British resident by virtue ... her marriage.

11. As a result ... the pilots' strike, all flights have had to be cancelled.

12. This is a cheap and simple process. However ... there are dangers.

13. This is a large organization with offices throughout ... the world.

UNIT 12. CHOOSING A U.S. UNIVERSITY

There are many factors that influence your choice of college or university. You need to do your research carefully to choose the school that will best suit your needs and talents. Weigh all of these factors and choose the institution with the best balance.

Accreditation Status. A basic indicator of the quality of any U.S. college or university is its accreditation status. It is important to check that all institutions you are considering are appropriately accredited. Unlike many other countries, the United States does not have a central government body that approves educational institutions. Instead, it relies on a system of voluntary accreditation.

Ranking. There is no official list of the top 10, 20, 50, or even 100 universities in the United States. The U.S. government does not rank universities. Rankings that you may come across are usually produced by journalists and are likely to be subjective. They generally are based on a wide range of criteria that do not necessarily include academic standards or general reputation as a primary factor.

Courses. Some large schools offer almost every area of study. Smaller schools are generally more limited. Find schools that offer a good selection of courses with a variety of faculties that specialize in different aspects of your field of study. Also consider research facilities, computer centers, library holdings, and flexibility or variations in the program that interests you.

Selectiveness. This is the point in which you should be honest with yourself concerning your own academic background and intellectual potential. Strive for the best university you can get into, but be realistic. If your scores and grades are not at the top, you should not apply only to the most selective universities.

Type of Institution. Two-year or four-year, public or private religiously affiliated? Choose the institution best suited to your needs - community college, liberal arts college, or university, for example. Universities can be public or private, may be affiliated with a specific religion, or may admit only one sex. You should understand the differences before deciding.

Cost. Look for tuition and fees, room, and board. You will need additional funds for books and miscellaneous living expenses.

Financial aid. Be sure the institutions you choose do offer financial aid if you require it. Scholarships usually go to the students with the best academic qualifications or special talent in sports or the arts at the undergraduate level or significant research or work experience at the graduate level.

Location and Housing. Consider which state the school is in and whether it is located inland or on the coast. What is the climate in that area of the country? Is the campus setting city, small-town, or rural? Which of these settings would you be most comfortable in.

Size. Student population on U.S. campuses can range in size from 200 to 60,000 students. Check the size of the university and the size of the academic department. The size of the university affects the atmosphere of the school. A large institution may offer a greater variety of subfields within a given discipline, but professors may be too busy to give students individual attention. A small university or college may offer smaller classes and more contact with professors, but the courses offered in your field may be too narrow. You need to weigh which is more important to you.

Student Body. Consider factors such as male-female ratio, number of foreign students, average age of students, number of full-time vs. part-time students.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Summarize the UNIT.

Exercise 2. Write down the questions for the answers.

1. There are many factors that influence your choice of college or university.

2. A basic indicator of the quality of a U.S. college is its accreditation status.

3. The United States does not have a government accreditation body.

4. The US educational system relies on voluntary accreditation.

5. There is no official list of the top universities in the United States.

6. The journalists, but not the U.S. government rank universities.

7. Large schools offer almost every area of study, smaller schools are generally more limited.

8. There are different types of universities: two-year or four-year, public or private religiously affiliated.

9. There are institutions that offer financial aid if you require it.

10. Student population on U.S. campuses can range in size from 200 to 60,000 students.

11. The size of the university affects the atmosphere of the school.

12. The advantage of a small college is that a it may offer small classes and more contact with professors.

13. A large institution may offer a great variety of subjects, but professors may be too busy to give students individual attention.

Exercise 3. Match the word with its synonym.

1. 1. choice 2. research

3. need 4. talent

5. system 6. criteria

7. field

8. tuition 9. fund

10. aid A. exploration

B. endowment C. help

D. payment

E. selection F. area

G. arrangement H. standard

I. necessity J. money

Exercise 4. Translate the verbs and find the sentences in the UNIT where these verbs or their derivatives are used.

need influence apply rely consider choose consider affiliate suit approve suit include rank strive offer check affect

Exercise 5. Insert the preposition where needed.

1. There are many factors that influence ... your choice of college.

2. The accreditation status is a basic indicator ... the quality of a college.

3. A commission is responsible ...the accreditation of medical schools.

4. It's important ...explain him the procedure.

5. Many working women rely ...relatives to help take care of their children.

6. There is no official list of the best universities ...the United States.

7. The economy of the country is based ...farming.

8. My brother is a pediatrician; he specializes ...children's diseases.

9. We must continue to strive ... greater efficiency.

10. I applied ...four universities and was accepted by all of them.

11. Most house plants require ... regular watering.

12. They offered ... him a very good job, but he refused.

UNIT 13. HARVARD UNIVERSITY

Harvard University, which celebrated its 350th anniversary in 1986, is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Harvard College was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and was named for its first benefactor, John Harvard of Charlestown, a young minister who, upon his death in 1638, left his library and half his estate to the new institution.

Founded 16 years after the arrival of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, the University has grown from 9 students with a single master to an enrollment of more than 18 000 degree candidates, including undergraduates and students in 10 principal academic units. An additional 13 000 students are enrolled in one or more courses in the Harvard Extension School. Over 14 000 people work at Harvard, including more than 2 000 teachers.

The University has two governing boards. The first one - The Harvard Corporation - known formally as the President and Fellows of Harvard College - is the University's executive board. The second board is the oldest corporation in the Western Hemisphere, the seven-member board, which is responsible for the day-to-day management of the University's finances and business affairs. Significant matters of educational and institutional policy are also brought before the President and Fellows by the President and Deans.

In appointing professors to tenured positions, Harvard conducts nationwide - and, in many cases, worldwide - searches to identify men and women who are the leading scholars and teachers in their fields. Although the process leading to tenured appointments varies from School to School, in each case the final appointment is subject to approval by the President and the Governing Boards of the University.

You can ask yourself: Who is the typical Harvard student? The answer is that there is no such person, because each student is a unique individual. Seven presidents of the United States - John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Theodore and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Rutherford B. Hayes, John Fitzgerald Kennedy and George W. Bush - were graduates of Harvard. Its faculty have produced more than 40 Nobel laureates.

Harvard men and women represent an array of ethnic groups, religious traditions, and political persuasions. They come from every region of the United States and more than 100 other countries. They include undergraduates and graduates, continuing education, and Summer School students. In 1997, Mary Fasano became the oldest person ever to earn a Harvard degree when she graduated from the Extension School at the age of 89.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1) When was Harvard University founded?

2) Who established the University?

3) Who is the University named for?

4) Who was its first benefactor?

5) What is the administrative structure of the University?

6) How many people work at Harvard?

7) Who is the typical Harvard student?

8) Are all Harvard students American?

9) Do you know any famous people - graduates of Harvard?

10) How old was the oldest Harvard student?

Exercise 2. Insert the right word.

Additional, responsible, day-to-day, persuasions, worldwide, significant, policy, affairs, anniversary, enrolments, field, estate, array, board, was founded.

1) Jack and Kim celebrated their twentieth wedding ... in January.

2) His ... was valued at $150 000.

3) Student ...have more than doubled this year.

4) Eton College ... by Henry VI in 1440.

5) ... information can be obtained from the centre.

6) There was disagreement among the agency's ... of governors.

7) We have offices in over 56 countries....

8) Peter's an expert in his....

9) There was a vast ...of flowers to choose from.

10) We need people with talent, whatever their political....

11) Please inform us if there are any ... changes in your plans

12) The company has adopted a strict no-smoking....

13) The airline is legally ...for the safety of its passengers.

14) I am not prepared to discuss my financial ...with the press.

15) The manager is responsible for the ... running of the hotel.

Exercise 3. Match the abbreviations with their definitions.

1) PhD BrE , Ph.D. AmE A. Bachelor of Arts

2) M.Sc. BrE or M.S. - AmE B. Bachelor of Science

3) MA C. Doctor of Philosophy

4) BA D. Master of Science

5) BSc BrE; B.S AmE E. Master of Arts

Exercise 4. Match the word with its definition.

1. Undergraduate A. a first university degree in a subject such as history, languages, or English literature

2. Graduate B. a university degree in a subject such as history, languages, or English literature that you can get after your first degree

3. Postgraduate C. a university degree of a very high level, which involves doing advanced research

4. Degree D. a first university degree, such as a BA, BSc., or B.S

5. Doctor of Philosophy E. a student at college or university, who is working for their first degree

6. Master's degree SEC F. someone who has completed a university degree, especially a first degree

7. Master of Arts G. the qualification that is given to you when you have successfully completed the course

8. Master of Science H. a university degree such as an MA, M.Sc., or M.S., that you can get by studying for one or two years after your first degree

9. Bachelor's degree SEC I. a first university degree in a science subject

10. Bachelor of Arts G. a university degree in a science subject that you can get after your first degree

11. Bachelor of Science K. someone who is studying at a university to get a master's degree or a PhD

Exercise 5. Match the figures and the nouns as they are used in the UNIT.

1) 350

2) 18 000 3) 16

4) 40 5) 2 000

6) 89 7) 13 000

8) 100

9) 14 000 10) 10

11) 2 12) 9 13) 7 000

A) students B) people

C) teachers

D) anniversary E) degree candidates

F) years G) academic units

H) appointments I) years old

J) students

K) Nobel laureates

L) countries M) boards

Exercise 6. Find the English equivalent to the Russian verb.

1) Отмечать

2) Учреждать

3) Основывать

4) Включать в себя

5) Быть ответственным за что-либо

6) Назначать

7) Одобрять

8) Продолжать

9) Представлять

10) Становиться

UNIT 14. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY

One of the most exciting things about Cambridge is that you are taught by people who are experts in their fields. But it isn't just a case of sitting and listening to them in huge lecture halls: the Cambridge teaching system and the College way of life mean that you come into contact with these 'world-class authorities' on a regular and informal basis: at the coffee break, over lunch and in supervisions. Your Director of Studies, a senior member of your College, is there to arrange this small-group teaching which enables you to explore your subject with experts, in depth.

Because of its high academic reputation, admission to the University is highly competitive. Only about a third of applicants are admitted, and most overseas students already have a good degree from a university in their own country. Almost all students are required to study a complete Cambridge degree course lasting two, three or more years, during which they must live in Cambridge for specified periods totalling twenty-five weeks each year. Students are not usually admitted for part-time study, or to follow only part of a course, or to spend a period as an occasional student to gain credits as part of their work at another university. Some part-time degree courses and sessions of short courses are provided by the University's Board of Continuing Education (now Institute of Continuing Education).

At Cambridge you have the advantage of world-class teaching in two forms: you attend lectures, seminars and practicals alongside students from other Colleges, while also enjoying more personal tuition organised by your College.

Lectures provide you with the basics, on which your own research and reading will build. As many of your lecturers will be working at the forefront of their fields, lectures enable you to acquire the very latest information.

Seminars and classes, where lecturers explore a particular topic with medium-sized groups of students, are less formal than lectures. You are expected to contribute actively to the discussions.

Practicals are an important part of many courses. The laboratory and workshop facilities for practical work at Cambridge are exceptional, and are being improved all the time.

Dissertations - or long essays - and research projects are also a significant part of our courses - and many students think they are one of the best bits! These give you the chance to do original research, test out your theories and advance your own ideas. Your work might even get published while you are still an undergraduate.

Supervisions are one of the unique advantages of teaching at Cambridge. Supervisions are teaching sessions for pairs or small groups of students with a senior member of the University (your supervisor), often from your College, who is certainly a specialist and possibly one of the country's leading authorities in the subject you are studying.

Work experience plays an important part in some of our courses. For instance, you may work abroad as part of your Modern Languages or Oriental Studies course, or be employed on a specific research project with a company if you are studying Engineering or the sciences. Sometimes these placements may lead to a job after you graduate.

The skills and talents you develop during your degree course will help you in employment after you graduate. If as a student you want to be sure you're making the most of the opportunities on offer at Cambridge, there's a specially designed interactive guide on our website that identifies the skills you need, and the resources available to you to develop them. Cambridge graduates of all disciplines are faced with numerous opportunities after completing their studies. In fact, Cambridge has one of the highest proportions of graduates entering graduate-level employment or further study in the country!

To tell the truth, Cambridge graduates are highly employable and sought after by employers: large and small, local and international, conventional and unconventional. In 2005, for example, over 96 per cent of graduates found jobs within six months. The Careers Service promotes more vacancies each year than there are Cambridge graduates seeking employment. Opportunities after Cambridge are wide and numerous - around a third of first degree graduates continue with some form of postgraduate study or vocational qualification either in this country or abroad.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Write down the questions for the answers.

1. One of the most exciting things about Cambridge is that you are taught by people who are experts in their fields.

2. Admission to Cambridge is highly competitive.

3. A complete Cambridge degree course last two, three or more years.

4. While studying at the University the students must live in Cambridge.

5. Lectures provide you with the basics and enable you to acquire the very latest information on the subject.

6. During the seminars and classes lecturers explore a particular topic with medium-sized groups of students

7. Seminars are less formal than lectures. You are expected to contribute actively to the discussions.

8. Dissertation is an original research, in which you can test out your theories and advance your own ideas.

9. The dissertation can be published while a student is still an undergraduate.

10. Supervisor is a person who provides small groups of students with teaching sessions.

11. Supervisor is a specialist in his field and possibly one of the country's leading authorities in the subject.

12. While studying you may work abroad or be employed on a specific research project with a company if you are studying Engineering or the sciences.

13. Cambridge graduates are highly employable and sought after by employers.

Exercise 2. Match the nouns as they are used in the UNIT and make sentences with them.

