Всё для Учёбы — студенческий файлообменник
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Студенческий документ № 055161 из МПГУ (бывш. МГПИ им. Ленина) (до 2015)

УДК 811.111(075.8)

ББК 81.2Англ-923 А64

Авторы: Е. Ф. Абрамчик, Л. А. Козел,

В. Н. Поваляева, Л. П. Турляй

Утверждено на заседании

кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов

23 сентября 2009 г., протокол № 2

Рецензенты:

зав. кафедрой второго иностранного языка

(английского) МГЛУ, доцент П. А. Эльман; доцент кафедры английского языка

гуманитарных факультетов БГУ С. В. Воробьева

Английский язык : итоговые тесты для студентов ист. фак. БГУ =

А64 English for History Students. Achievement Tests / Е. Ф. Амбрам чик [и др.]. - Минск : БГУ, 2010. - 87 с.

ISBN 978-985-518-386-1.

Итоговые тесты - часть учебно-методического ком плекса по английскому языку для студентов исторических специальностей. Включены текущие и итоговые задания для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов.

Предназначено для оценки приобретенных студентами знаний и компетенций по английскому языку.

УДК 811.111(075.8)

ББК 81.2Англ-923

ISBN 978-985-518-386-1 (c) БГУ, 2010

I?AAENEIAEA Cборник тестов - один из компонентов учебно-методического комплекса по английскому языку для студентов исторического факультета. Наряду с базовым учебным пособием профессионально ориентированного характера, терми но логическим словарем, практикумом для контролируемой самостоятельной работы, а также методическими рекомендациями для преподавателей итоговые тесты входят в число обязательных элементов УМК.

Цель данного пособия - повторение и систематизация знаний английского языка. Пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями "Программы по английскому языку для студентов высших учебных заведений неязыковых специальностей". Грамматика представлена в виде специально разработанных авторами тестов. Упражнения построены на терминологической лексике, что обеспечивает более высокий уровень овладения материалом.

Некоторые тестовые задания составлены на основе множественного выбора ( четыре предлагаемых варианта ответов (A, B, C, D ) с одним возможным правильным ответом.

Некоторые упражнения представлены небольшими связными текстами с пропусками.

Тесты "Find a Mistake" - это предложения, в которых подчеркнуты отдельные фрагменты( слова или фразы, отмеченные A, B, C, D), один из которых содержит ошибку. Студенты должны определить ошибку и исправить предложение.

В конце пособия имеются ключи, которые помогут проверить правильность ответов и устранить пробелы в знаниях перед экзаменом.

Авторы предлагают рациональную методику выполнения тестов. Суть методики заключается в следующем:

1. Из четырех предлагаемых ответов два составлены заведомо неправильно, поэтому они отбрасываются и внимание сосредотачивается на двух оставшихся.

2. Необходимо обращать внимание на слова, стоящие до и после пропуска. Они помогут определить нужную форму: например, герундий или инфинитив, предлог, сослагательное наклонение и т. д.

3. Если в предложении имеется несколько пропусков, необходимо проверить правильность подстановки всех вариантов. Может оказаться так, что из трех пропусков первые два заполнены правильно, а последний ошибочный, поэтому необходимо быть как можно внимательнее.

4. Если ответ несколько раз изменялся, а неуверенность в варианте остается, целесообразней остановиться на первом, пришедшем в голову, варианте. Согласно статистике, именно он, вероятнее всего, и есть правильный ответ.

5. Нельзя тратить слишком много времени на одно предложение, следует переходить к следующему. Можно вернуться к нерешенному варианту позже.

Успехов Вам!

Part I FIRST STEPS TOWARD CIVILIZATION

Test 1 A CULTURE. THE EARLIEST CULTURES

A culture consists of the bahaviours, beliefs, customs, and attitudes of a group of people. It is refl ected in the artwork, the literature, the language, the inventions, and traditions of the people. It is affected by the geography and climate where people live.

We have benefi ted from the accomplishments of human cultures reaching back millions of years.

The fi rst human cultures began developing about two million years ago. One of the fi rst accomplishments of these cultures was learning to make and use crude stone tools. With simple tools such as sharp-edged rocks, people could hunt animals for food. They also learned to work together to go after large animals. These groups of people then developed rules of behavior for members to obey.

A second important accomplishment of early cultures was learning to farm. About 9000 B.C., people in some parts of the world began to settle down in one place for long periods and produce their own food. Once farmers could produce enough crops to feed other people, some people had time to develop other skills, such as pottery making or weaving.

Another important development was the rise of cities in some parts of the world beginning about 3500 B.C. As larger groups of people gathered together in cities, more opportunities for specialized workers, such as builders, bakers, and artists were created. In addition city life resulted in the need for more extensive systems of government. And bringing people together also meant a greater exchange of ideas.

Changes in Cultures

What causes cultures to change? New ideas and inventions often lead people to develop new ways of doing things. For example, the invention of

writing systems allowed people to record their thoughts and discoveries and to communicate them to other people.

Changes in the environment also cause cultures to change. Over time, the climate in an area can change. Also, natural disasters such as fl oods and earthquakes can alter the landscape. People must then move or learn to adjust to new living conditions.

Another major source of change is contact with other cultures. When people from different cultures meet, they are exposed to the ways of life of each culture.

Cultures change from within as well. Factors such as population growth and confl icts between groups within a culture can bring about new ways of doing things.

Whenever different cultures come in contact, they exchange goods and ideas. This process is what is known as cultural diffusion, and it is one way that ideas have spread from one area of the world to another.

Some historians believe developments in writing, art, architecture, and agriculture from a few areas spread throughout the world through cultural diffusion. Others argue that individual cultures developed similar ideas independently of one another.

Task 1. Find in the text words or word-combinations close in meaning to:

skill that can be learnt; to hunt; instrument held in the hand and used for working on smth; to adopt a more stable or quiet way of life; to cause smth. to happen; in the natural state, rough; write down facts or events for later use; to become or make suited to smth. new.

Task 2. Denote the following phrases by a single word:

sudden violent movement of the earth's surface; do what one is told or obliged to do; large in area; become different, change in character, position, size; art and science of designing and constructing buildings.

Task 3. Check the knowledge of your vocabulary on the text by giving the English equivalents:

отобрать в произведениях искусства; правила поведения; гончарное

ремесло и ткачество; возникновение городов; более широкая система правления; записывать мысли и открытия; изменить ландшафт; распространяться по всему миру.

Task 4. After reading the text choose the correct answer:

1. A culture ... of the behaviours, belief and customs of a group of people.a) alters

b) denotes c) consists

d) changes 2. The fi rst human cultures began developing ...

a) about two hundred years ago

b) about two million years ago

c) about two thousand years ago

d) about ten hundred years ago

3. A second important accomplishment of early cultures was ... .

a) developing the rules of behaviour

b) exchanging goods and ideas

c) learning to farm

d) more extensive systems of government

4. Changes in the environment also ... cultures to change.

a) make b) prevent

c) develop d) cause

5. Population growth and confl icts between groups within a culture can ... . a) bring about

b) accomplish

c) benefi t d) allow

Task 5. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage with one suitable word.