1. exciting A. students

2. teaching B. group

3. world-class C. information

4. coffee D. member

5. overseas E. thing

6. each F. authorities

7. the latest G. break

8. medium-sized H. opportunities

9. senior I. study

10. numerous G. system

11. postgraduate K. year

Exercise 3. Find the synonyms.

1) Nouns 1. 1. expert

2. field

3. system

4. tuition

5. research

6. study

7. employment

A. professional

B. job C. earning

D. area E. exploration

F. arrangement

G. teaching 2) Adjectives

1. 8. regular

9. complete 10. another

11. short

12. practical 13. unique

14. small 15. important

16. specific 17. further

18. wide

19. numerous A. large

B. additional C. abbreviated

D. many E. realistic

F. particular

G. total H. broad

I. little J. principal

K. unusual L. different

1. 20. huge

M. daily

Exercise 4. Answer the question about your Institute.

1. When was it established?

2. Who is its founder?

3. How many faculties are there?

4. What kind of education does your Institute provide (full-time, part-time etc.)?

5. What forms of education are there in your Institute (lectures, seminars, practical work etc.)?

6. What kind of specialist are you going to be?

7. How long do you have to study?

8. What subjects do you learn?

9. Are there any subjects which are not taught in your Institute but you want to learn them?

10. How many students are there in your group?

Exercise 5. Translate the verbs into Russian and make sentences with them.

1. to arrange 2. to enable

3. to explore 4. to admit

5. to require

6. to follow 7. to gain

8. to provide 9. to acquire

10. to explore

11. to expect

12. to contribute

13. to test out

PART II.

UNIT 1. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

The United States of America, or the USA, the US, the States or America, is one of the biggest countries in the world. It occupies 9,363,123 square kilometers. It lies in the central part of the North American Continent between two oceans: the Atlantic Ocean to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the West. Canada to the north and Mexico to the south are the only countries bordering it.

The USA consists of three separate parts. These are the Hawaiian Islands, situated in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, Alaska separated by Canada, and the rest of the USA. The country consists of fifty states and the District of Columbia, which is not part of any states but a federal area governed by Congress. The states differ very much in size, population and economic development. Each region of the USA has characteristics of its own due to the differences in climate, landscape and geographical position. The south, and especially Taxes is rich in oil, the coalfields of Pennsylvania are rich in coal. Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska are the richest farming states, growing mostly corn and wheat and California is famous for its fruits.

The capital of the USA is Washington; besides there are many other big cities and towns in the USA. New York, for example, is a financial business centre, Chicago deals in meat processing, Los Angeles is famous for Hollywood. Other big cities are New Orleans, a cotton industry centre, Huston, an oil refining and NASA space research centre, Philadelphia, a shipping commercial centre, Detroit, a world's leading motor car producer.

The United States of America is a parliamentary republic. The government is divided into three branches: legislative (the US Congress), executive (the President and his Administration) and judicial (the US Supreme Court).

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Democratic (symbolized by a "donkey") and the Republican (its symbol is an "elephant"). The US President is both head of state and government. He is elected for a four-year term. Presidential elections are held every leap year on first Tuesday, following the first Monday in November. The President is assisted by Secretaries who are the heads of the executive departments.

The form of US government is based on the Constitution of September 17, 1787, adopted after the War of Independence. In December 1791, the Congress adopted ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights.

The Congress of the United States is composed of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states and the House represents the population according to its distribution among the states. All states have electoral requirements of the same nature. First of all they are residence requirements.

Through its power over the purse, the US Congress can control much that relates to foreign policy, also it is a governmental body that determines taxation.

Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution, with its divisions of power: legislative, executive, and judicial.

The Presidency means not only a man: it means an institution - the executive branch of the government.

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and the head of the judicial branch of US government. The federal and state courts have the power of "judicial review." Also there are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. American judicial practice is firmly committed to the idea of jury trials. The Constitution guarantees them for both criminal and civil cases. According to the US judicial doctrine, "justice is a relationship in which each citizen or group receives due respect and return."

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What are the shorter names of the United States of America?

2. What is the aria of the USA?

3. Where is the USA located?

4. What countries does it border on?

5. How many separate parts does it consist of? What are they?

6. How many states does it consist of?

7. What is the capital of the USA?

8. Into which three branches is the government divided?

9. What are the main political parties in the USA?

10. Who is the head of the government?

11. When are presidential elections held?

12. When was the US Constitution adopted?

13. What is the other name of the ten amendments to the Constitution?

14. How many houses does The Congress of the United States consist of?

15. What is the Supreme Court?

Exercise 2. Match the cities and region and their main characteristics.

1. Taxes

2. Pennsylvania

3. Illinois

4. Iowa

5. Nebraska

6. California

7. New York

8. Chicago

9. Los Angeles

10. New Orleans

11. Huston

12. Philadelphia

13. Detroit

A. coal industry

B. famous for growing corn and wheat

C. agriculture D. Hollywood

E. world's leading motor car producer

F. financial business centre

G. oil industry

H. oil refining and NASA space research centre

I. cotton industry centre

J. farming K. deals in meat processing

L. shipping commercial centre

M. famous for its fruits

Exercise 3. Make these sentences negative.

1. The United States of America is the biggest country in the world.

2. The USA occupies 13,363,123 square kilometers.

3. The USA lies in the central part of the South American Continent.

4. The USA is washed by the Indian Ocean.

5. The USA borders on Peru and Brazil.

6. The USA consists of five separate parts.

7. There are 60 states in the USA.

8. The capital of the USA is New York.

9. Chicago deals in cotton industry.

10. Detroit is a space research centre.

11. The United States of America is a parliamentary monarchy.

12. The US government is divided into five branches.

13. There are ten main political parties in the USA.

14. The US President is elected for a ten-year term.

15. Presidential elections are held every year on first Monday in September.

16. The form of US government is based on the Bill of Rights.

17. The Senate represents the population according to its distribution among the states.

18. All states have different electoral requirements.

19. Each of the fifty states of the USA has its own President.

Exercise 4. Match the words as they are used in the UNIT.

1. square

2. central

3. federal

4. economic

5. geographical

6. for

7. business

8. meat

9. oil

10. space

11. motor car

12. parliamentary

13. political

14. head of

15. four-year

16. presidential

17. executive

18. electoral

19. foreign

20. governmental

21. Supreme 22. judicial

23. judicial

A. part B. elections

C. example D. refining

E. doctrine F. policy

G. requirements

H. processing I. kilometers

J. practice K. research centre

L. development M. producer

N. term

O. Court P. party

Q. area R. body

S. republic T. department

U. centre

V. position W. state

Exercise 5. Write down the following in figures.

1. Cardinal numbers

1. twenty-five million seven hundred thirty-two thousand

2. ten million five hundred sixty-seven thousand five hundred fifty-two

3. two million one hundred fifty thousand one hundred thirty-one

4. one million six hundred eighty-two thousand twelve

5. one point three million

6. sixty-seven thousand and five

7. two hundred thousand ninety-five

8. forty-five thousand four hundred

9. seven thousand eight hundred eighty-seven

10. three thousand two hundred twenty-six

2. Ordinal numbers

1. twentieth 2. twenty-first

3. thirty-seventh

4. forty-fifth 5. sixty-eighth

6. eighty-second

7. ninetieth 8. hundredth

9. hundred and third

10. two hundred and twenty-fourth

11. five hundred and ninth

12. thousandth 13. one thousand five hundred and twelfth

3. Dates

1. seventeen hundred

2. eighteen hundred (and) five

3. nineteen hundred (and) four

4. nineteen fifteen

5. nineteen forty-five

6. nineteen sixty-two

7. nineteen eighty-five

8. nineteen ninety-nine

9. two thousand 10. two thousand five

UNIT 2. HOW TO "SURVIVE" IN THE USA. GENERAL GUIDELINES

Americans often ask, "What do you do?" [that is, "Tell me about your job and employer"] to start a conversation. This kind of question is not considered presumptuous, but rather is a way to show interest in the individual by showing interest in his or her job. Compliments are exchanged frequently and are popular "conversation starters." If you wish to make conversation with someone, you can compliment an item such as his or her clothing or a work or sports related achievement. Generally, Americans like to laugh and enjoy being with people who have a sense of humour. Jokes are usually welcome, but in all situations, ethnic and religious humour should be avoided. Self-deprecating humour, however, usually goes over well.

Sports are very popular in the U.S., especially baseball, football, and basketball. Golf is another popular sport, especially among businesspeople. It is often a venue for business discussions and deals, so be prepared to play golf and talk business at the same time.

Business breakfasts are common, and can start as early as 7:00 a.m. On weekends, many people partake in 'brunch', a combination of lunch and breakfast beginning anywhere from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Business meetings may be held over 'brunch.'

Business meetings are also frequently held over lunch, which begins at 12:00 noon and sometimes lasts until 2:00 p.m. Lunch is usually a lighter meal, since work continues directly afterward. Be careful about alcoholic beverages such as wine or beer at lunch. You may find some companies where this is common, and others that have strict policies against alcoholic drinks during lunch hours. Follow the lead of your host and order a soft drink if you are unsure. Dinner is the main meal of the day and can start between 5:30 and 8:00 p.m.

In the United States, little business is conducted on Sundays. This is the standard day of worship for many religions. If your stay in the U.S. is short, however, your American business counterparts may arrange to do business on this day.

If you are invited out for a business meal, the host will usually pay, but if your host does not offer to pay, you should be prepared to pay for your own meal. If you invite a U.S. counterpart out socially, you should make it clear whether you wish to pay. Common ways to express this wish include 'It's on me' or 'I'd like to buy you lunch.' When eating out, the cost is sometimes shared with friends or colleagues. 'Getting separate checks' and 'going Dutch' refer to paying for your own portion of the bill. It is also common to 'split the bill,' where the cost of the meal is shared equally among the individuals.

The dining etiquette in the USA is quite simple: the fork is held in the right hand and is used for eating. The knife is used to cut or spread something onto a food item. To use the knife, the fork is switched to the left hand or is laid down; to continue eating, the fork is switched back to the right hand. But, if you prefer to use the "continental" style of dining, in which the knife and fork are never switched, that is acceptable, too. Many people in the United States are casual in their use of the knife and fork and aren't particularly concerned with formal rules of etiquette. Some foods are eaten with the hands. As a general rule, you may follow the example of your companions.

It is common to invite a business guest to one's home in the U.S. This is considered a gesture to show goodwill between associates. Be aware that it is a custom in many U.S. homes to give guests a tour of the general rooms of the house when guests arrive. Unlike some other cultures, it's perfectly acceptable to refuse an offer of food or drink. In most cases, the host probably won't urge you to eat. Don't be afraid to ask for something. Use manners and ask politely. Before going to visit a friend, it's common courtesy to call ahead.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What does the question "What do you do?" mean?

2. Are compliments popular in America?

3. What kind of jokes should be avoided?

4. What does "self-deprecating humour" mean?

5. What sports are popular in the USA?

6. When do business breakfasts start?

7. What is the main meal of the day?

8. Is it common to do business on Sundays?

9. Who pays for a business meal: the person who invites or the one who is invited?

10. What should you do if the host does not offer to pay?

11. If you invite a U.S. counterpart out socially, how to make it clear that you wish to pay?

12. Is it common to 'split the bill?'

13. What is the difference between the American and the "continental" style of dining?

14. Is it common to invite a business guest to one's home in the U.S.?

15. Is it acceptable to refuse an offer of food or drink when you are invited to one's home in the USA?

16. Is it possible to ask for something while visiting the house of your American counterpart?

Exercise 2. Make a few sentences using the following verbs and expressions.

Start a conversation, ask questions, show interest in smth. or smb., exchange compliments, laugh, enjoy being with smb., welcome smb. or smth., avoid, be popular, be held, begin, last, continue, follow, be unsure, stay, conduct business,

arrange smth., invite, be prepared to do smth. or for smth., express, include, share, refer, refuse, urge.

Exercise 3. Say whether these words are countable or uncountable. Make countable words plural.

1. 1. job 2. kind

3. question 4. interest

5. individual 6. conversation

7. item

8. clothing 9. work

10. achievement 11. sense

12. humour 13. football

14. sport

15. venue 16. discussion

17. deal 18. weekend

19. lunch 20. meal

21. wine

22. beer 23. drink

24. business 25. bill

26. cost 27. etiquette

28. food

29. item. 30. rule

Exercise 4. Match the English words with their Russian equivalents.

1. presumptuous A. непосредственный (непрерывный)

2. frequent B. частый

3. usual C. неуверенный

4. ethnic D. понятный (недвусмысленный)

5. religious E. обычный

6. common F. бесцеремонный

7. direct G. национальный

8. unsure H. религиозный

9. standard I. случайный (бессистемный)

10. clear J. общепринятый

11. equal K. официальный

12. simple L. стандартный

13. acceptable M. одинаковый (идентичный)

14. formal N. простой

15. polite O. приемлемый (допустимый)

16. casual P. вежливый

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences.

1. Americans often ask, "What do you do?" to start ...

2. Compliments are exchanged very ...

3. Americans enjoy being with people who ... a sense of humour.

4. Self-deprecating humour is always ... in America.

5. ... are very popular in the U.S., especially baseball, football, and basketball.

6. The dining ... in the USA is quite simple.

7. The knife is used to cut or ... something onto a food item.

8. In the "continental" style of dining the knife and fork are never ...

9. Many people in the United States and aren't ... with formal rules of etiquette.

10. It is common to invite a business ... to one's home in the U.S.

11. Be ... that it is a custom in many U.S. homes to give guests a tour of the house when guests arrive.

12. ... some other cultures, it's acceptable to refuse an offer of food or drink.