We do not know how art began any more than we know how language started. If we take art to mean (1) ... activities as building temples and houses, making pictures and sculptures, (2) ... weaving patterns, there are (3) ... people in all the world without ar. If, on the other (4) ..., we mean by art some kind of beautiful luxury, we must realize that (5) ... use of the word is a very recent development and that many of the (6) ... artists of the past never (7) ... of it. We can best understand this difference if we think of architecture. We all (8) ... that there are beautiful buildings and that some of them are true (9) ... of art. But there is (10) ... any building (11) ... the world which was not erected (12) ... a particular purpose. Those (13) ... use these buildings as

(14) ... of worship or entertainment, or as dwellings, judge them (15) ... and foremost by the standards of utility. But (16) ... from this, they may like or (17) ... the design or the proportion of the structure. In the (18) ... the attitude to paintings and statues was often similar. We are not (19) ... to understand the art of the past if we are quite ignorant of the (20) ... it had to serve.

1 a) these b) such c) as d) so 2 a) and b) both c) those d) such 3 a) many b) some c) few d) much 4 a) hand b) foot c) step d) measure 5 a) this b) what c) which d) how 6 a) skilled b) living c) greatest d) certain 7 a) consisted b) thought c) changed d) developed 8 a) know b) record c) adjust d) expose 9 a) buildings b) units c) works d) activities 10 a) no b) hardly c) fi nally d) mostly 11 a) in b) on c) after d) out 12 a) against b) on c) for d) in 13 a) that b) who c) why d) some 14 a) varieties b) ways c) sources d) places 15 a) fi rst b) second c) third d) fourth 16 a) besides b) apart c) except d) nevertheless 17 a) admire b) fond c) dislike d) hate 18 a) country b) future c) end d) past 19 a) ready b) willing c) lucky d) happy 20. a) attitudes b) advantage c) aims d) efforts Task 6. Complete the sentences using a, an, some or any.

1. Did they give you ... information?

2. Basil sent me ... postcard from Brest.

3. I'd like ... kilo of cherries, please.

4. She has had ... bad news.

5. She says she can't give us ...advise. She's never been to London.

6. Have ... more coffee. There's enough for both of us.

7. Can you believe it? The supermarket didn't have ... vegetables!

8. Pete's got ... money for you.

9. My uncle has so much money. I wish hid give me ... as I never seem to have...

10. We haven't got ... milk. Pop out and get ..., would you, please?

Task 7. Complete the sentences with many or much, a little or a few.

1. I bought too ... furniture for my apartment.

2. She is wearing too ... rings on her left hand.

3. I can't go to a movie tonight. I have too ... homework to do.

4. We all need ... help at times.

5. He asked ... questions.

6. Sam's writing is wordy. He uses too ... words when he writes.

7. The teacher asked us to learn too ... new vocabulary. I couldn't remember all the new words.

8. Please, give me... more minutes.

9. Ann opened the curtains to let in ... light from outdoors.

10. Let's listen to ... music during dinner.

Test 2 ALPHABET. THE GREEK ALPHABET

Alphabet is the series of letters used in writing a language. The name means exactly what the term ABC's means as a name for the 26 letters of the alphabet. The word comes from alpha and beta, the fi rst two letters of the Greek alphabet. Most books, magazines, and newspapers are printed in the 26-letter alphabet called Roman. But the Romans did not invent it. They put fi nishing touches on a system that had been growing for thousands of years.

The Greeks came in contact with Phoenician traders, and learned form them the idea of writing individual sounds of the language. Sometime during the period before 800 B.C., they borrowed Phoenician symbols and modifi ed them to form the Greek alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet included more consonants than the Greeks needed for their language, so they used the extra signs for vowel sounds. In this way Greeks improved on both Phoenician and Cypriot ideas because they could combine individual letters for both consonants and vowels to spell any word they wanted.

The Greeks took over the Phoenician names for their signs, and in most cases the signs themselves. The fi rst letter of the Phoenician alphabet,, and its name, aleph, meaning ox, became A, or alpha in Greek. The second letter,

, or beth, meaning house, became B, or beta in Greek. The Greeks later modifi ed the shapes of these letters, adding and dropping some letters, to form the 24-letter Greek alphabet of today.

Task 1. Find in the text words or word combinations close in meaning to:

to complete, to have one's origins in; to produce smth better than; to

accept, to adjust, to name or write the letters of a word.

Task 2. Denote the following phrases by a single word.

the series of letters used in writing a language; a sign representing a sound of which words in writing are formed; speech sound produced by a complete stoppage of the breath; vocal sound made without stopping of the breath; symbol used to represent smth.

Task 3. Check the knowledge of your vocabulary on the text by giving the English equivalents to the following word combinations:

ряд букв; происходить; первые две буквы греческого алфавита; за-

кончить систему; они заимствовали финикийские знаки; видоизменили форму букв; как гласные, так и согласные звуки; греки усовершенствовали; сказать или написать слово по буквам.

Task 4. After reading the text choose the correct answer:

1. Alphabet is ... used in writing a language.

a) consonants and vowels;

b) the series of letters;

c) a herd of 15 animals;

d) a system of several hundred signs.

2. The word alphabet comes from alpha and beta, ...

a) the fi rst two signs of the Egyptian alphabet;

b) the fi rst two signs of the Greek alphabet;

c) the fi rst two symbols of the Phoenicians.

d) the fi rst two letters of the Russian Alphabet.

3. The Romans ... a system that had been growing for thousands of years. a) modifi ed;

b) improved on;

c) put fi nishing touches on;

d) borrowed. 4. The Greeks took over ... for their signs.

a) the Egyptians signs;

b) the Phoenician names;

c) the Etruscan Alphabet;

d) capital letters.

5. The Greeks later modifi ed the shapes of these letters ... to form the 24-letter alphabet of today.

a) using the extra signs for vowel sounds;

b) including more consonants;

c) adding and dropping some letters;

d) combining individual letters.

Task 5. Open the brackets. Use the correct voice and tense-forms.

An old man (1. enter) the forum. His clothing (2. cover) with fi lth, and his pale and emaciated condition (3. shock). When he (4. ask) the cause of his wretched condition he (5. declare) to all that while he (6. fi ght) in the Sabine War all his property (7. burn), the crops in his fi elds (8. devastate), his fl ocks (9. drive) off; and when a special emergency tax (10. exact) be (11. drive) into debt. As this debt (12. accumulate) with excessive interest rates, it first (13. deprive) him of his farm then of the rest of his belongings. He (14. drag) by his creditor not just into slavery, but into a place of punishment and torture.

Task 6. Use the adjectives in the proper degree. Mind the defi nite article where necessary.

1. His father, Philip, had hired Aristotle, one of Greece's (great) philosophers, to teach Alexander about literature, philosophy, and science.

2. This library in Alexandria, which grew into (large) library in the ancient world, had a collection of both Greek and non-Greek scrolls.

3. (noticeable) feature of Greek architecture is the use of columns to support the roof.

4. The Greeks also wrote a (short) form of poetry called lyric poetry.

5. One of (great) Greek lyric poets was Sappho.

6. Perhaps (great) contribution of Greek literature was Greek theatre.

7. One of (popular) Greek writers of biting comedies was Aristophanes who often made fun of (important) people in his plays.

8. The Greeks showed the human body in a way that is both (beautiful) and without fl aws.

9. The (great) historian of the 400s B.C., Thucydides, took history a step (far) when he wrote an account of the Peloponnesian War.

10. A barbarian was someone the Romans believed was (refi ned) or had (low) social and cultural standards.

11. As the barbarians continued to move into the empire, the barbarians became a (direct) threat.

12. Diocletian wanted to make government (effective) and (effi cient) and to keep the economy (stable).

Test 3 THE ROMAN ALPHABET

The Etruscans moved to central Italy from somewhere in the eastern Mediterranean region sometime after 1000 B.C. They carried the Greek alphabet with them. The Romans learned the alphabet from the Etruscans, and gave it much the same form we use today. The early Roman alphabet had about 20 letters, and gradually gained 3 more.

Capital letters were the only forms used for hundreds of years. Many people consider the Roman alphabet to have been perfected by A.D. 114. That year, sculptors carved the inscriptions on a memorial column built to honor the emperor Trojan. The style of lettering they used is considered one of the most beautiful in the world.

Carving letters in stone is not an easy job, and Roman stonecutters rounded or squared, simplifi ed, and polished their letters. They developed the beautiful thick-and-thin strokes we use today. They also added serifs (little fi nishing strokes) at the tops and bottoms of many letters. The practical reason for serifs was that the carvers found it diffi cult to end wide strokes without ugly blunt lines. And if a chisel slipped while squaring off an end, they could not erase the mistake. But serifs also added a touch of strength and grace to Roman lettering, and are still used today.

Small letters gradually developed from capitals. Scribes who copied books often used uncials (rounded letters) that were easier to form than some capitals. True lower-case letters developed later, when scribes saved space in books by using the smaller letters.

Task 1. Find in the text words or word combinations close in meaning to: to obtain smth wanted or needed; to complete; to respect highly; to make easy to do or understand; to rub or scrape out; to remove; to form smth by cutting away material from a piece of wood or stone.

Task 2. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms:

capital letters, to perfect, to honour, to simplify, thick, top, ugly, diffi cult, strength, easy, bottom, thin, beautiful, small letters, to begin, to dishonour, to complicate, weakness.

Task 3. Denote the following phrases by a single word. Choose the appropriate word from those listed below:

An artist who wakes representations in stone, wood, metal by carving or modeling; words cut on a stone or on a monument, or stamped on a coin or metal; a person who cuts stones; little fi nishing strokes; a person who carves; rounded letters; a professional letter-writer; a person, who before the invention of printing, made copies of writings; a steel tool for shaping wood, stone or metal.

_______________________________________________________________

A sculptor, uncials, a scribe, a chisel, inscriptions, a stonecutter, serifs, a carver.

Task 4. Check the knowledge of your vocabulary on the text by giving the English equivalents to the following word combinations:

создали его в том виде, в котором мы используем его сейчас; пропис-

ные буквы; алфавит был закончен к 114 году нашей эры; стиль написания букв; каменотес; округляли или придавали прямоугольную форму; они разработали тонкие и длинные штрихи; уродливые тупые линии; резец; подчистить (подправить) ошибку; строчная буква; писец; отделение со строчными литерами; экономить место.

Task 5. After reading the text choose the correct answer:

1. The Romans learned the alphabet from the Etruscans and ... .

a) modifi ed the shapes of letters;

b) gave it much the same form we use today;

c) added fi ve new letters;

d) perfected it.

2. The early Roman alphabet had ... and gradually gained 3 more.

a) about 20 letters;

b) a system of 22 signs;

c) about 26 letters;

d) symbols for sounds.

3. ... were the only forms used for hundreds of years.

a) Small letters;

b) Capital letters;

c) Capital and small letters;

d) A picture writing.

4. Many people consider the Roman alphabet... A.D. 114.

a) to have been developed;

b) to have been perfected;

c) to have been simplifi ed;

d) to have been rounded.

a) 3 more letters;

b) a touch of strength and grace.

5. Small letters gradually developed from ... .

a) symbols;

b) signs; c) capitals;

d) pictures. Task 6. Read the text below and decide what part of speech in A, B, C or D best fi ts each gap in the sentences:

In 332 BC Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, (1) ____ Egypt. In 305 BC Alexander's general Ptolemy became king of Egypt, and for almost 300 years his (2) ____, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt. Although Ptolemy was Macedonian by birth and the Ptolemies remained (3) ____ to Greek culture, they were (4) ____ for one of the greatest periods of building and decorating temples in Egypt. The Ptolemies did so to win (5) ____ for their rule from their Egyptian (6) ____. The Ptolemaic dynasty ended when Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, (7) ____ suicide after the Romans (8) ____ her forces at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The Roman victory marked the end of ancient Egypt as a/an (9) ____ power.

1 A. conquered B. conquer C. conquering D. conquest 2 A. descend

B. descending C. descendible

D. descendants 3 A. ties

B. tied C. tier D. tiring 4 A. responsible

B. responsibly C. responsibility D. responsive 5 A. accept

B. accepted C. acceptance

D. acceptability 6 A. subjects

B. subjective C. subjacent

D. subjectify 7 A. commitment B. committed C. committing D. committal 8 A. defeatism B. defeat C. defeating D. defeated 9 A. depend

B. independence C. independent D. depending Task 7. After reading the text, choose the correct tense-form (active or passive):

According to a Greek legend, the Olympic Games (1) _____ by Hercules, son of Zeus, in honour of his father. The fi rst Olympic Games about which we have information (2) ____ in 776 BC on the plain of Olympia. Games (3) _____ place before this date but (4) _____ mainly of chariot races. The ancient Greeks thought the Games (5) _____ important that they (6) _____ time by the interval between them. A period of four years (7) _____ to as Olympiad. The Games also (8) _____ the Greek ideal of physical fi tness and beauty, which they (9) _____ as important as the development of the mind. Nothing, not even war, (10) _____ to interfere with the Games. They (11) _____ continually every four years for more than 1000 years until their abolishment by the Romans in AD 394.

At the end of the nineteenth century, a Frenchman called Baron de Coubertin

(12) _____ establishing the tradition. Following his suggestion fi fteen nations (13) _____ at a national congress in 1894. Two years later, the fi rst modern Olympic Games (14) _____ in Athens. In 2004, the Olympics (15) _____ to Greece, where Athens (15) _____ once again (16) _____ host to the greatest sports event in the world.

1. a. were started; b. started; c. starts.

2. a. hold; b. were hold; c. are holding.

3. a. took; b. has taken; c. had taken.

4. a. had consisted; b. consisted; c. has consisted.

5. a. were; b. are; c. is.

6. a. were measuring; b. measured; c. measures.

7. a. referred; b. was referred; c. had referred.

8. a. represents; b. represented; c. is representing.

9. a. considered; b. consider; c. have considered.

10. a. allowed; b. was allowed; c. had allowed.

11. a. were held; b. hold; c. had been hold.

12. a. suggested; b. has suggested; c. suggests.

13. a. meet; b. met; c. will meet.

14. a. were held; b. has been held; c. was held.

15. a. had returned; b. returned; c. are returning.

16. a. played; b. was played; c. had played.

Test 4 DAILY LIFE IN ANCIENT ROME

By the time Rome had become the center of an empire, family life was changing. In the days of the Republic, the father was the undisputed head of the family. He could even sell his children as slaves. He could arrange marriages for his daughters when they were only 12 or 15 years old. He would do this for the political and economic benefi ts it would bring to the family. The young bride and groom had little to say about it.

By the A.D. 100s, however, family discipline had become less harsh, and the father's power had been reduced. A father no longer had the right to sell his children or to force marriages. In addition, women had more freedom. Unlike women in other ancient cultures such as Greece, Roman women were independent under the law. They could have their own property and slaves.

Families that could afford the cost of private education sent their children and even household slaves to school beginning at about age seven. These children studied basic reading, writing, and arithmetic. The schools were small, and one teacher was responsible for all subjects, Teachers followed the rule of the Greek playwright Menander: "A man who has not been fl ogged [beaten] is not trained."