13. Before going to visit a friend, it's common ... to call ahead.

UNIT 3. THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and north-west and the North Sea on the east. It is situated on two large islands, the larger of which is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. In addition to these two islands Great Britain includes over five hundred small islands. The total area of Great Britain is 240,046 sq. kms.

Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, contains England, Scotland and Wales. Administratively Great Britain is divided into 55 counties. The biggest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.

England is the largest part of Great Britain (it occupies over 50% of the territory and its population amounts to 83 % of the total population of Great Britain). Wales is a peninsula in the south-west of the island of Great Britain. It occupies about 9 % of its territory with the population of 4.8 % of the total population. Scotland is the most northern part of Great Britain with a territory of 32 % of the total territory and with a population of 9 % of the total population of Great Britain. Northern Ireland occupies the north-east part of the island of Ireland. Its territory amounts to 5.2 % of the total territory of Great Britain. The main cities of Northern Ireland are Belfast and Londonderry.

The capital of the country is London. English is the official language. The Welsh have their own language, but many Welsh people do not know Welsh. Scotland and Ireland also have their own languages, but these are rarely spoken and English is known by everyone there.

The population of the U.K. is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs - four out of every five people live in towns. Over 46 million people live in England, over 3 million in Wales, a little over 5,5 million in Scotland, about 1,5 million - in the Northern Ireland. London's population is over 7 million people. The British nation consists of the English, Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. There are many people of all colours and races in the U.K.

The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in summers or too cold in winter. It often rains in England. Rain falls in the summer and in the winter, in autumn and in spring. Snow falls only in the north and west of country.

The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but Scotland and Wales are mountainous. Many parts of the country have beautiful villages. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames and many ships and barges go up and down the river. The longest river is Severn. It is 350 kilometres long.

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Officially the head of state is the Queen (or the King). However, the power of the Queen in Great Britain is not absolute. She acts only on the advice of the ministers and Parliament. There is no written constitution in Great Britain. The main principles of British legislation are expressed in other documents, like "Magna Charta", "Habeas Corpus Act", "Bill of Rights", the Parliamentary Act which decided the position of the House of Lords, and the Judicature Act. British legislation does not provide written guarantees of individual political rights.

Parliament in Great Britain has existed since 1265 and is the eldest Parliament in the world. It consists of two Houses - the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords consists of 1000 peers who are not elected by the people. The House of Commons is a nation-wide representative body which is elected by the people at a general election, within 5 years of the last election. After the general election the Queen appoints the head of the government - the Prime Minister. As a rule the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has won the election. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to make up the government.

The main political parties of Great Britain are the Labour Party, the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. The Conservative party came into being in the 19th century as a result of the evolution of the Tory party. The Labour party was founded in 1900. Since 1906 it has borne the name of the Labour Party. The Labour Party won the election for the first time in 1945.

Great Britain is a highly-developed industrial country. The main fields of British industry are machine-building, ship-building, metallurgy, and electronics.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Insert the right part of the world.

1. The United Kingdom is situated in ... (cеверо-запад) coast of Europe.

2. The United Kingdom is washed by the Atlantic Ocean on ... (север) and ... (северо-запад) and the North Sea on ... (восток).

3. Wales is a peninsula in ... (юго-запад) of the island of Great Britain.

4. Scotland is located in ... (север) of Great Britain.

5. Northern Ireland occupies ... (северо-восток) part of the island of Ireland.

6. The capital of the country - London - is located in ... (юго-восток) of England.

Exercise 2.

A. Read the numbers.

1,246,749 6,493,935

8,839,764 25,736,073

47,815,274

12,648,042 139,354,654

932,453,680 361,852,053

1. B. Read the years.

1532

1639 1953 1249

1990 1993 1999

2000 2007 Exercise 3. Say, what each percentage means.

1. 50% of the territory

2. 83 % of the population

3. 9 % of the territory

4. 4.8 % of the population

5. 32 % of the territory

6. 9 % of the population

7. 5.2 % of the territory

Exercise 4. Write down the questions for these answers.

1) The United Kingdom is situated on two large islands.

2) Great Britain includes over five hundred small islands.

3) The total area of Great Britain is 240,046 sq. kms.

4) The biggest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.

5) The largest part of Great Britain is England.

6) The capital of the country is London.

7) The official language is English.

8) The population of the U.K. is nearly 60 million people.

9) The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs.

10) Over 7 million people live in London.

11) The climate of Great Britain is mild.

12) There are many rivers in Great Britain.

13) The longest river in Great Britain is 350 kilometers long.

Exercise 5. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why.

1. Great Britain is a federal republic.

2. Officially the head of state is the President.

3. The head of the state is the Queen, whose power is absolute.

4. The Queen never acts on the advice of the ministers and Parliament.

5. The British Constitution was written in 1265.

6. The main principles of British legislation are expressed in "Magna Charta", "Habeas Corpus Act", "Bill of Rights", the Parliamentary Act.

7. British legislation provides written guarantees of individual political rights.

8. Parliament in Great Britain has existed since 1265.

9. Parliament in Great Britain is the youngest Parliament in the world.

10. Parliament consists of three Houses - the House of Kings, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

11. The House of Lords consists of 10 peers.

12. Peers are elected by the people at a general election within 5 years of the last election.

13. The representatives of the House of Commons are appointed by The House of Lords.

14. The head of the government is the Prime Minister.

15. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Queen before the general election.

16. The Prime Minister doesn't belong to any party.

17. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to make up the government.

18. There is main political party in Great Britain - the Conservative Party.

19. The Conservative party came into being in the 19th century as a result of the evolution of the Tory party.

20. The Conservative party was founded in 1900.

21. The Labour Party won the election for the first time in 1945.

Exercise 6. Form comparative and superlative degrees of the adjectives.

1. 1. large

2. small

3. big 4. hot 5. cold

6. long Exercise 7. Match the words with their definitions.

1. ocean A. piece of land completely surrounded by water

2. island B. the most important city or town of a country or region, usually its seat of government and administrative centre

3. area C. the great mass of salt water that covers most of the Earth's surface

4. city D. a very small settlement in the countryside

5. town E. a particular part of a country, town

6. territory F. a large form of urban planning designed with grouping homes, hospitals, industry and cultural, recreational, and shopping centres, which forms relatively autonomous community

7. peninsula G. a natural and continuous flow of water in a long line across a country into the sea

8. village H. a large area where people live and work, that is smaller than a city and larger than a village

9. capital I. an outlying part of a city or town

10. country J. an area of land that is controlled by its own government, president, king etc

11. suburbs K. a piece of land almost completely surrounded by water but joined to a large area of land

12. river L. an administrative subdivision of a country

UNIT 4. HOW TO "SURVIVE" IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. GENERAL GUIDELINES

The guiding principle must always be St Ambrose's dictum, 'when in Rome, do as the Romans do', i.e. follow the lead of your hosts.

Most Britons are reserved by nature and often find it difficult to indulge in small talk with a complete stranger. Introductions can be tricky. Ideally the British prefer third-party introductions but, in certain situations like a drinks party, it may not always be possible and, you may just introduce yourself. Firm handshakes are the norm as part of a formal introduction but may not be expected at subsequent meetings or on social occasions; a gentleman should always wait for a woman to proffer her hand before squeezing it gently. The continental habit of exchanging kisses has gained currency especially amongst the young and the affected but is not recommended for visitors - even the natives are unsure of the correct procedure. 'How do you do?' is a greeting not a question. It is used when people are introduced for the first time only and the correct response is to repeat 'How do you do?' Such usage is not to be confused with 'How are you?' etc. which is a more or less sincere enquiry as to your well-being.

Britons, and the English in particular, are undemonstrative. Gestures such as backslapping and hugging are discouraged and a wide distance should be maintained between participants in a conversation, because Britons like their own personal space and will shy away from those they find invasive. Some old-fashioned interlocutors may not listen to you if you have your hands in your pockets. Maintaining eye contact may be necessary when you are trying to emphasise important points but you must avoid any temptation to 'eye-ball'. Talking loudly is unacceptable and shouting is beyond the pale. If the British use few words, it is because they prefer to mean those they do use. For the most part, the British speak in low, moderate, measured tones without raising the voice or gesticulating wildly for emphasis.

Humour is a vital feature of all aspects of British life. In a society that finds it difficult to express personal feelings, humour often acts as a defence mechanism and it is never out of place in all circumstances. You need not strive to be interminably witty yourself, but you should not be surprised by what you may consider coarse or inappropriate levity.

British cuisine is not what it was. British cooking has become distinctly international in flavour and there are relatively few traditional dishes left. There is also a good change: this erstwhile gastronomic desert has been transformed in the past twenty years and some of the best restaurants on the planet can be found in the UK. Unfortunately the best are also the most expensive and they are concentrated in London and the Home Counties or, at least, in the major cities. It is possible to eat well in the boondocks but it may require some research to find a suitably decent restaurant.

Interminable books have been written on the subject of dining etiquette in the UK. Most of the rules are archaic. Good manners are largely universal (or at least prevail throughout any given culture); they do not require instruction manuals. The only sensible rule is to behave in such a way as to cause neither embarrassment nor annoyance (at the risk of seeming hypocritically prescriptive, this might include making an effort to eat and drink at the same pace as the rest of the group, not speaking with one's mouth full, not stretching across the table, not waving one's cutlery about and not licking one's knife). If you are a guest, follow the host's instructions; if you are the host, whatever you say goes. Act with confidence and, however bizarre your behaviour, the worst that can happen is that your British companions will regard you as an eccentric foreigner.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Find the Russian equivalent.

1. 1. to indulge in

2. to prefer 3. to introduce

4. to expect

5. to proffer 6. to squeeze

7. to exchange 8. to gain

A. расценивать

B. выражать

C. предлагать

D. приобретать

E. кричать

F. следовать

G. избегать

H. пристально смотреть

9. to repeat 10. to confuse

11. to maintain

12. to shy away

13. to emphasise

14. to avoid 15. to 'eye-ball'

16. to shout

I.рассматривать, обсуждать

J. повторять

K. сжимать

L. делать акцент

M. иметь ввиду

N. предпочитать

O. требовать

P. лизать

17. to mean

18. to raise 1.

19. to express 20. to strive

21. to consider

22. to transform

23. to require

24. to behave 25. to cause

26. to include

27. to stretch

28. to lick 29. to follow

30. to regard Q. поддерживать

2 Путать

3 служить причиной

4 позволять себе

5 обмениваться

6 вести себя

7 сторониться

8 видоизменять

9 представлять кого-либо

10 включать в себя

11 ожидать что-либо

12 повышать

13 потягиваться

14 прилагать усилия

Exercise 2. Have a look at the adverbs in bolt. Find them in the UNIT and guess their meaning. Read the quotations and translate them.

1. "Govern a family as you would cook a small fish -- very gently."

Chinese Proverb

2. "Children need love, especially when they don't deserve it." Harold Hulbert

3. "I praise loudly, I blame softly. " Catherine II of Russia

4. "Even an attorney of moderate talent can postpone doomsday year after year, for the system of appeals that pervades American jurisprudence amounts to a legalistic wheel of fortune, a game of chance, somewhat fixed in the favor of the criminal, that the participants play interminably" Truman Capote

5. "Clarity of mind means clarity of passion, too; this is why a great and clear mind loves ardently and sees distinctly what it loves." Blaise Pascal

6. "I believe that all of us ought to retire relatively young." Fidel Castro

7. "If you would like to marry suitably, marry your equal." Ovid

8. "Literature always anticipates life. It does not copy it, but moulds it to its purpose. The nineteenth century, as we know it, is largely an invention of Balzac. " Oscar Wilde

9. "Unless man is committed to the belief that all mankind are his brothers, then he labors in vain and hypocritically in the vineyards of equality." Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

10. "No man can be ideally successful until he has found his place. Like a locomotive he is strong on the track, but weak anywhere else. " Orison Swett Marden

Exercise 3. Match the word with its definition

I. Who are these people?

1. stranger A. an adult female person

2. host B. someone you spend a lot of time with, especially a friend

3. guest C. a man who is always polite, has good manners, and treats other people well

4. foreigner D. someone who is taking part in an activity or event

5. gentleman E. someone at a party, meal etc who has invited the other people and who provides the food, drink etc

6. woman F. someone who comes from a different country

7. interlocutor G. someone that you do not know

8. companion H. someone who is invited to an event or special occasion

9. participant I. A person you are speaking to

II. What is the activity?

1. meeting A. a noisy expression of happiness and positive feelings

2. procedure B. a talk in which people exchange news, feelings, and thoughts

3. greeting C. a way of doing something, especially the correct or usual way

4. backslapping D. the things that a person or animal doesCOLLOCATIONS

5. hugging an action when one. E. an event at which people meet to discuss and decide things

6. conversation F. the act of disturbing or irritating smb. especially by repeated acts

7. annoyance the G. to presses smth. tightly, especially in the arms

8. behaviour H. an expression of good wishes

a. What do these adjectives mean?

1. subsequent A. true or suitable in every situation

2. sincere B. smth. that is done in a careful and controlled way

3. invasive C. using words in a clever and amusing way

4. old-fashioned D. free of dissimulation

5. unacceptable E. saying how something should or must be done, or what should be done

6. moderate F. happening or coming after something else

7. measured G. very unusual or strange

8. witty H. tending to infringe

9. inappropriate I. very long and boring

10. decent J. reasonable, practical, rather than fashionable

11. interminable K. not acceptable : not pleasing or welcome

12. universal L. staying within reasonable or sensible limits, not very large or very small, very hot or very cold, very fast or very slow

13. sensible M. of a good enough standard or quality

14. prescriptive N. not suitable or right for a particular purpose or in a particular situation

15. bizarre O. not considered to be modern or fashionable any more

Exercise 4. The dos and don'ts of visiting England. Say whether these statements are true or false and explain why.

1. Always introduce yourself, never wait for someone else to introduce you.

2. A gentleman should never wait for a woman to proffer her hand first.

3. The continental habit of exchanging kisses is very popular and recommended for visitors.

4. Try to avoid gestures such as backslapping and hugging.

5. When you hear "How do you do?" you should immediately answer "Very well!"

6. Use "How do you do?" when you are introduced to someone for the first time.

7. Stay very close to your interlocutors, otherwise they will be discouraged.

8. Stop talking if you notice that your partner has his hands in his pockets.

9. Maintain eye contact to emphasise important points of your speech.

10. Talk very loudly.

11. Avoid any temptation to 'eye-ball'.

12. Gesticulate wildly while talking.

13. You should not strive to be interminably witty yourself.

14. The most important rule of dining etiquette is to behave in such a way to cause as more annoyance as possible.

15. Try to eat and drink faster than the rest of the group.

16. Do not speak with your mouth full.

17. Always lick your knife after cutting the meat.

18. If you are a guest, follow the host's instructions.

UNIT 5. CANADA

The total land area of Canada - more than 9 mln sq. km - makes it the second largest country in the world. Canada is bordered by three oceans, it spans six time zones.

Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area covering half the country. Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long cold winters lasting 8 to 11 month, short sunny summers, and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes.

The total population according to the 2001 census was about 30,750,100 people with an average population density of 3.1 per sq. km. Even though Canada is less densely populated than most countries, it has major cosmopolitan centers such as Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, along with numerous mid-sized cities, small towns, and rural areas. Almost all of Canada's population is concentrated in a narrow band along the country's southern edge. The population is also concentrated by province: Ontario and Quebec contain between them 62% of the total population.

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal static, rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions.

As a country of immigrants, Canada has a special appreciation for cultural diversity. The country's earliest inhabitants were the Aboriginal Peoples, also known as First Nations. Many historians believe that these first settlers probably came to what is now Canada from Asia thousands of years ago. Aboriginal Peoples still make up two to three percent of the Canadian population.

The main period of European settlement began in the early 1600s with the French, who established settlements on the east coast and in the St. Lawrence River valley. British explorers and settlers soon followed, and there was considerable competition and conflict between the two groups over trade (mainly in furs) and territory. This conflict eventually led to the battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759, in which the British army defeated the French. As a result, all of the Canadian colonies came under British control. In the 1780s, following the U.S. Declaration of Independence, large numbers of "Loyalists" (people of British origin who were loyal to the British Crown) left the United States and moved to the Canadian colonies. Most settled in areas now part of Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

Another large wave of European settlement occurred in the late 1800s and early 1900s, when the Canadian authorities encouraged people from all over Europe to come to Canada and settle in the areas west of Manitoba.

On July 1st, 1867, four colonies joined together to become a federation of provinces called the Dominion of Canada. This event, known as Confederation, was the foundation of Canada as we know it today. July 1st is a national holiday (Canada Day) in recognition of the event.

The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government.

Because the four founding colonies were British, the legislation that joined them together and set out the framework for Canadian government was also British. This meant that the British parliament still had ultimate legal control over how Canada was run. This situation ended in 1982 when the Canadian and British parliaments jointly passed legislation establishing Canada's full legal independence. At the moment Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 northern territories.

Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos, nickel and other elements, forestry products, and ranks first in the world in export of minerals. Although no longer the foremost sector of the economy, agriculture is of major importance to the economy as a whole. Canada is among the world's leading wheat producers and is second in the export of wheat.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. What's the territory of Canada?

2. Is Canada the largest country in the world?

3. What can you say about the climate of Canada?

4. How many people live in Canada?

5. Are there any big cities in Canada?

6. Does Canada have one official language?

7. Who were the country's earliest inhabitants?

8. Where did the first Canadian settlers come from?

9. Who started the main period of European settlement?

10. Who won the battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759?

11. Who are the "Loyalists"?

12. When did the second large wave of European settlement occur?

13. What is the date of the foundation of Canada?

Exercise 2. Insert the correct word.

1. In 1867 four colonies ... together to become a federation of provinces.

2. The event when colonies joined together and became a federation of provinces is known as ....

3. July 1st, 1867 is the date of the ... of Canada.

4. Canada Day is a national ....

5. The federal ... is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate.

6. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons ... the government.

7. The legislation that set out the ... for Canadian government was British.

8. The British parliament had legal ... over Canada for a long time.

9. In 1982 Canada got the full legal ....

10. Canada is a ... of 10 provinces and 2 northern territories.

Exercise 3. Replace the underlined words with their synonyms from the list.

created, manufacture, finished, particular, territory, government, residents, colonies, similar, think, significant, washed, although

1. The total land area of Canada is more than 9 mln sq. km.

2. Canada is bordered by three oceans.

3. Even though Canada is less densely populated than most countries, it has a lot of cosmopolitan centers.

4. English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal static, rights and privileges.

5. Canada has a special appreciation for cultural diversity.

6. The country's earliest inhabitants were the Aboriginal Peoples.

7. Many historians believe that first settlers came to Canada from Asia thousands of years ago.

8. In the early 1600s the French established settlements on the east coast of Canada.

9. There was considerable competition between British and French explorers over Canadian territory.

10. French established settlements on the east coast.

11. In the late 1800s and early 1900s the Canadian authorities encouraged people from all over Europe to come to Canada.

12. The British legal control over Canada ended in 1982.

13. Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos and nickel.

Exercise 4. Translate the words and make a few sentences with them.

1. span (v) 2. cover (v)

3. precipitation (n)

4. landscape (n)

5. census (n)

6. density (n) 7. cosmopolitan (n)

8. band (n) 9. appreciation (n)

10. diversity (n)

11. percent (n)

12. competition (n)

13. fur (n) 14. origin (n)

15. wave (n) 16. recognition (n)

17. framework (n)

Exercise 5. Choose the correct variant and translate the following:

1. the second largest ... (country/countries)

2. the total ... (population/populations)

3. the 2001 ... (census/censuses)

4. the population of 30,750,100 ... (people/peoples)

5. Aboriginal ... (People/Peoples)

6. all of the Canadian ... (colony/colonies)

7. the U.S. Declaration of ... (Independence/ Independences)

8. the House of ... (Common/Commons)

9. the sector of the ... (economy/economics)

10. the ... (world's/worlds) leading producer

UNIT 6. HOW TO "SURVIVE" IN CANADA. GENERAL GUIDELINES

Business hours are generally 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. Longer hours, however, are common. Mornings tend to be the preferred time for appointments

Store hours are generally 10:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., Monday through Saturday, but many establishments are open until 9:00 p.m. Some provinces, such as Ontario, also permit businesses to open for Sunday shopping. Many "convenience" stores, purchasing products such as milk, soft drinks, snacks, newspapers/magazines, and cigarettes, are open 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Punctuality should always be a priority. Be on time for all business-related meetings. Moreover, you will be expected to arrive on time for a business appointment even if your Canadian counterpart fails to do the same. If you cannot prevent being late, a telephone call stating your expected time of arrival is appreciated. In general, it is acceptable to be 15 minutes late for an evening social engagement. Do not, however, be late by more than 30 minutes.

A conservative, well-dressed, appearance is important in Canadian business culture. Your clothing does not necessarily have to be brand new or "trendy." Wearing quality clothing that is old, but presentable, can be perfectly acceptable. Some professions allow for casual dress, but it's best to err on the formal side when in doubt. Suits and ties are standard attire for men. Business suits or dresses are often the standard attire for women. Pantsuits, in classic styles, can also be acceptable. Accessorizing, which adds flair to even very simple outfits, is also a common practice. During their leisure time, Canadians dress casually; items such as jeans, t-shirts, sweatpants, shorts, and running shoes are acceptable in public.

Canadian winters can be quite cold in many regions and dressing warmly is essential. During this season, ensure that you bring a coat and pair of gloves. It is also a good idea to take a pair of boots with good treads to help you walk with ease through the ice, snow, and slush you are likely to encounter on the pavement. Moreover, selecting a well-insulated pair of boots can help protect your feet from the often intense cold. Canadians in general do not wear scent in a business setting. Perfume, aftershave, and heavily scented personal care products such as shampoo and hairspray should be avoided, or at least used sparingly. It's often believed that perfume is worn to cover up poor personal hygiene. Furthermore, the presence of scent can also be a health hazard to individuals with asthma, a relatively common condition in Canada. Consequently, many jurisdictions in Canada forbid the wearing of scented products in hospitals and doctors' offices.

Business meals are popular in Canada and, in most cities, there will be a variety of good restaurants to choose from. Breakfast meetings are becoming common as well. Business lunches are usually short [1-1 1/2 hours] with lighter foods and often no alcohol. When invited to a dinner, the best policy is to wait for your Canadian host to bring up the subject of business. Invitations to dine at a Canadian home are relatively infrequent and should be considered quite a honour. A few days after a dinner party, a telephone call or note thanking the host or hostess is a thoughtful and appreciated gesture. When you visit a home, a gift of flowers, candy, wine or liquor are usually welcomed. If you decide to bring a gift of flowers, be aware that white lilies are sometimes associated with funerals, while red roses are reserved for romantic occasions. If you are a guest in a home, wait for permission from your hosts before wandering from room to room. Traditionally, the host or hostess is the first person at the table allowed to begin eating and drinking. Then, the guests may proceed with the meal. Make a point of offering any main dishes to others before serving yourself.

Restaurants in Canada often have smoking and non-smoking sections. In an increasing number of Canadian communities, however, there are by-laws in effect prohibiting smoking in restaurants and even bars. With the exception of the streets, you will find that smoking is restricted in most public places.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Say whether these sentences are true or false.

1. Business hours in Canada are generally 10:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.

2. Canadians never appoint business meetings in the morning.

3. Stores are not open before 8:00 a.m.

4. There are no shops which are open 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

5. Canadians don't pay attention to punctuality.

6. It is not acceptable to be even 5 minutes late for an evening social engagement.

7. In Canada it's necessary to wear brand new or "trendy" clothes.

8. Wearing quality clothing that is old, but presentable can be considered as a sign of bad manners.

9. During their free time, Canadians dress casually.

10. Canadians don't like jeans and t-shirts and never wear them.

11. Canadians adore perfume and always wear scent in a business setting.

12. Business meals are popular in Canada.

13. Canadians often invite their business partners to dine at home.

Exercise 2. Match the word with its definition.

1. jeans A. a piece of clothing with long sleeves that is worn over your clothes to protect or to keep you warm

2. t-shirts B. something that you wear to cover your feet when jogging

3. sweatpants C. a covering for the head

4. shorts D. a long narrow piece of cloth tied in a knot around the neck, worn by men

5. running shoes E. a piece of clothing worn by a woman or girl that covers the top of her body and part or all of her legs consisting of a one-piece bodice and skirt

6. coat F. loose warm trousers, worn especially for sport or relaxation

7. gloves G. short trousers ending at or above the knees

8. hat H. trousers made of DENIM (=a strong, usually blue, cotton cloth)

9. dress I. a piece of clothing that you wear on your hand in order to protect it or keep it warm

10. suit J. a type of shoe that covers your whole foot and the lower part of your leg

11. tie K. a set of clothes made of the same material, usually including a jacket with trousers or a skirt

12. boots L. a shirt with short sleeves and no collar

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences using the following words.

A. A. policy

B. priority C. exception

D. casually E. appointments

F. dishes G. hazard

H. increasing

I. gift J. sections

K. appearance L. perfume

1. Mornings tend to be the preferred time for ...

2. When dealing with a Canadian punctuality should always be a ....

3. A conservative ... is important in Canadian business culture.

4. During their leisure time, Canadians dress ...

5. Canadians believe that ... is worn to cover up poor personal hygiene.

6. The presence of scent can be a health ... to individuals with asthma.

7. When invited to a dinner, the best ... is to wait for your Canadian host to bring up the subject of business.

8. When you visit a home, a ... of flowers, candy, wine or liquor are usually welcomed.

9. Traditionally, you should offer the main ... to others before serving yourself.

10. There are smoking and non-smoking ... in Canadian restaurants.

11. In an ... number of Canadian communities smoking in restaurants is prohibited.

12. With the ... of the streets, you smoking is restricted in most public places.

Exercise 4. Translate the verbs and find the sentences in the UNIT where these verbs or their derivatives are used.

tend to be, to purchase, to permit, to expect, to fail, to prevent, to state, to allow, to err, to add, to ensure, to encounter, to forbid, to bring up, to proceed, to prohibit, to restrict, to avoid

Exercise 5. Translate the words and make a few sentences with them.

However, moreover, in general, necessarily, perfectly, in doubt, often, also, casually, quite, with ease, at least, furthermore, relatively, consequently, traditionally

UNIT 7. BUSINESS CULTURE

Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a simple test.

Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o'clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive?

If they're German, they'll be bang on time. If they're American, they'll probably be 15 minutes early. If they're British, they'll be 15 minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for the Italians.

When the European Community began to increase in size, several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought this was a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that the widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their foreign business friends.

For example:

The British are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another, and they rarely drink at lunchtime.

The Germans like to talk business before dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be well fed and watered before they discuss

anything. Taking off your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as

taking it easy.

American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan, people would be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is a social insult only exceeded by blowing your nose in public.