Girls usually did not have any formal education after age 15. Usually at 15, the sons of wealthy parents continued their education by taking classes in Latin and Greek literature and rhetoric - the art of effective writing and speaking. Students needed to learn rhetoric in order to enter law or politics. Romans believed that skill in rhetoric was the mark of a gentleman.

The Roman schools rarely had classes in science, engineering, or complex mathematics. The few professional people - engineers, doctors, or lawyers, for example - learned through apprenticeships, not through formal education.

The city of Rome was crowded, busy, thriving place - the center for the best and worst of the Mediterranean world. Disease, crime, and fi res raged there. But life in Rome also had its benefi ts. The emperors made a point of trying to keep the city happy.

The government gave free wheat to make citizens on a regular basis. This gift of food was important to the poor people of Rome. On special occasions, the emperor also gave money to the citizens of Rome. The wheat and money came from taxes that farmers and other people in the provinces paid.

Another benefi t of living in Rome was the plentiful water supply. The system of aqueducts carried 200 million gallons of water to Rome daily. With so much water available, the city built public baths where residents, rich and poor, could bathe and swim for a small fee. These baths became important gathering places.

The emperors spent enormous sums of money to entertain the people. In fact, 159 days each year had been declared holidays by the A.D. 50s.

On these holidays the emperors provided elaborate circuses and games to keep the people content. The Circus Maximus was a gigantic Roman arena that could hold nearly 200.000 spectators. There, spectacular daredevil chariot races took place.

Chariot racing was also popular at the Colosseum, but so were some of the more bloody sports. Wild beasts were hunted and killed by the hundreds.

Gladiators fought each other to the death. The Romans were so fond of bloody events that during the intermissions, Roman offi cials executed condemned criminals for the entertainment of the audience.

However, the benefi ts of life in Rome such as free food and spectacular entertainment did not appeal to all Romans. Some claimed that the citizens took too much interest in those things and not enough interest in their government. Even members of the elite class, who benefi ted the most, saw problems. The Roman writer Juvenal also complained that the public "long for just two things - bread and circuses."

Many Romans believed that they had been able to build their empire and fi nd peace because they had kept their gods happy. Like many other ancient peoples, the Romans had gods for every act and event in their lives.

The great gods of the Roman state were Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. Jupiter was the supreme god. He controlled the thunder and lighting and was the special guardian of Rome. Juno was his wife. She was the queen of the gods and the protector of women. Minerva was the goddess of wisdom and guardian of craftworkers. The Romans joined together on specifi c days to worship these gods. In this way they showed their unity and their loyalty to the state.

At home, the Romans worshiped household gods, such as Vesta, Lares, and Penates. Vesta guarded the fi reside, where people cooked and kept warm. Lares guarded the land, and Penates watched over the stored food. Family members made daily offerings to these gods and asked for protection in exchange.

In A.D. 126, these Romans erected a magnifi cent temple called the Pantheon to honor all the Roman gods and goddesses. They built it in the shape of a drum, with a dome rising 14 stories above the ground. They covered the dome with gleaming brass so that people could see it shining all over the city.

The Roman religion was based on rituals, or ceremonies, rather than a written creed or right behavior. If a priest carried out the rituals properly, the Romans thought that the gods would be happy and would reward them with protection and wealth.

In one of the most important rituals, priests sacrifi ced animals to please the gods.

By the A.D. 100s, many Romans were becoming dissatisfi ed with the state religion. Since their religion did not teach about how people ought to act, some Romans started looking for other religions. Some gods and religious beliefs from Greece, Asia, Persia, and Egypt began to gain popularity during the fi rst two centuries A.D. People in many parts of the empire were becoming Christians.

For the most part, the Romans were tolerant of other religions within the empire.

Task 1. Find the words and expressions in the text which mean the following:

1. profi t;

2. free from control;

3. to be answerable for;

4. the art of effective writing or speaking;

5. fl ourishing;

6. to join (a school, a college);

7. capable of being used, that may be obtained;

8. to amuse, to interest;

9. interval, pause;

10. to attract, to move the feelings;

11. a protector;

12. a skilled workman who used the houses to make things.

Task 2. Suggest the English for:

политические и экономические преимущества (польза); были независимы по закону; отвечал за все предметы; изучать (как студент) юриспруденцию или политику; процветающее место; вода была доступна; развлекать людей; нравились не всем римлянам; Юпитер; Юнона; Минерва; Веста; Лары; пенаты; Пантеон.

Task 3. Choose the word corresponding to the defi nition from those listed below:

1. a member of the lower classes in ancient Rome;

2. a person of noble birth, aristocrat;

3. a person engaged in political activity;

4. a building used for the worship of a God;

5. the surrounding of a place (a fortress, a town) by an army;

6. a body (in ancient Rome) having an important part in the government of the state, the highest state organ;

7. a division in the ancient Roman army consisting of several thousand foot-soldiers and several hundreds horseman;

8. a person who is owned by another;

9. groups of people exercising state power;

10. a state governed by people elected for a defi nite period; (a temple, a slave, a political fi gure, siege, a plebeian, the Senate, a patrician, ruling classes, a legion, a republic).

Task 4. Find in the text information connected with the following points. Give a short summary on some of these points in writing:

1. Family life in the Empire.

2. Benefi ts of life in Rome.

3. Republic services.

4. Entertainment.

5. Religious practices.

Task 5. After reading the text choose the correct answer. Mind the Sequence of Tenses:

1. The rivals in Rome feared that Caesar ... too powerful. 2. Caesar knew he ... military glory to fulfi ll his ambitions. 3. Caesar feared that if he ... his life ... in great danger. 4. The plebeians believed that patrician judges ... advantage of this fact to rule unfairly against plebeians. 5. The leaders knew that their city ... in serious danger unless the common people ... . 6. Some plebeians believed that they ... the same social and political rights as the patricians. 7. The poor plebeians, too, believed that the system ... unfair. 8. Archaeologists have found evidence that the Etruscans ... their alphabet in about 575 B.C. and ... the Romans new building techniques. 9. The Greek astronomer Aristarchus expressed a theory in the 200 B.C. that the earth ... around the sun. 10. Socrates explained to his friends that he ... the law throughout his long life and ... it then. 11. Many Athenian leaders thought that by teaching the young to question every aspect of life, Socrates ... the authority of the government. 12. Spartan leaders recognized that Athens ... all of Greece from the Persians at the battles of Marathon and Salamis.

1. a) was becoming b) had become c) will become 2. a) must win b) will win c) won 3. a) returned b) returns c) will return woned be will be is 4. a) take b) took c) will take 5. a) know b) knew c) will know will return returned return 6. a) had b) should have c) have 7. a) was b) is c) had been 8. a) had introduced b) introduced c) will introduce had taught taught teach 9. a) revolved b) had revolved c) revolves 10. a) had obeyed b) woned obey c) obeys would not break did not break will not break

11. a) will challenge b) had been challenging c) was challenging

12. a) saved b) had saved c) will save

Task 6. After reading the text rewrite some of its parts in indirect speech:

When Zeus became the ruler of all the gods on Olympus, his closest friend and adviser was Prometheus.

One day, when there was a great banquet, Prometheus, as usual, rose to go.

"Why are you in such a hurry to leave, Prometheus? What do you fi nd on earth that is more beautiful than this hall of mine?" asked Zeus.

"Nothing more beautiful, but something sweeter to me. Remember, O king, that you were born where now you rule; but I am a son of Earth, and the green meadows are dearer to me than this golden hall."