The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behaviour. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting because it is essential to establish everyone's status and position. When it is handed to a person in a superior position, it must be given and received with both hands, and you must take time to read it carefully, and not just put it in your pocket! Also the bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake hands. Bowing the head is a mark of respect and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter.

What you should know before negotiating:

* During presentations, and especially during negotiations, it is essential that one maintain a quiet, low-key, and polite manner at all times.

* The highest-ranking individual may appear to be the most quiet of everyone present.

* For a persuasive presentation, you must describe how your product can enhance the prosperity and reputation of the Japanese side. Making these claims effectively requires a thorough knowledge of Japanese economy, business, and product lines.

* It is also a good strategy to emphasize the size and wealth of your company. If your organization is an older, venerable institution, this fact should be frequently mentioned, too.

* Periods of silence lasting between 10-15 seconds during meetings and conversations are considered useful rather than uncomfortable.

* Never single out a Japanese colleague, even for praise or encouragement; the group identity always prevails.

* Don't feel discouraged if you're not receiving compliments on your work. Again, it is the group that receives accolades, not the individual.

* Generally, the Japanese prefer oral agreements to written ones, and should not be pressured into signing documents.

* Contracts can be renegotiated; in Japanese business protocol, they are not final agreements.

* An invitation to lunch or dinner is important in Japan. Businesspeople are not likely to accept invitations from people they do not trust.

The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be casual and more informal, as illustrated by the universal 'Have a nice day!' American waiters have a one-word imperative 'Enjoy!'

The British, of course, are cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is the weather- unemotional and impersonal.

In America, the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link. 'Oh, really? You live in Ohio? I had an uncle who once worked there.'

'When in Rome, do as the Romans do.' Here are some final tips for travelers:

* In France you shouldn't sit down in a cafe until you've shaken hands with everyone you know.

* In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.

* In Pakistan you mustn't wink. It is offensive.

* In the Middle East you must never use the left hand for greeting, eating, drinking, or smoking. Also you should take care not to admire anything in your hosts' home. They will feel that they have to give it to you.

* In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head and your eyes when you greet someone.

* In Belgium gifts will be opened in front of the giver and you should do the same if you are the recipient.

* In Israel refrain from bringing up the subject of family during business meetings.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Write down all the nationalities mentioned in the UNIT. Write down one thing about each nationality that you can remember.

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions.

1. Which nationalities are the most and least punctual?

2. Why did the British think that everyone understood their customs?

3. Which nationalities do not like to eat and do business at the same time?

4. 'They (the French) have to be well fed and watered.' What or who do you normally have to feed and water?

5. Imagine you are at a party in (a) England (b) America. How could you begin a conversation with a stranger?

6. What nationality has perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behaviour? Why do you think so?

7. Why is it not a good idea to ...

... say that you absolutely love your Egyptian friend's vase.

...say 'Hi! See you later!' when you're introduced to someone in Afghanistan ...discuss your personal problems during business meetings with your an Israeli.

Exercise 3. Say whether these sentences are true or false and explain why.

1. The British wouldn't like to have a business lunch and discuss business matters during the meal.

2. The Germans like to talk business while eating.

3. The French like to eat first and talk afterwards.

4. If you take off your jacket in Britain that means that you want to relax.

5. Blowing your nose in public is a social insult in Japan.

6. In America you must receive your partner's business card with both hands with a bow.

7. Bowing the head is a mark of respect in Australia.

8. The highest-ranking Japanese will be the most emotional one during the negotiations.

9. During negotiations with Japanese try to avoid periods of silence lasting more then 5 seconds - they are considered insulting.

10. The Japanese prefer written agreements to oral ones.

11. In Japanese business protocol contracts can not be renegotiated.

12. An invitation to lunch or dinner is not possible in Japan.

13. In Pakistan you mustn't smiling is offensive.

Exercise 4. A friend of yours is going to work in Japan. Give some advice about how he/she should and shouldn't behave.

Exercise 5. Discussion

1. Do you agree with the saying 'When in Rome, do as the Romans do'? Do you have a similar saying in your language?

2. What are the 'rules' about greeting people in your country? When do you shake hands? When do you kiss? What about when you say goodbye?

3. Think of one or two examples of bad manners in your country. For example, in Britain it is considered impolite to ask people how much they earn.

4. What advice would you give somebody coming to live and work in your country?

Exercise 6. Transform the names of the countries into adjectives.

Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holland, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea (North and South), Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain, USA, Vietnam.

Exercise 7. Match the words from the three columns below to make sentences. Transform the names of the countries into adjectives.

Hola

Ferrari Evian IBM

AGFA Philips Carlsberg

IKEA BBC 1 Olympic

Pravda

Aker AS Istambul

Nokia Denmark

Norway France Holland

Spain

Finland USA Britain

Turkey Russia Germany

Greece Italy Sweden

furniture retailer

newspaper computer company

beer electronics company

industrial company

mineral water

seaport airline

car manufacturer

photographic company

mobile phone company

weekly magazine television channel

UNIT 8. THE CAREER LADDER

Alexandra Pappas is a well known chef from Greece but when she was young she had no idea she would pick this profession. When she left school, she applied for a position of a manager in a local joint-venture advertising company. She was young, so they offered her a job as a trainee. She didn't earn much, but they gave her in-house training, and she went on several training courses.

Alexandra worked hard and her prospects looked good. Her boss was very pleased with her progress and she soon got a good pay rise. After three years she was promoted and after five years she was in charge of a department with five employees under her.

By the time Alexandra was 30, she decided she wanted a fresh challenge and a career change. She wanted to work abroad, so she resigned and started looking for another job. After a month she got a job in an international tourist company which involved a lot of foreign travel. She was very excited about this and at first she really enjoyed the tourist business, but ...

After six months, Alexandra started to dislike the travelling and living in hotels. She didn't do well in the job either. After a year the company dismissed her, and Alexandra found life difficult. She was unemployed and really depressed for nine months, because nobody wanted to hire her.

One day she agreed for an unskilled work and got a part-time job in the kitchen of a restaurant. First it was difficult for her but later she got used and even loved the restaurant.

She started learning to cook and enjoyed it very much. Soon she found herself cooking not only dishes she knew but inventing new recipes. She had no idea she would become a chef, but the more she cooked the more she realized there was no end to the learning process. There was always room for growth and it made life so exciting! She went to special courses and had an opportunity to meet and work with some of the best and most talented chefs from all over the world. Every one of these world-famous chefs offered something new she could add to her skills. They also taught her some things she could incorporate into her efforts of improving Greek cuisine.

Two years later she took over the restaurant and was in charge with coaching a lot of young chefs. After a year, she understood she was ready for her own business, so she opened a restaurant. It was so successful that after 20 years she had 10 restaurants. Alexandra retired at the age of 80, a very rich woman. When once she was asked about the reason of her success, she laughed and answered: "The most important thing is to go ahead and cook as much as you can and always taste what you have made. If you like the food you have prepared, chances are other people will like it too."

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Answer the questions about Alexandra.

1) Where is she from?

2) Did she always want to be a chef?

3) What was her first position?

4) Was her first salary high?

5) What were the advantages of her first job?

6) Did it take long until she was promoted?

7) How many employees did she have under her control?

8) Why did she left her first job?

9) Did she resign from her second position or was she told to leave?

10) What was her third place of work?

11) Did she like her job in the restaurant from the very beginning?

12) What were her duties in the restaurant besides cooking?

13) What is the key to Alexandra's success?

Exercise 2. What do these numbers mean to Alexandra Pappas' life? Find the answer in the UNIT.

1) two years

2) three years 3) five years

4) twenty years 5) a month

6) six months 7) five employees

8) ten restaurants

9) thirty years old

10) eighty years old

Exercise 3. Replace the words in italics with their synonyms from the UNIT.

1) When I was young I wrote an official request for a job of a pilot but I got a polite refusal.

2) I have been working here my whole life: I started 30 years ago as a very junior person in the company.

3) When I started my career 10 years ago I had a very low salary - it was almost nothing.

4) I think he's a very promising worker; his future possibilities in the job are really great.

5) Nobody expected her to be given a higher position with more money and responsibility so soon.

6) How many workers are under your control?

7) What do you think of your boss? Do you like him?

8) I think I'm fed up with my job - it is so boring! I need a new exciting situation.

9) I'm not sure I would always like working in Russia. One day I would like to go to another country.

10) It goes without saying that such job includes a lot of foreign travel.

11) She was always late at work that's why the company sacked her.

12) My grand mother is 69 years old but she's not going to stop working completely.

13) When I last saw Jim he was still without a job and ready for any kind of work.

Exercise 4. Complete these sentences with a suitable word.

1) He's not happy in his own country. He wants to work ...

2) I don't want a full-time job. I'd prefer to work ...

3) She'd like to go on another training ...

4) I'm bored in my job. I need a fresh ...

5) At the end of this year we should get a good pay ...

6) She's got more than a hundred workers under ...

7) I didn't know he was the new manager. When did he take...?

8) I know it's not a great job. How much does she...?

9) I think it was a good position - it was stupid not to ... for it.

10) For the real professional there's always room for ...

Exercise 5. Complete the table.

verb general noun person manage promote employ resign retire train

Exercise 6. Put in the right endings to the underlined words.

1. Paula's first job was quite interest...

2. Paula was very interest... in foreign travels.

3. Alexandra was really bor... with her job, so she decided to leave it.

4. Her new job wasn't bor... but nevertheless she didn't like it.

5. Paula's first training course seemed very excit... for her.

6. She was very excit... about getting new career opportunity.

7. Her new boss wasn't very pleas... with her work.

UNIT 9. BUSINESS HOURS

The standard working day in the United Kingdom and the USA starts at 9:00 a.m. and lasts till 5:00 p.m. with lunch time from 1:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Many banks are usually open for customers from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. Some businesses and industries traditionally work different hours.

Most employees have a five-day working week, Monday through Friday. The working week is between 35 and 40 hours long. Overtime is quite common and is generally paid, often at a premium to the basic rate of pay. The weekend usually starts on Friday night and lasts till Monday. Thus on Saturdays and Sundays most businesses are closed. But as to shops they are open on Saturdays and some of them are open on Sundays.

In Britain the law does not say what shops can be open on Sundays but it says what goods can be sold on Sundays. They are newspapers, magazines and fresh food. If the law is broken, criminal proceedings may be taken. Many officials and the public demand that the Sunday trading rules should be abolished in the UK.

Most businesses are closed on public or national holidays.

The main public holidays of the UK are the follows:

New Year's Day 1 January

Good Friday in April

Easter in April

Easter Monday in April

May Day in May

Christmas Day 25 December

Boxing Day 26 December

In the United States the following main holidays are celebrated:

New Year's Day 1 January

Washingtons's Birthday 20 February

Easter in April

Memorial Day in May

Independence Day 4 July

Labour Day in September

Veterans' Day in November

Thanksgiving Day in November

Christmas Day in December

All the main public or national holidays in the USA and UK are bank holidays, which means banks are closed on those days. Besides there are some other bank holidays, when banks and many other businesses are closed.

The bank holidays besides public or national holidays are:

Spring or Summer (Bank) Holiday - in May or June

Autumn (Bank) Holiday - in August or September

It dates back to the nineteenth century when by the Bank Holiday Act and a Supplementary Act these days were constituted bank holidays in the UK.

EXERCISES Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.

1. When does the standard working day start and finish in the UK and the USA?

2. How long is the working week there?

3. Is the overtime allowed and paid?

4. What are the usual working days?

5. What is a weekend?

6. What days are shops open in those two countries?

7. What goods can be sold on Sundays in the UK?

8. How do Englishmen treat the Sunday trading rules?

9. Are businesses open on public holidays in those two countries?

10. What public holidays do these two countries have?

11. What is a bank holiday?

12. When do these countries have Spring/Summer Bank Holiday?

13. When do they have Autumn Bank Holiday?

14. When and how was a bank holiday introduced in Great Britain?

Exercise 2. Match the Holidays with their Russian equivalents.

1. New Year's Day

2. Good Friday

3. Easter 4. Easter Monday

5. May Day 6. Christmas Day

7. Boxing Day 8. Washingtons's Birthday

9. Memorial Day

10. Independence Day

11. Labour Day 12. Veterans' Day

13. Thanksgiving Day

A. День весны

B. Новый Год

C. День памяти

D. День ветеранов

E. День рождение Вашингтона

F. День Благодарения

G. Пасхальный понедельник

H. День труда

I. Рождество

J. Пасха K. День независимости

L. День подарка

M. Страстная пятница

Exercise 3. Sum up what the UNIT says about:

bank holidays public holidays

working day and week

the Sunday trading rules in the UK

overtime

Exercise 4. What would you tell a foreigner about:

our working day and week

our holidays time when our shops are open

income tax do most people pay (e.g. 10% or 20% of what they earn)

paid holidays a minimum wage decided by the government

Exercise 5. Find the English equivalents in the UNIT.

1. Еще в девятнадцатом веке законом о банковских праздниках и дополнением к этому закону эти дни были объявлены в Англии "банковскими праздниками".

2. Переработка сверх установленных часов - явление распространенное и оплачивается по ставкам выше обычных.

3. Многие официальные лица и общественность требуют, чтобы эти правила торговли по воскресеньям были в Англии отменены.

4. Если существующий закон нарушается, могут возбудить cудебное дело.

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences.

Pay and conditions.

Most workers ... every month. This is called a .... We can also use the verbs ..., ... Some people are paid for the hours they ... The lowest amount for one hour's work is called the ... This amount is decided by the ...With most jobs you get 4-6 weeks' paid ...; you also get ... (= pay when you are ill)

The total amount of money you receive in a year is called your ... This could be your ... from one job, or the salary from two different ... You have to pay part of your income to the government; this is called income ...

Exercise 7. Here are some expressions connected with work. Make a few sentences with them.

to work shift-work [nights one week, days next]

to be on flexi-time [flexible working hours]

to work nine-to-five [regular day work]

to go/be on strike [industrial dispute]

to get the sack [thrown out of your job]

to be fired [more formal than 'get the sack'; often

used as a direct address: 'You're fired!']

to be dismissed [more formal than 'be fired']

to be made redundant [thrown out, no longer needed]

to be laid off [more informal than 'made redundant']

to give up work [e.g. in order to study]

to be on / take maternity leave [expecting a baby]

to be on / take sick leave [illness] .

to take early retirement [retire at 55]

to be a workaholic [love work too much]

to be promoted [get a higher position]

to apply for a job [fill in forms, etc.]

Exercise 8. Using the expressions in exercise 7, say what you think has happened / is happening.

Example: - I'm not working now; the baby's due in 3 weeks. - She's on maternity leave.

1

1. I've lost my job. They had to make cutbacks.

2. He's enjoying life on a pension, although he's only 58.

3. One week it's six-to-two, the next it's nights.

4. They've made her General Manager as from next month!

5. I was late so often, I lost my job.

6. I get in at nine o'clock and go home at five.

7. Your trouble is you are obsessed with work.

8. Now make a sentence for each of the verbs you have not used.

Exercise 9. Match words on the left and right to form compound nouns or phrases.

1 nine-to- a time

2 working b tax

3 flexi- с wage

4 income d five

5 minimum e hours

Exercise 10. Match the verbs on the left with the nouns on the right. Use each verb once only.

1 earn a overtime

2 work b meetings

3 deal with с a shop

4 attend : d complaints

5 run e ?2,000 a month

Exercise 11. This is part of a conversation with a teacher about her job. Write the missing questions.

A:____________? В: I start at nine and finish at four.

A: ? B: Yes, a bit. On certain courses I work until 5.30.

A: ? B: 12 weeks. That's one of the good things.

A: ? B: Yes, we do, but we have to have a doctor's note.

Exercise 12. Which of the job-titles from the list would best describe the following?

administrator, Human Resources department officer, unskilled worker, director, executive personnel officer, public relation officer, safety officer, labourer, union official, boss

1. The person who represents the workers' interests in disputes with the management in a factory.

2. A person who has a high (but not the highest) position in a company and whose job it is to make important decisions.

3. An important person in a company who sits on the Board.

4. A worker whose job requires no special training.

5. A person generally in charge of the day-to-day administration in a company.

6. The person who makes sure there are no risks of accidents from machinery, etc.

7. A person whose job it is to keep an eye on the day-to-day work of other workers.

8. A person who does hard physical work.

9. The person who handles applications for vacant posts.

10. The person who gives out information to the press for a company.

UNIT 10. BUSINESS LETTERS

Letters are the most important means of communication because they officially represent your company. A letter which is badly typed on rather poor-quality paper with an old-fashioned letter head won't give your partner confidence in an organization which plays so little attention to its image. The three most important aspects of letter writing are the following: format, planning, style and tone.

Format. There are two main forms of layout of letters currently in use: the older semiblocked form and the newer fully blocked form. The latter is very widely used now. Both forms can also be used for handwritten letters.

Planning. There is a special order and place of principal parts of a business letter.

1. The date is typed in full on the right hand side.

2. The inside address - the address of the company written to - is stated

on the left hand side.

3. The salutation depends on if you know your correspondent or not. You write "Dear Sir" or "Dear Madam" if the name of your correspondent is unknown for you. You write "Dear Mr. Brown" or "Dear Mrs. Brown" if you have formal relations with your correspondent. But if you know him or her

very well you can start your letter with salutation "Dear John" or "Dear Betty".

4. The beginning of the letter. In the first paragraph you can set up the tone for the rest of the letter. If you are answering the letter of your correspondent you should thank him for the letter and indicate clearly the date and the subject of that letter. If you are not replying to a letter you should state straight away what your letter is about.

5. The body of the letter. Every letter should deal with only one subject. It should be simple, clear, logical and polite.

6. The ending of the letter. The closing paragraph is the last of your letter. It should give a summary of everything written above and show your positive attitude to the future cooperation.

7. The complimentary close depends on the salutation of your letter. If your salutation was "Dear Sir" then the complimentary close should be "Yours faithfully". If your salutation was "Dear Mr. Brown" then your complimentary close would be "Yours sincerely".

8. The signature is put below the complimentary close, then goes your name in full and your position.

LAYOUT OF ENVELOPES

Sender's address

Stamp(s) Postal remarks

Recipient's address

LAYOUT OF AN OFFICIAL LETTER

The date 1. The heading 2. The inside address 3. The salutation 4. The body of the letter 5. The complimentary close 6. The signature Wayne State University

Law School Detroit,

Michigan 48202 USA

Stamp(s)

VIA AIR MAIL

Bank of Foreign Economic Affairs of Russia Novokirovsky Prosp. 15-31 Moscow Russia

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Choosing from the words below, label the parts of the letter.

Date References

Concluding paragraph

(Typed) signature

Position / title

Main paragraph Letterhead

Salutation Introductory paragraph

Recipient's address

(Sender's) address

Complimentary ending

Enclosure (abbreviation)

Signature 1. Widgetry Ltd.

2. 6 Pine Estate, Westhortet, Bedfordshire, UB18 22BC Telephone 901723456 Telex X238 WID Fax 9017 67893 Michael Scott, Sales Manager Smith and Brown plc.

3. Napier House

North Molton Street

Oxbridge OB84 9TD.

4. Your ref. S/WID/15/88

Our ref. ST/MN/10/88

5. 31 January 200...

6. Dear Mr. Scott,

7. Thank you for your letter of 20 January, explaining that the super widgets, catalogue reference X-3908, are no longer available but that ST-1432, made to the same specifications but using a slightly different alloy, are now available instead. Before I place a firm order 1 should like to see the samples of the new super widgets. If the replacement is as good as you say it is, I shall certainly wish to reinstate the original order, by placing an order for the new items.

8. Apart from anything else, I should prefer to continue to deal with Smith and Brown, whose service has always been satisfactory in the past. But you will understand that I must safeguard Widgetry's interests and make sure that the quality is good.

9. I would, therefore, be grateful if you could let me have a sample as soon as possible.

10. Yours sincerely,

11. John Brown 12. Simon Thomas

13. Production Manager

14. Enc.

Exercise 2. This second letter has been revised so many times by Mr. Thomas that it has become all mixed up, and his word processor has failed to reorganise it. Arrange the letter so that everything is in the right place. The first point in the letter is:

(1) Simon Thomas

(2) Widgetry Ltd.

(3) 6 Pine Estate, Westhortet, Bedfordshire, UB18 22BC

Telephone 9017 23456 Telex X238 W1D Fax 9017 67893

(4) I look forward to hearing from you

(5) Your ref. MS/WD/22/88

Our ref. JB/MS/48/88

(6) Yours sincerely

(7) James Bowers, Sales Manager

Electroscan Ltd.

Orchard Road Estate,

Oxbridge UR8410SP

(8) Production Manager

(9) Thank you for your letter. I am afraid that we have a problem with your

order.

(10) 6 June 200...

(11) Unfortunately, the manufacturers of the part you wish to order have

advised us that they cannot supply it until September. Would you prefer

us to supply a substitute, or would you rather wait until the original

parts are again available?

(12) Dear Mr. Bowers

Exercise 3. Translate into Russian

Most important means of communication; badly taped; poor-quality paper; old-fashioned letterhead; confidence; attention; image; layout of letters; semi blocked form; fully blocked form; handwritten letters; special order; principal parts; to be typed in full; the right hand side; to state below; to depend; formal relation; the rest of the letter; to indicate clearly; the subject of the letter; straight away; polite; the closing paragraph; future cooperation; the complimentary close; salutation; yours faithfully; yours sincerely.

Exercise 4. Translate into Еnglish

Остальная часть письма; справа; особый порядок; самое важное средство связи; с уважением (2 варианта); письмо, написанное от руки; расположение частей письма; бумага низкого качества; быть напечатанным полностью; основные части; предмет письма; четко указать; заключительная формула вежливости; зависеть; указать ниже; представление (об организации); внимание; плохо напечатанное письмо; официальные отношения; заключительный абзац; будущее сотрудничество; цельноблочный стиль письма; доверие; вежливый; устаревшая шапка на фирменном бланке; полувтянутый стиль письма.

Exercise 5. Answer the questions

1. What is the most important means of communication?

2. When may not the partner get confidence in your organization?

3. What are the most important aspects of letter writing?

4. How many forms of layout of letters do you know?

5. Where is the date typed?

6. What is "the inside address"?

7. What does the salutation of the letter depend on?

8. What should be written in the beginning of the letter?

9. How many subjects can the letter deal with?

10. What should be given in the end of the letter?

11. What does the complimentary close of the letter depend on?

12. What is the right order of signing the letter?

Exercise 6. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases

13. We are pleased to receive ...

14. We acknowledge (confirm) receipt of...

15. This is to acknowledge your letter dated Sept. 6 ...

16. It is (was) a great pleasure to receive your letter of...

17. This is to inform you that I have received your letter of...

18. I wish to thank you most sincerely for your kind letter ...

19. I very much appreciate having a reply from you ...

20. Thank you (Many thanks) for your prompt reply of Oct. 17

21. I am most grateful to you for ...

22. I confirm receipt of document...

23. I am in receipt of your letter...

24. I am grateful to you for ...

25. We are sending you herewith ...

26. I enclose herein ...

27. You will find enclosed ...

28. Attached to this letter you will find ...

29. I have the pleasure of sending you ...

30. This is to inform you ...

31. I am happy to supply you with ...

32. I am sending you under separate cover ...

Exercise 7. Translate into Еnglish

1. Уважаемый господин! Подтверждаю с благодарностью получение Вашего письма от 6 октября с. г. с приложенной к нему повесткой дня заседания Совета.

2. Уважаемый г-н Смит! Благодарю Вас за письмо от 27 ноября, из которого я узнал, что Вы также интересуетесь этой проблемой.

3. Я имею удовольствие сообщить Вам, что Ваш номер забронирован, и мы будем встречать Вас в аэропорту.

4. Я очень рад предоставить в Ваше распоряжение все данные по этому контракту.

5. Я имею удовольствие послать Вам приглашение на заседание Совета.

6. Посылаем Вам это письмо, чтобы сообщить, что заседание Совета состоится 26 ноября с. г.

7. Я очень рад снабдить Вас всеми необходимыми данными.

8. Мне бы хотелось сообщить Вам, что следующее заседание будет проходить в Москве.

9. С настоящим письмом посылаем Вам предварительную повестку дня.

10. Отдельным письмом высылаю Вам последний каталог.

11. С этим письмом высылаю Вам приглашение на заседание Совета, которое состоится в мае.

12. В этом письме Вы найдете протокол и повестку дня заседания Совета.

13. С нетерпением жду Вашего ответа.

Exercise 8. Complete the following letter using the correct word or phrase from the list below.

I would be grateful ...

Thank you for your help...

I look forward to hearing from ...

I am writing to confirm ...

Could you possibly ...?

Yours ... With reference to ...

Dear Mr. Hendrickson,

1. .... our telephone conversation today.

2. .... that I will be in Sweden from 11-14 June.

3. .... if you could arrange for me to visit the Technical Department in Stockholm. If possible, I would also like to meet Mr. Elmqvist.

4. .... also send me a list of any hotels near Head Office that you would recommend, and I will make the booking from here.

5. ....

6. ... you 7. .... sincerely

M.K. Vernon Exercise 9. Complete the reply using a word or phrase from the list below

I am afraid that ...

I would be delighted to ...

Please contact us again if ...

... sincerely Thank you for your letter of...

I look forward to meeting you ...

I am enclosing ...

I am writing to ...

Dear Mr. Vernon,

1 May 21. 2. give you details of the arrangements for your visit.

3. show you round the Technical Department when you arrive. I have arranged a visit for Monday June 12 at 11.00 am.

4. Mr. Elmqvist will not be here when you come, but his deputy, Mr. Karlsbad, will be pleased to meet you.

5. a list of hotels near Head Office. I would particularly recommend the Sheraton, which most of our visitors enjoy.

6. we can help in any way.

7. ___________in June.

8. Yours__________

K. Hendrickson

Exercise 10. Translate into Еnglish

1. Уважаемый господин Браун!

Большое спасибо за Ваше письмо от 20 июня с.г. Приношу свои извинения за задержку с ответом. Я недавно вернулся из отпуска, и у меня скопилось очень много работы.

Если Вы любезно согласитесь сообщить мне адрес, по которому я должен выслать материалы, я отправлю их незамедлительно.

Надеюсь, Вы извините меня за задержку с отправкой.

С нетерпением жду Вашего ответа.

Искренне Ваш

(подпись)

2. Уважаемые господа!

К сожалению, мы должны сообщить Вам, что мы не получили Вашего ответа на наше письмо от 13 сентября с.г. Мы были бы Вам очень признательны, если бы Вы разобрались с этим вопросом и сообщили нам об этом. Если, однако, Вы уже направили нам свой ответ, то мы приносим Вам свои извинения за причиненные неудобства. В этом случае не могли бы Вы выслать нам копию Вашего ответа?

Будем Вам признательны за сотрудничество.

С уважением

(подпись)

3. Уважаемые господа!

Большое спасибо за письмо с приглашением принять участие в конференции по техническому переоснащению предприятий, которая будет проходить в Техническом колледже 9 сентября с. г.