So he went away, but Zeus was not pleased with this answer. And he sent for Hermes, his messenger, and told him to follow Prometheus and watch what he did. When he returned, he said:

"O king of the gods, do not be afraid that Prometheus will plot anything against us on Olympus. He loves the race of little men in Arcadia, and he does everything for their good. He has taught them how to make tools and weapons of bone, to build huts, to sow the ground, and many other things. The people there call him their Great Wise Brother, and they spoke of a wonderful gift that he promised to bring them."

"And what is that?" asked Zeus.

"They do not know," answered Hermes, "but Prometheus has told them that it will be to them a good servant and a bad master." Now Zeus was troubled.

"Perhaps he will teach them so much that they will become wiser than the gods," he thought. "Perhaps he will make them strong enough to defy the Immortals.

Test 5 PRISONERS OF WAR ON ROMAN COINS

Prisoners of war are frequently depicted on Roman coins, beginning about 100 B.C. and continuing into the 5th century A.D. Coins served the Romans as an effective medium for propagandizing, even beyond the frontiers of the empire, the message of Roman strength and success in war as well as the disastrous consequences to those who opposed them.

Captives fi rst came to be used on Roman coins at the beginning of the last century of the Roman Republic. Together with other signs, such as Victory and the trophy, they represented the enemy soldiers captured during particular military campaigns. This continued to be true until the beginning of the 3rd century A.D. At that time Roman society entered into a period of rapid change, politically, economically, and socially. The increased militarization of government and the rigid stratifi cation of social ranks that occurred in that century are refl ected in the coinage: captives on the designs of coins were frequently used to express the complete authority of the state over the individual.

The paper concludes with a discussion of the rather fascinating transformation of the prisoner-of-war motif occurred in the 5th century under the infl uence of Christianity. Like other pagan symbols, the prisoner of war was engulfed in the stream of Christian iconography thereby becoming another manifestation of the triumph of Christianity over paganism in the 5th century.

Task 1. Match the words in the column A with their meanings in the column B:

A B 1. coin (v) a) (person, animal) taken a prisoner 2. depict (v) b) method, process, by which a result may be obtained 3. medium (n) c) (piece of) metal money 4. disastrous (a) d) absorb 5. consequence (n) e) show in the form of a picture; describe in words 6. captive (n) f) causing great or sudden misfortune; terrible accident (e.g. a great fl ood or fi re) 7. trophy (n) g) (person who is) not a believer in any of the chief religions of the world 8. authority (n) h) smth kept in memory of a victory or success 9. pagan (a, n) i) that which follows or is brought about as the result or effect of smth 10. engulf (v) j) power or right to give orders and make others obey Task 2. Find in the text a word close in meaning to:

Captives, often, to describe, a mechanism, a border, terrible, quick, strict, to happen, to reproduce, power, to fi nish, charming, display.

Task 3. Find in the text a word opposite in meaning to:

Peace, seldom, to fi nish, weakness, failure, defeat, friend, slow, to begin.

Task 4. Check the knowledge of your vocabulary by giving the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

военнопленные; римские монеты; эффективный метод пропаганды;

за пределами границ империи; впервые использовались; строгое рассмотрение; абсолютная власть государства над личностью; захватывающее превращение; проявление триумфа христианства над язычеством; демонстрация силы и успеха римлян.

Task 5. After reading the text choose the correct answer:

1. Captives on the designs of Roman coins were used

a) very often; b) very seldom;

c) never. 2. Coin-types with depicted prisoners of war appeared in the Roman empire

a) in the 5th century B.C.;

b) in the 100 A.D.;

c) between 100 B.C. and the 5th century A.D.

3. Coins served the Romans

a) by satisfying the needs of poor people;

b) as a propaganda for the Roman might;

c) as military ambitions of plebeians.

4. Captives on Roman coins represented

a) scenes of a Roman's peaceful life;

b) the enemy prisoners caught in certain military campaigns;

c) political pretensions of patricians.

5. In the 3rd century A.D. captives on the designs of coins were used to show

a) might of the state over each person;

b) strict monopoly of trade;

c) fi nancial position.

6. The last of the Roman Republic means

a) the 5th century A.D.;

b) the 5th century B.C.;

c) the 3rd century A.D.

7. The prisoner-of-war motif in the 5th century was typical for

a) Christianity;

b) Paganism; c) Both religions.

Task 6. Add articles, if necessary, in the following:

Victory is not Conquest

... conquest begins when one power overcomes another power in ... war. However, ... conquest is more than just ... defeat of one army by another. During ... conquest. ... conquerors remain in ... lands that they have won and control ... defeated people by establishing ... new system of ... government. In ... addition, ... conquerors use ... resources of ... defeated country as they see fi t.

Leaders Make Conquest

... leaders and ... nations generally make ... conquests to increase their power and ... wealth. For example, 100 years after ... Alexander's death ... Rome, ... powerful city-state in ... Italy, began making ... conquests ... . Romans hoped to increase their power by controlling ... trade in ... lands around ... Mediterranean.

Sometimes ... rival nations may have ... great wealth but may at ... same time lack ... power to defend itself. ... potential conqueror then attempts to conquer ... rival nation to gain that wealth. For example, in ... early 1500s, ... Spain began making conquests in ... Americas.

... Spain wanted to acquire ... silver and ... gold from ... mines in ... America and to build ... Spain into ... world power.

Caesar's Wife

... words "Caesar's wife" are used to describe ... person on whom even ... shadow of suspicion must not be allowed to fail.

Julius Caesar divorced his wife on ... strength of ... rumour: her name was often mentioned whenever people talked about one of his men. He did not take ... trouble to enquire into ... matter and establish ... correctness of ... accusation. A Caesar's own reputation in matters of morality was not above reproach, someone asked him why he had divorced his wife on ... mere suspicion. His reply was that it did not matter for Caesar himself, but ... woman who got herself talked abut was not fi t to be Caesar's wife; Caesar's wife must be above all suspicion.

Task 7. Fill in the gaps with the right preposition:

... the battle ... Thermopylae, the Persian army overrun mainland Greece and burned Athens ... the ground. However, most Athenians had escaped ... ship ... the island Salamis. Thus, "wooden walls" did indeed save the Athenians as the oracle ... Delphi had predicted.

The next major battle ... the Persian wars took place ... the coast ... Salamis about a month ... the battle ... Thermopylae.

The Greeks sank ... half the Persian fl eet. Xerxes led his remaining troops ... ... Persia. The following summer, ... 479 B.C., the Persian tried one more time to invade Greece. ... the battle of Platen, the Greek forces led ... the Spartans overwhelmed the Persians. ... banding together, the Greek city-states defeated the immense Persian Army. This victory showed ... the amazing things Athens and Sparta could achieve ... when they united ... .

Task 8. Identify the countable and uncountable nouns in the list follow. Give their singular/plural forms if possible:

Polis, civilization, citizens, letters, age, knowledge, democracy, leadership, monarchy, oligarchy, tyrant, city-states, invaders, Spartan, senator, helots, wealth, power, authority, coin, festival, tragedies, alphabet, law, barbarians, standstill, pathos, conquest, bondage, patrician, plebeian, assembly, tribune, rival, ally, captives, dictator, emergency, treason, epic, trouble-maker, heritage, determination, economy, massacre, martyrs, hierarchy, slave-owner, Christianity, dictatorship, failure, progress, courage, faith, freedom, peace.