Мы действительно заинтересованы в участии в конференции и готовы предоставить на нее своего докладчика.

Просим сообщить нам более подробно о требованиях к участникам конференции и темы докладов.

С нетерпением ждем от Вас ответа.

С уважением

(подпись)

UNIT 11. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS

There are lots of different types of business letters. There are letters of information, invitation, congratulation, gratitude, apology, condolence, covering, enquiry, offer, order, request, guarantee, confirmation, notification, advice, complaint and claim.

Sending a letter of invitation first of all you are to remember that the invitation should be sent about two or three weeks before the event. You may choose the very formal way and write it as a friendly letter. The form of reply is determined by the form of invitation.

A letter of congratulation should be sent as soon as you get information about the event. In a letter of apology you apologize for your mistake, express your regrets and assure that it won't happen again.

A letter of condolence is the most difficult letter to write. It should be sent promptly and written with sincerity and restraint. Condolence is only written to those who knew the deceased personally.

A covering letter is sent out with contracts, specifications, catalogues, samples of goods. It gives additional information on the document, explains the purpose of sending the document.

When we need some samples of goods or reference materials, when we want to find out some terms and conditions of selling the goods we send an enquiry letter.

A letter-offer is the reply to an enquiry. If at the moment you are not ready to give a definite reply to the enquiry you should send an intermediate answer thanking for the letter received and stating when a detailed reply will be sent. If you can meet the requirements of the enquiry you should send your offer stating the name of the goods offered, their quantity and quality, the price, the delivery time, the terms of payment and other conditions.

An order is the reply to an offer. In the letter-order you should state clearly the name and the quantity of the goods ordered, the delivery date, marking and packing instructions, the sum of money paid.

A letter of guarantee certifies the high class of goods or materials used, reliability of machines and equipment, it states a definite period of time as the guarantee period.

A letter of complaint and claim deals with the delivery of wrong goods, damaged goods, goods not being according to the sample or description, delays in deliveries.

A reply to the letter of complaint should be started with an apology or an expression of regret. Then the circumstances, which caused the trouble, should be explained. Afterwards it should be stated what will be done to settle the matter. And finally the sender should explain what will be made to prevent the recurrence of such a kind of trouble and express his hope on beneficial mutual cooperation in the future.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Translate into Russian

Types of business letters; to remember; before the event; by a formal way; as soon as; to apologize for the mistake; to express one's regrets; to know personally; additional information; to explain the purpose; to find out; a definite reply; an intermediate answer; a detailed reply; to meet the requirements; to state; the terms of payment; the quantity; the sum of money; a definite period of time; wrong goods; according to the sample; a delay in delivery; to cause the trouble; to settle the matter; to prevent the reoccurrence; beneficial mutual cooperation.

Exercise 2. Translate into Еnglish

Указывать; выяснять; как только; официальным путем; определенный ответ; дополнительная информация; промежуточный ответ; в соответствии с образцом; задержка в поставке; выражать сожаление; виды деловых писем; отвечать требованиям; определенный период времени; условия платежа; количество; взаимовыгодное сотрудничество; объяснить цель; помнить; решить вопрос; до события; приносить извинения за допущенную ошибку; не допустить повторения; подробный ответ; знать лично; не те товары; сумма денег.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions

1. What types of business letters do you know?

2. What should you remember sending a letter of invitation?

3. What does the form of invitation depend on?

4. What is the form of reply determined by?

5. When should you send the letter of congratulation?

6. What should be written in a letter of apology?

7. What information does a covering letter contain?

8. What type of the letter do we send when we need some samples of goods or reference materials?

9. How is the reply to the enquiry called?

10. When do we send an intermediate answer on the enquiry?

11. What should be stated in a detailed reply on the enquiry?

12. What is an order?

13. What does a letter of guarantee certify?

14. What type of a business letter deals with the delivery of wrong goods?

15. What should be explained in a reply to the letter of complaint?

Exercise 4. Answer the additional questions

1. What word do we use to congratulate men and what word to Congratulate women?

2. What international abbreviations are widely used in business correspondence?

3. What's the role of E-mail in business correspondence?

Exercise 5. Writing - An Informal Letter

Fill each blank with the following words. Use each item once only.

As you know

Congratulations

Of course

Best wishes Thanks

Get on I'm sorry

Anyway In the end

Really busy

Let me know

Put you up Dear Pete,

a .................for your last letter. b ..............it's taken me so long to reply but I've been c moving into my new flat.d ..............on passing your driving test first time. Now all you have to do is save up for that Porsche you've always wanted - and the tax and insurance,e ......... ! f ...... I've just started a new job as the manager of the biggest video shop in town. I was a bit nervous on my first day when I had to meet the staff, but,g .....everything turned out all right and I think we're going to h ..............very well. I ...........the main reason I'm writing is to invite you to a party I'm having Saturday week. I do hope you can come. I've got a spare bed so I could j .......... for the night. I must stop now or I'll miss the last post. Please k ......if you can come so that I can give you all the details of how to get here. l ..... .

Exercise 6. Writing - A More Formal Letter

Use the words below to complete the letter. Use each item once only.

mentioned look forward to

with reference to

grateful

current issue

additional charge

however eligible for

package holidays

particularly interested

under what circumstances

send me information

Dear Sir or Madam,

a ...... your advertisement in the b .....of "Summer Holiday" magazine, could you please c .....about the holidays you offer in the United States? I am d ..... in your e ..... to California and Florida. In your advertisement you state that there are reduced prices for children but it is not clear f ..... these reductions can be obtained. We are a family of four, with two adults and two children, aged 10 and 16. Could you tell me whether my 16-year-old child would still be g ...... a reduction or if he is now classed as an adult? Your advertisement also h ...... that a free hire car was included in the holidays in the United States. i ...... there was no information about insurance. 1 would be j ....therefore, if you could inform me whether this is included or not. If it is not, I would like to know how much the k .....would be. I hope you will be able to answer my queries.

Il hearing from you. Yours faithfully,

UNIT 12. MEMORANDA. REPORTS

Memoranda (or memos for short) look very much like business letters. But they are not sent to people outside, it is business correspondence inside the organization. The paper on which they are written or typed is usually preprinted though a house-style for the layout is also used.

The top part of the sheet contains the following information: the name of addressee, the data, the name of the author, and the subject to be raised. The body of the memo is placed in the middle of the sheet. The bottom part of the sheet is left clean for answers or instructions of the recipient. So both question and answer appear on the same sheet of paper, it is very convenient for work.

If the memo is to be sent to several people, all their names should be indicated. Very often multiply copies are made for each recipient.

A circulation list can be attached to the memo and each reader will sign his name on the list to indicate that the memo has been read.

For writing the body of the memo all the principles of letter writing are applied: you have to plan everything you are going to write, you shouldn't use long or complicated sentences, explain everything short and clearly in words which will be easily understood by the reader.

But memos are not only reminders, sometimes they may be used for quite lengthy documents, even for informal reports.

Reports vary in length, layout of their parts and format. Standardised forms only exist for accident reports, progress reports or for reports on scientific investigation. Business report is a document considering the situation given or the problem raised. There are three main types of reports: recommendation reports, conclusion reports and information reports.

The main parts of the report are: the preliminary page, the introduction, the body of the report, the conclusion or recommendation.

The preliminary page usually consists of a title page with the title of the report, the name of the author and the date on its issue; and of contents indicating the heading and pages on which they are placed.

In your introduction you are to explain why the report is written and who may get useful information from it.

The body of the report gives all the relevant information, facts proving your point of view, new details of the matter.

In the conclusion of the report you may show advantages and disadvantages of some action and recommend the best solution of the matter.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Translate into Russian

People outside; pre-printed; house-style; the subject to be raised; is placed in the middle of the page; convenient; the name should be indicated; multiple copies; recipient; circulation list; to be attached; to be applied; complicated sentences; reminder; lengthy documents; informal reports; document considering the situation; standardized form; accident report; scientific investigation; preliminary page; introduction; conclusion; title page; the date of the issue of the report; contents; relevant information; facts providing; point of view; advantages; the best solution.

Exercise 2. Translate into Еnglish

Имя должно быть указано; сложные предложения; заключение; научные изыскания; памятка; многочисленные копии; люди, не работающие в данной организации; отчет о происшествии; точка зрения; документ, рассматривающий данную ситуацию; стандартная форма; свободный стиль; удобный; введение; тема, которая должна быть рассмотрена; титульный лист; преимущества; факты, доказывающие; дата написания отчета; предварительная страница отчета; размещается в центре листа; заранее подготовленная форма для докладной; получатель; быть применимым; неофициальные отчеты; содержание; информация, относящаяся к делу; обходной лист; быть прикрепленным; лучшее решение.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions

1. What do memoranda look like?

2. Whom are they sent to?

3. What types of paper are used for memos?

4. What does the top part of memo contain?

5. Where is the body of the memo placed?

6. Why is the bottom part of the memo left clean?

7. What should be done if the memo is sent to several people?

8. What document should be attached to the memo?

9. What principles are applied for writing the body of the memo?

10. What are business reports?

11. How many types of business reports are there?

12. What are reports' standardized forms applied to?

13. What are main parts of the report?

14. What does the preliminary page consist of?

15. What should you show in the conclusion of the report?

Exercise 4. Answer the additional questions

1. What's the difference between the memo and the report?

2. When is it necessary to number your recommendation in the report?

3. In what cases should you make acknowledgements in the report?

4. What is an appendix to the report?

5. In which cases it is necessary to have an appendix to your report?

Exercise 5. Underline and correct three errors in the following internal memo

MEMO Ref. Your enquiry on AGF Excavator

To have buy the machine would have been a mistake. We wanted that we were able to pay over three years. AGF would not permit us having this type of arrangement.

We regret that we had to pull out of the deal.

Exercise 6. A late delivery to a customer may have serious consequences for this company. Complete the following memo to the warehouse manager with an appropriate form of have, have got or get and make any necessary changes in word order

Memorandum To: PG

From: NS We .... a letter from our solicitor this morning. He says that he ..... the report about the claim but he ..... problems arranging a meeting to discuss the terms. Our customers are claiming that the delivery to France four weeks late. By that time they ..... not in touch with any chance to complete the project on time, so they their lawyers to cancel the shipment.

Unfortunanely, our solicitor ..... not ..... their letter until the beginning of the week. That's the reason why I need to ..... clarification of the claim.

Exercise 7. Complete the following memo by selecting an appropriate verb from the list below and adding the correct preposition

Prevent, spend, divide, provide, describe, help, limit, exclude, replace, welcome, inform, compare

MEMO

This memo is to ...... all members of the steering committee the details of the next international meeting. I shall ...... you ...... a list of tasks that need to be done. We will ...... a little time ...... finalising the schedule at our next internal meeting. Unfortunately, my trip to Japan will ...... me ...... taking part in the meeting.

I think we should ......the program for the day ...... three parts.

The first session is to ...... our foreign guests ...... the company and to...... our operations ...... them. As time is short, we will need to ...... this part

...... the essentials - of course without ...... any key personnel ...... the proceeding.

In the second part of the program, we should ...... our working practices ...... those in other companies. We have already made it clear that we intend to ...... some practices ...... more modern ones and this could be a fruitful area for discussion.

Finally, we will...... the participants ...... the more complex norms which are need.

Exercise 8. As companies become more and more international in their activities, they need to be able to move their employees to business units around the world. Below is a letter to employees about appraisal and relocation. Combine the first halves of the sentences with the phrases below to produce a memo to employees about the new appraisal system

MEMO

To: all Grade II

From: HR 1. We are writing to all employees

2. Over the last six months.................

3. We have now collated all the details.............................

4. This systematisation will enable all employees........................

5. We expect that this increased mobility will lead to benefits.........................

6. Of course we do not intend to relocate employees..........................

7. And that is why these appraisal interviews are crucial .........................

a. every time it suits the company's interests.

b. and every procedure has been systematised to produce a single homogeneous system.

c. because they will enable each of you to discuss your career objectives with your superiors.

d. to inform everyone about the new appraisal system.

e. to move easily between each of the company's overseas business units.

f. we have visited each of our subsidiaries to collect information about their procedures.

g. everywhere in the company.

Exercise 9. A team of seismologists and civil engineers visits the site of a major road bridge, damaged in an earthquake. Together they produce a report on the likelihood of further damage being sustained by the bridge and on the repair operation.

Read the report. Underline 7 expressions of likelihood. Then complete the brief memo to your Head Office outlining the main points in the report. Include comment on the likelihood for the 7 points in the report. Use different expressions to those in the report. Here is an outline for your memo.

Azir Bridge: Earthquake damage - Preliminary Report

Risk of further quakes in the area

The area concerned is very prone to earth tremors and two major earthquakes (more than 5 on the Richter scale) had been reported in the last thirty years before the recent one. It is therefore quite likely that another quake will affect the area in the next twenty years. It is difficult to predict the time of such a quake. However, the history of the area suggests a future earthquake of more than .7 on the Richter scale is highly improbable. However, small tremors of less than 2.5 are considered practically certain.

Present condition of the Azir Bridge

The bridge sustained serious structural damage in the recent earthquake. Any further tremor in the next few days, including one as low as 2.5 on the Richter scale, is bound to result in further damage, and the bridge might actually collapse.

Recommendations

It is advised that the bridge be demolished and replaced. This is sure to last over 15 months. Present cost estimates would certainly top S30 million.

MEMO To: Head Office

Re: Azir Bridge Earthquake

1. Further quakes and / or tremors

2. Present condition

3. Recommendations

Exercise 10. Read the following dialogue. Then write a short memo to a colleague telling her what you have discussed

A: A problem has arisen over the travel arrangements to Switzerland.