Part II

Test 1 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616)

In England the Renaissance spirit reached its height in the work of William Shakespeare (1564-1616). Shakespeare was an actor, poet, and playwright, not a classical scholar. A fellow writer said that he had "small Latin and less Greek". However, Shakespeare shared the humanists' interest in other times and places, particularly the ancient world. Several plays - such as Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra - draw on Greek and Roman history. Others take place in Renaissan ce Italy and in medieval England, Scotland, and Denmark.

Shakespeare's admiration for humanity also marked him as a man of the Renaissance. William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564. His mother was called Mary Arden. She came from a rich family. His father, John, was a businessman who sold gloves, wool and meat. William went to Stratford Grammar School where he learned a little Latin and Greek. He married Anne Hathaway in 1582. She was eight years older than him. They had three children, Susannah, born in 1583, and the twins Judith and Hamnet, born in 1585. There are no descendants of the Shakespeare family alive today.

It is possible that in 1587 William Shakespeare joined a group of traveling actors and left Stratford because he was in trouble for stealing a deer but nobody is sure if this is true or the date is correct.

By 1592 he was defi nitely an actor and playwright in London. In 1599 the Globe Theatre opened in London and most of his 36 or 37 plays were performed there. Nobody is sure exactly how many plays Shakespeare wrote.

The Globe was made of wood. It was round. There was no roof, so if it rained the audience and the actors got wet. The audience stood on three sides of the stage. They were not quiet, as theatre audiences are today. They made a lot of noise, and sometimes they had sword fi ghts. They also ate oranges because of the bad smell everywhere.

Shakespeare wrote three kinds of play: comedies, tragedies and histories. The comedies had happy endings, the tragedies had sad endings (like Hamlet) and the histories told the story of the past, either in England (like Henry V) or in ancient Rome (like Julius Caesar).

Although there were other successful playwrights at the time - especially Christopher Marlowe - Shakespeare was recognized in his own lifetime as one of the fi nest playwrights of his time. Shakespeare's characters were complex, believable people. Few writers in any age have explored human behavior and feelings with such insight.

Task 1. Find in the text words or word combinations close in meaning to: person's mind or feelings as district from his body soul; a person who studies an academic subject deeply; to have or use smth. with others, have smth. in common; of the Middle Ages; branch of drama that consists of such plays; to use smth.; to participate; especially or specifi cally.

Task 2. Denote the following phrases by a single word:

feeling of respect, warm approval or pleasure; corresponding to known facts, genuine, exact; not noisy or loud, without excitement or activity; a person who writes plays, dramatist; to show gratitude or appreciation of smb's ability, service, etc. by giving him an honour or reward; to examine smth. thoroughly in order to test or fi nd out about it.

Task 3. Check the knowledge of your vocabulary on the text by giving the English equivalents:

достигать зенита; разделять гуманистические интересы; потомки; по-

строен из дерева; драки с мечами; быть признанным при жизни; изучать поведение и чувства людей с такой глубиной.

Task 4. After reading the text choose the correct answer:

1. In England the Renaissance spirit reached its ... in the work of W. Shakespeare.

a) weight c) importance

b) height d) cause

2. Shakespeare's ... for humanity also marked him as a man of the Renaissance.

a) luck c) admiration

b) surprise d) fortune

3. There are no ... of the Shakespeare family alive today.

a) ancestors c) actors

b) descendants d) neighbours

4. The audience stood on three sides of the ...

a) house c) place

b) garden d) stage

5. Shakespeare was ... in his own lifetime as one of the fi nest playwrights of his time.

a) recognized c) performed

b) explored d) left

Task 5. Defi ne if the events in Shakespeare's life defi nite (write D) or possible (write P):

1. Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon. _____

2. Shakespeare stole a deer in Stratford. _____

3. By 1592 Shakespeare was writing plays in London. _____

4. Shakespeare wrote 36 plays. _____

5. Shakespeare wrote three kinds of play. _____

6. Shakespeare was recognized as one of the fi nest playwrights of his time during his life.___

Task 6. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage with one suitable word:

The Tudors ruled England from 1485 to 1603. Henry VIII and Elizabeth I were both Tudor ... (1). Tudor towns were very small and ... (2). The streets were narrow and very unhealthy. ... (3) people lived to be older than 40 and children often died before they were fi ve.

The rich lived in mansions in the countryside. They were very big. They had ... (4) chimneys because so many fi res were needed to keep the vast rooms warm, and to cook the food for their huge feasts, which ... (5) up to ten courses.

The rich ... (6) go hunting to kill deer and wild boar for their feasts. They also enjoyed fencing and jousting ... (7). The poor watched bear fi ghting and also played a kind of football where they jumped ... (8) each other, often breaking their necks and backs. There were some theatres and people enjoyed watching plays, ... (9) those of a young playwright called William Shakespeare.

1. a) actors b) ancestors c) monarchs

2. a) overcrowded b) spacious c) clean

3. a) Many b) Few c) Much

4. a) a great many b) much c) few

5. a) watched b) made c) consisted of

6. a) could b) had to c) used to

7. a) contents b) jury c) championship

8. a) at b) on c) with

9. a) hardly b) particularly c) immediately

Task 7. Choose the correct completion:

1. Summer is one season. Spring is ... .

a) another b) the other c) the others d) others e) other

2. There are four seasons. Summer is one. ... are winter, fall and spring.

a) another b) the other c) the others d) others e) other

3. What's your favorite season? Some people like spring the best. ... think fall is the nicest season.

a) another b) the other c) the others d) others e) other

4. Some people drink tea in the morning. ... have coffee. I prefer fruit juice.

a) another b) the other c) the others d) others e) other

5. Alex failed his English exam, but his teacher is going to give him ... chance to pass it.

a) another b) the other c) the others d) others e) other

6. Smith is a common last name in English. ... common names are Jonson, Jones and Miller.

a) another b) the other c) the others d) others e) other

Task 8. Complete the sentences. Use each word or expression twice:

for; in order to; so that; to make; to make sure

1. Jake went to Warsaw ... learn Polish.

2. When you are abroad, internet cafes are useful ... sending emails.

3. Look in the fridge ... we have enough food for everyone.

4. The Oscar winner stood up ... a speech to everyone.

5. He bought lots of lottery tickets ... he would have a better chance of winning.

6. Please have the correct money ready ... avoid delays.

7. You need olive oil ... a god salad dressing.

8. I always us a red pen ... correcting my mistakes.

9. Have you counted the chairs ... we have enough?

Test 2 AMERICAN CONTINENT

Task 1. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

A B 1) civilization a) an organized trip into unfamiliar regions, for scientifi c purposes. 2) colonyb) the act or fact of surviving or condition of having survived

3) explorationc) a human society that has highly developed material and spiritual resourses; complex cultural, political and legal organization.

4) settlementd) a person, place or thing that has been discovered 5) survivale) a subject territory occupied by a settlement from the state from the ruling state

6) discoveryf) the act or state of settling or being settled 7) demarcationg) the act of establishing limits or boundaries

Task 2. Insert the right words given below:

obey, cleaned, built, established, founded, settled, discovered, inhabited, travelled, make, sailing, called.

1. North America was ... by Indians who perhaps 20 500 years ago ... there from Asia.

2. Christopher Columbus ... the New World ... to Asia.

3. As it was believed that he reached India the people who lived there were ... Indians.

4. Bleak and lonely immigrants ... colonies all along the Atlantic Ocean.

5. They ... the land, ... villages, ... governing bodies.

6. The American colonists feared that the new British taxes would ... trading diffi cult and refused to ... .

Task 3. Change the words in italics into their synonyms from your active vocabulary:

1. North America's fi rst settlers were the forefathers of the Indians.

2. The foreigners landed on a variety of coasts, from the sandy plains to rocky cliffs.

3. At last after a journey of ten weeks, land was discovered.

4. The District of Columbia, which was named for Christopher Columbus, pioneer of America, is 60 square miles in area and is not part of any state.