B: Really? What's that?

A: The airline has raised its fares by 20 per cent so we're above the budget agreed.

B: Really? Well the problem lies in the budget being too small! We have rising costs and a budget that hasn't been raised in two years.

A: Could you get authorisation for the increased cost?

B: I'll send the Finance Department the details. I'll call you later.

MEMO To: Finance Department

Re: Trip to Switzerland

UNIT 13. OFFICE DOCUMENTATION

Every business meeting is supplied with standard written documentation. All those papers will probably differ very little in various organizations. All the documents should be prepared beforehand to inform participants about the agenda of the meeting. It will help to save time at discussions and avoid unnecessary explanations. There are basic documents we are to prepare for the meeting: the notice,; the agenda, the minutes and meeting reports. The notice is prepared to inform people when and where the meeting will take place. If the notice is sent outside the organization it should be done about two weeks before the meeting and be sent to everyone whose presence is needed. If the date was fixed at the previous meeting then the reminder notice may be sent a week before the meeting. Inside the organization many meetings are held at a short notice. Each notice should contain the following information: the name of the organization, the place of the meeting, the date and the time of the meeting, the date of the notice and the signature of the person convening the meeting. The agenda is the programme of items to be discussed at the meeting in the order in which they will be taken. The order of items is very important. Urgent matters should be introduced earlier. Controversial items, which need long discussions, should be pushed to the end of the meeting. The agenda shouldn't be overloaded with more items than can be covered in the time available. Try to avoid meaningless headings for the agenda, it may lead to misinterpreting them and makes participants prepare themselves to talk on wrong subjects. Sometimes supplementary documents, agenda papers are needed for participants of the meeting. If participants are able to prepare for discussions, the decision-making at the meeting may be speeded up. The minutes must be short but give sufficient information to enable someone not present at the meeting to understand fully what took place. They must be written in complete sentences and produce the whole contents of the meeting and a logical account of every speech.

Meeting reports are usually much shorter than minutes. They are often used for display on a bulletin board. The meeting report should have clear heading and indicate the names of people having reported.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Translate into Russian

To be supplied with; written documentation; to be prepared beforehand; participants; the agenda of the meeting; to avoid unnecessary explanations; minutes; to take place; outside the organization; whose presence is needed; the date is fixed; the previous meeting; the reminder notice; inside of the organization; contain; the person convening the meeting; items to be discussed; the order in which they will be taken; urgent matters; to be introduced earlier; controversial items; to be pushed to the end; to be overloaded; the time available; meaningless headings; misinterpreting; wrong subjects; supplementary documents; agenda papers; decision-making discussion; the meeting will be speeded; sufficient information; understand fully; in complete sentences; produce the whole contents; logical account; display on a bulletin board; indicate the names of people reported.

Exercise 2. Translate into Еnglish

Быть перегруженным; быть представленным ранее; вопросы, которые должны быть обсуждены; внутри организации; чье присутствие необходимо; повестка собрания; предыдущее собрание; порядок, в котором они будут обсуждаться; лицо, созывающее собрание; срочные вопросы; дата установлена; предложения, написанные полностью; имеющееся время; вывесить на доске объявлений; указать имена выступавших; понять полностью; ничего не значащие заголовки; быть подготовленным заранее; обеспечиваться чем-либо; логический отчет; участники; ненужные объяснения; обсуждения, связанные с принятием решений; протокол собрания; записка-напоминание; вне организации; содержать; проводиться; спорные вопросы; быть перегруженным; продвигать к концу; неправильное толкование.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

1. What should every business meeting be supplied with?

2. When are all the documents for the meeting to be prepared?

3. What are the basic meeting documents?

4. What is the purpose of preparing the notice?

5. When should the notice be sent to people outside the organization?

6. When may the reminder notice be sent?

7. What information should the notice contain?

8. What is the agenda of the meeting?

9. When should urgent matters be introduced?

10. What may meaningless headings lead to?

11. What is minutes?

12. How must minutes be written?

13. What's the difference between minutes and meeting reports?

Exercise 4. Answer the additional questions.

Can you describe the correct procedure for calling a meeting?

What types of meetings do you know?

How is the meeting of the UNO called?

Exercise 5. Thomas and Maria have to arrange a meeting. Rewrite the underlined phrases using the words in brackets. Do not change the original meaning

T: Can we fix a meeting soon?

M: Yes, when do you want to meet? (like / meet)

T: I think early next month, (rather / be)

M: Hmm. I think that should be okay, but it would be better for me on Monday, (prefer)

T: That's no problem. Now, where? Where's best for you? Your office or mine? (prefer)

M: If possible, in a beautiful holiday resort, Bermuda for example! (rather / meet)

T: Yes, Bermuda's great. But my choice is your office, (like / come) You have better coffee (prefer). Also, I always enjoy going to that French restaurant round the corner (like/go).

Exercise 6. Look at the messages in notes A, B.

A MEMORANDUM To: Penny Klapp Date: 1st May

Tim Hodges

Cc: Lara Thatcher

From: Howard Colley

Re: Planning Meeting

В

MEMO To: All staff

From: James Wilton

Subject: Stuff Meeting

I hope you're all feeling relaxed after your holiday! We'll have a meeting tomorrow at 2 p.m. to talk about new projects. I'm afraid it probably won't end untill about 6 p.m. so will you try to be late?!

a) What is the short form of memorandum ?

b) Is Lara invited to the planning meeting? What does "cc" mean?

c) Which two words introduce the reasons for the notes?

d) Which message is friendlier and less formal? How do you know?

e) Are the notes about past or future meetings? Which words and phrases tell us this?

Exercise 7. During a meeting to discuss the breach of a contract by a supplier, Arco Metal. The following suggestions were made

John Smith: We ought to get our Legal Department to examine exactly how they are breaking the terms of the contract.

Carla Viraggio: We should ask Arco for a meeting to discuss ways to resolve the problem.

Tom Henson: I think you should get independent legal advice.

Meeting conclusion: No decision yet. Meet again on Monday.

Complete the note below to a colleague who missed the meeting because of a trip abroad. Report the three suggestions and the conclusion. Use the verbs below

recommend suggest

advise

agree CONFIDENTIAL MEMORANDUM

To: HF From: JS

Re: Arco Metal - Contract dispute

Since you will be away for a few more days, I thought 1 would give you an update on the above problem. At a recent meeting, three suggestions were made:

John Smith ...........................

Carla V. ................................____________________________________

Finally, Tom H. .....................

In conclusion, it .....................

Look forward to hearing your views.

Best wishes. Exercise 8. Read the following extract from a Chairman's speech to a shareholder's annual General meeting. Fill in the spaces with appropriate adverbs. The first letter of each one is already given

___________share price ------------

capital investment fund .............

"The continued rise in our share price has been v............. beneficial to the Board, enabling us to raise money for further capital investment. This has been e............useful, giving us a better basis for future growth. The stock market has noticed our h.................prudent investment policies. And consequently, investors have felt q..................confident about our ability to give a good return on their investments. All of this proves that we are r....................justified in expecting further success in the future".

Exercise 9. Read the following extract from a report of the meeting. Fill in the spaces with the right form of the verb in brackets

MEETING REPORT

Meeting: 12 March 200.., Paris

Subject: Distribution channels

Participants: FD, HF, GF, TR, SA, MF

Summary

The preferred route for ...... (ship) our products to Europe is by air from Tokyo to London. We have successfully used this route for seven years. ...... (use) alternative routes in the past would have required more complicated distribution arrangements. Until now, our European distribution operations have centred on the UK. ...... (change) this does not seem appropriate at the moment, but we can .........(look at) alternatives. It is certainly worth ...... (find out) the costs of ......(open) a new distribution centre in southern Europe. We agreed ...... (set up) a committee............(investigate).

UNIT 14. BUSINESS TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS

Telephone is the most popular way of communication nowadays. But sometimes we are wasting too much working time discussing on the phone unnecessary details of a business problem. It happens because so much of our business talking is casual and spontaneous. We should recognize that planning and preparation can be applicable to this area of communication.

There are two types of phone calls: outgoing calls and incoming calls. Planning outgoing phone calls is simple and takes little time. Yet you can save much of the actual speaking time and thus much of the cost of calls. All that you should do is to note very briefly, in order, the items to be discussed during the call and have all relevant papers to hand before making the call. Dealing with incoming calls try to answer calls as prompt as possible. Take all message fully and correctly, in writing. It ensures you that relevant information is no forgotten.

Speaking on the phone be polite, never use slang or jargon. Exercise self control when a caller is annoyed or impatient. Say everything distinctly; use the name of the caller. Whether you don't have relevant information in hand a the moment give a caller the chance to ring back rather than wait. If you don't understand or hear your person properly, say: "Sorry, I didn't catch that" or "Sorry?" You have to remember that it's not polite to say: "Please, repeat!"

Before saying that the person is out, first ask: "Who is speaking?" and after the answer ask: "Are there any messages?" Calling across the room to someone, who is wanted on the telephone never cover the mouthpiece.

Speaking business on the phone never lose your temper.

EXERCISES Exercise 1. Translate into Russian

Popular way of communication; to waste working time; unnecessary details of a business problem; business talking; casual; spontaneous; can be applicable to this area; outgoing calls; incoming calls; to take little time; thus; the cost of the call; briefly; the items to be discussed; relevant papers; in hand; to make a call; as prompt as possible; to take a message; it ensures you; self-control; annoyed; inpatient; to say distinctly; to hear properly; polite; to be out; calling across the room; to cover the mouthpiece; to lose temper.

Exercise 2. Translate into Еnglish

Таким образом; это даст Вам уверенность; как можно скорее; самоконтроль; входящие звонки; относящиеся к делу бумаги; может быть применимо к этой области; случайность; нетерпеливый; досаждающий; принять сообщение; не быть на месте; говорить четко, кратко; занимать мало времени; спонтанный; тратить впустую рабочее время; деловые разговоры; выходить из себя; звать кого-либо из присутствующих; ненужные подробности; распространенный способ общения; прикрывать рукой телефонную трубку; в руках; вопросы, которые должны быть обсуждены; исходящие звонки; стоимость телефонного разговора.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions

1. Why is the telephone the most popular way of communication?

2. Why do we often waste our working time speaking on the phone?

3. What should be done to save the time at telephone conversations?

4. What types of phone calls do you know?

5. What does planning of outgoing calls include?

6. What should you do dealing with incoming calls?

7. What are behavior patterns at business telephone conversations?

8. What should you say if you didn't understand the person properly?

9. What should you say if the person wanted on the phone is out?

10. As that very polite to cover the mouthpiece?

Exercise 4. Answer the additional questions

1. What does "collect calling" mean?

2. What is the number of emergency service in Britain? In America?

3. What's the English for "сотовый телефон"?

Exercise 5. Choose the correct words in italics to complete the telephone conversation

A: Fenton Engineering.

B: Number /Extension 473, please.

A: I'm afraid the line's broken /engaged. Will you hold?

B: Yes. A: The line's free now. I'll put / connect you through.

B: Thank you.

C: Paint shop. B: I'd like to speak to Mrs. Isaacs.

C: Who' s / Whose calling, please?

B: Jacques Duval.

C: Wait / Hold on, Mr. Duval. I'll bring /get her.

C: I'm afraid /regret she's in a meeting. Do you want to call up / back later?

B: No, it's urgent. Could you leave /take a message?

C: Yes, I will / of course.

B: Must / Could you ask her to call me back?

C: Does she have your number?

B: No. It's Paris - the code /area is 00 331, then the number is 46 58 93 94. Could you sav / read that back to me? C: 0033146589394.'

B: That's right.

C: Anything / What else?

B: No, that's anything /all. Thank you very much.

C: You're welcome / fine.

B: Goodbye. Exercise 6. Match these comments to their replies

1. 1. Sorry, could you spell that? a. Yes, it's 0181 432 9191.

2. Could I speak to Mrs Fencon, please? b. That's OK. I'll hold.

3. Could you take a message? с I'll call back next week, then.

4. I'm afraid the line's busy at

the moment. d. Speaking.

5. I'm sorry but he's away this week. e. Yes of course. I'll get a pen.

6. Could you repeat that? f. Yes, it's M-E-E-U-W-S.

Exercise 7. Number this jumbled conversation in the correct order.

-I'll sign them this afternoon and send them back to you.

- Hello. My name's Beata Szlachetka. I'd like to speak to Kate Chapman please.

-Good morning. IKI Industries. How may I help you?

-Hold the line, please. I'll see if she's in.

-Great. Thanks a lot.

-(pause) Hello. Kate Chapman speaking.

-Beata Szlachetka and I'd like to speak to Kate Chapman.

-Hello, this is Beata.

-Sorry. I didn't quite catch that.

-Hi, Beata. How are you doing?

-OK. Busy as usual.

-Fine, thanks. And you?

-Yeah, they came this morning but I haven't signed them yet.

-I'm just ringing to find out if you've received the copies of the contract.

-OK, there's no rush.

Exercise 8. Complete this UNIT about a telephonist's job with the correct form of nouns and verbs

I work on the a .... so I answer all the calls that come in.

When the phone b .... I answer it and I say "Hello, Worldwide Limited. Can I help you?". The person on the other end c .... somebody in the company and I try to d.... them. The company closes at about six in the evening, but we leave the e .... on all night and at weekends. I listen to the f .... when I arrive in the morning.

Exercise 9. Write what a secretary says:

a) if the caller wants to leave a message.

b) if the boss is out at the moment.

c) if the caller is to wait.

d) if the caller wants someone to call him back.

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