5. Negro servitude had been introduced into the American colonies in 1619 when the Dutch ship brought its cargo of human chattels in Virginia.

6. On April 14, 1865, when Abraham Lincoln was struck down by a terrorist's bullet, radical republicans exclaimed that it was " God's will".

Your active vocabulary: slavery, newcomer, discoverer, ancestors, voyage, assassin.

Task 4. Choose the right Participle:

1. About 500 years ago North America was a vast territory, inhabited / inhabiting by Indians.

2. In 1492 Christopher Columbus, an Italian, sailing / sailed under the Spanish fl ag, set out for Asia and discovered a "New World".

3. Philadelphia was a large city in Colonial America founded / founding in 1682 by William Penn.

4. America is a land of contrasts, including / included the weather.

5. Having landed / landed, the admiral (Columbus) saw trees very green, and much water, and fruits of diverse kind.

6. The Second Continental Congress held / helding in Philadelphia in May 1775 decided to organize an army to defend colonies.

Task 5. Open the brackets using the right form of the verb in the Subjunctive

Mood: 1. William Penn insisted that the Indians (to be given) the same treatment as the settlers.

2. It is desirable that people always (to help) each other in diffi cult life situations.

3. If I (to go) to New Plymouth, a small town in the U.S., I (to see) the rock to which many tourists come to think of the fi rst English settlers who landed near it more than three hundred years ago.

4. I wish I (to take part) in the Third International Congress " The World after Chernobyl" which was held in Minsk.

5. The Supreme Court in its decision on May 17, 1954 demanded that segregation of races in public schools (to be banned).

6. It's important that you (to study) the culture and traditions of the American people before you go to work there.

7. If we (to have) an opportunity to go to Harward University, we (to do) our best not to miss it.

8. If I (to be) you I (to learn) English long ago.

9. I wish I (to see) the sights of Washington and other cities of the USA.

Task 6. Put the verbs in brackets into the right Tense Form:

1. The Declaration of Independence (to adopt) by the Congress on July 4, 1776 and since then this day (to celebrate) as a national holiday in America.

2. In 1832 Abraham Lincoln (to become) a candidate for the President of his state and in 1860 he (to elect) President of the USA.

3. At that time when many workers in Europe (to join) revolutionary labour movements, most Americans were not interested in destroying their basic system but in reforming it for their own benefi t.

4. Environmental protection and equal employment laws in the USA (to be) among the strictest in the world.

5. Still, there (to be) many people in the U.S. who never (to work), or never (to be) able to, who (to remain) unemployed for a long period.

6. Philadelphia was a city where the U.S. Constitution (to adopt) and it remained the capital of the country for the next 10 years while Washington (to build).

7. The American Constitution (to formulate) in a way that allows it to evolve and change as a nation itself has grown and developed.

8. Today more than 200 years after it (to write), the Constitution remains vital, alive and the center of American political ideas and practices.

9. Being afraid of a powerful Federal Government the Americans (to add) 10 amendments guaranteeing liberties of the people - the Bill of Rights - to the Constitution in 1791 and since then 16 more amendments (to add) to the American Constitution.

Task 7. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Verbals:

1. Knowing that the earth was round Christopher Columbus decided to reach India by sailing to the West.

2. Having made four voyages to American Continent Columbus died in Spain in 1506 being sure that he had reached Asia and not knowing anything of his great discovery of the New World.

3. Having made several expeditions to the American continent and having published the letters describing the land he had visited Amerige Vespucci, an Italian seaman, proved that it was not India but a new continent which was called " the New World".

4. The tendency to make new products available to and affordable for everybody is one obvious reason why American business has usually been supported by average Americans.

5. Adopted laws during the 1930s prohibited discrimination in hiring, forbade the hiring of young children and set the rights of independent labour unions to organize and strike peacefully.

6. Anyone trying to start a business in the USA is faced with regulations, restrictions laws from the level of government, state or local.

7. There seemed to be some truth in the observation that Americans are too proud to ask for help and welfare.

8. The decade of Great Depression ended with the break of World War II as America's started turning out the weapons of war.

9. In 1814 to hide the marks of the fi re the browm stone walls of the President home were printed white and it has been the " White House" ever since.

Task 8. Choose the right variant:

How the Americans Chose Their First President

Everyone (1. use to think; think; thinks; uses to think) of the President of the United States (2. to be; being; like; as) the most powerful man in (3. western world; the western world; West; occident). But when the representatives of the thirteen former British colonies (4. found; met; encountered; put together) to draw up constitution of the new country (5. at; by; on; in) 1788, (6. a number; a big lot; a large amount; the most) of them were not sure whether they (7. should; would; ought; must) to have a President at all. There were even (8. few; a few; little; a little) who (9. had preferred; would have preferred; should have preferred; were preferring) a king, (10. although; however; nevertheless; in spite of) their successful war against the British king, George III.

The decision was in doubt (11. until; as far as; so far as; by) the last moment. One group wanted (12. that the President was elected; the President would be elected; the President to be elected; to be elected the President) for life, while (13. another; other; the other; some other) suggested that (14. it should; it would; there would; there should) not be a President, because a Committee would govern the country better; the third group (15. would have liked; would; would like; would be liking) a President (16. that's; whose; which; of which) term of offi ce would last seven years but who could not stand for re-election, because they were afraid he would spend his time (17. looking for; to look for; to look at; looking at) votes at the next election.

In the end they chose George Washington as President for four years and let him (18. stand; to stand; be standing; that he stood) for re-election because they trusted him. But they were (19. so careful; too careful; careful enough; enough careful) to make rules in case a future President (20. would carry; carried; would behave; behaved) badly and these rules were used to get rid of President Nixon two hundred years later.

Task 9. Complete the following paragraphs by adding the appropriate prepositions given below:

About against as at for from in of to with

Sitting Bill was born 1)____ 1831, South Dakota. 2)____ the age 3)____ 14, Siting Bill went 4)____ his father and other Sioux warriors to fi ght 5)____ a Crow tribe. Sitting Bill was very brave 6)____ the battle. His father was proud 7)____ him.

Sitting Bill soon had a reputation 8)____ bravery. He became leader 9)____ the Midnight Strong Hearts, a society 10)____ the best warriors. When the Sioux tribes came together 11)____ one nation, they chose Sitting Bill 12)____ their leader.

Sittng Bill was not surprised 13)____ the victory 14)____ Little Big Horn. Before the battle he had a dream. 15)____ the dream white soldiers fell 16)____ the sky 17)____ the ground. 18)____ this reason, he was not worried 19)____ what would happen.

Task 10. Correct the mistakes, if any, in the following sentences:

1. The United states of america has often been caled a nation of immigrants.

2. For centuries, people moved to the united States in search of the "American Dream".

3. Million of people a year still apply of visas to live and work in the US.

Nowadays, however, the United States has very srict immigrant controls.

4. There are two main type of visa.

5. Non-immigrant visas is given to people visiting the USA for a temporary period, for example, as tourist, or to study in an American university.

6. If you want to live in US permanent, you need immigrant visa.

7. (This is known as "green card", although these days the visas are actually white, pink, or multi-coloured).

8. There is a number of ways in which you can qualify for a Green Card, such as having close relatives which are american citizens, or investing money to start your own busines in the US.

9. There are limited numbers of visas issued each year though, so you will propable be put on a waiting list.

10. This mean that even if you will meet all the requirements, it might be a long.

TEST ON READING I. Read the text and choose the most suitable heading from the list A-I for each part (1-7) of the article. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0):

A Freedom to Pray

B An Enduring Dream

C One in Seven

D The Balance Changes

E The Journey to Despair

F Jobs and Land G Flight from Hunger

H Europe in Crisis

I The Great Adventure

The Melting Pot 0 I The USA is a land of immigrants. Between 1815 and 1914, the world witnessed the greatest migration in its history: 35 million people, mostly Europeans, left their homelands to start new lives in America. Why did these people risk everything by leaving their homes and families to see what the New World had to offer? How had the Old World let them down? There are both push and pull factors which we should consider.

1 First, what forced emigrants to make the momentous decision to leave? One major cause of the exodus among European peasants was the rise in population which in turn led to land hunger. Another was politics. Nationalism saw increased taxation and the growth of armies, and many young men fl ed eastern Europe to avoid being conscripted. Also, the failure of the liberal revolutions in Europe caused the departure of thousands of refugees.

2 Physical hunger provided another pressing reason. Between 1845 and 1848, the terrible potato famine in Ireland ended in death of one million Irish people and the emigration of a further million who wished to escape starvation. Following the collapse of the economy of southern Italy in the 1860s, hundreds of thousands of Italians decided to start afresh in America.

3 Religion also encouraged millions to leave the Old World. We should remember that the Pilgrim Fathers had wished to escape the ungodliness of England, while the Russian Jews of the century sought to escape persecution and death in their native land.

4 In short, people chose to leave their homes for social, economic and religious reasons. As a result, by 1890 among a total population of 63 million, there were more than 9 million foreign-born Americans.

5 But what were the attractions? First of all, there was the promise of land which was so scarce in Europe. Next, factories were calling out for labour, and pay and conditions were much better than back home. Men were needed to open

up the West and build the long railroads, and settlers were needed to populate new towns and develop commerce.There was the space for religious communities to practise their faith in peace and comparative isolation.

6 This immigration meant that by around the 1850s Americans of non-English extraction had started to outnumber those of English extraction. As we know, there were losers. To start with, there were those unwilling immigrants, the slaves who had been used as a source of cheap labour for the tobacco plantations of the South. Nor should we forget the equally awful fate of the American Indians. By 1860 there were 27 million free whites, four million slaves and a mere 488,000 free blacks.

7 Nowadays, the USA is still seen by millions as the Promised Land. Gone are the days when you could buy US citizenship for one dollar. Yet, even though entry is strictly limited, refugees continue to fi nd freedom there and people from poorer countries a better way of life. As always, the USA remains a magnet to the ambitious and the enegetic who are ready to commit themselves to the land that gives them a second chance.

II. Complete the sentences by putting the verb in barckets into either the Infi nitive or the Gerund:

1. Have you ever considered ... (to emigrate)?

2. The customs offi cer refused ... (to let) him into the country.

3. They denied ... (to enter) the country illegally.

4. The government agreed ... (to allow) the refugees over the border.

5. They threatened ... ( to deport) her on the next fl ight.

6. He avoided ... (to cross) the bridge by swimming the river.

7. The tourists offered ... (to hide) her in the boot of their car.

8. Would you mind ... (to show) me your passport, sir?

9. Have you fi nished ... (to fi ll in) that form?

10. He pretended not ... (to understand) the regulations.

11. Immigration offi cials tend ... (to be) suspisious.

Part III Test 1 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Task 1. Match the words in A with their defi nitions in B:

A B 1) organization

2) power 3) freedom

4) union 5) council

6) justice

7) court a) political, fi nancial, social, etc., force or infl uence

b) a body of people elected or appointed to serve in administrative legislative or advisory capacity

c) the quality or fact of being just; the administration of law according to prescribed and accepted principles

d) a body of administrative offi cials, as of a political party a government department, etc.

e) personal liberty, as from slavery, bondage, serfdom, etc.; the quality or state of being free, esp to enjoy political or civil liberties.

f) an association, alliance or confederation of individuals or groups for a common purpose, esp political

g) an authority having power to adjudicate in civil, military, criminal or ecclesiastical matters. Task 2. Think of the words that are similar in meaning for the following in italics:

1. The Secretariat of the UN is the civil offi ce.

2. The Atlantic Charter, drafted by Roosevelt and Churchill, said that the United Nations had to defend four freedoms.

3. NATO's essential purpose is to defend the freedom and security of all its members.

4. Thousands of private organizations can work in a democratic society.

5. The idea of European unifi cation was conceived to prevent future war confl icts with killings and destruction.

6. It will be more necessary for every European citizen to collaborate with people from other countries.

Your Active Vocabulary: to operate, service, to cooperate, intergration, to state, to safeguard.

Task 3. For the questons 1-17, read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick ( v ) by the number in the answer boxes provided. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the answer boxes:

1. The region of Alsace in the north-eastern France is like

2. a country in itself. Situated in the Vosges mountains,

3. Alsace is unique, with its breathtaking scenery,

4. high standards of living and cuisine quite unlike of

5. any other be found elsewhere. A major Alsatian city is

6. Srasbourg, controversial in itself due to its claim to be

7. the European capital because the Council of Europe it is

8. located there. This body, representing more 26 nations, 9. deals mainly with issues of culure and human body rights.

10. many major multinational companies have chosen Alsace

11. as the place to set up with their European offi ces. The main

12. reason for they doing so is the ideal location of the 13. region, which borders at both Germany and Switzeland.

14. Alsace has had an eventful history, having often been

15. seized by Germany in times of war. Despite of the

16. German infl uence which still evident in dialect, buildings

17. and customs, a strong local feeling of the independence persists.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Task 4. Choose the right Participle:

1. The European Parliament has created the Sakharov Prize, awarded / awarding annually to an individual or a group that has defended the cause of human rights.

2. "Maladministration" means poor or failed / failing administration.

3. The EU defends its values, promoting / promoted unity while preserving diversity.

4. The International Court of Justice has 15 judges, elected / electing for a 3-year term by the General Assembly.

5. The European Commission consists of 20 women and men assisted / assisting by about 24 000 civil servants.

6. In a democracy, government is only one element, coexisted / coexisting in a social fabric of many and varied institutions, political parties, organizations and associations.

7. The European Central Bank, managed / managing by a president, is based in Frankfurt, Germany.

Task 5. Use the right form of the Infi nitive of the verbs given in brackets:

1. The members of the Security Council decide on what action should (to take) in times of crisis.

2. Ancient Athens managed to practice direct democracy with an Assembly that may (to number) as many as 5000 to 6000 persons.

3. Not all of the specialized agencies of the EU have the word "agency" in their title: they may (to call) a center, an institute, a foundation, an offi ce, etc.

4. On the national level legislators can (to choose) from districts that each elect a single representative.

5. The European Central Bank's main objective is to ensure price stability so that the economy will (not to damage) by infl ation.

6. In the EU the decisions on specifi c matters of joint interest can (to make) democratically at European level.

Task 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the Verbals:

1. The leaders of the Assembly were not elected but chosen by lot, since Athenians believed that any citizen was capable of holding public offi ce.

2. It was democratic Athens, after all, which condemned to death the philosopher Socrates - thereby, earning the undying enmity of Socrate's most celebrated pupil and fervent antidemocrat, Plato.

3. The role of the United Nations Organization excludes interfering in the working of a country and forcing a country to take action.

4. The EU's fi rst Environment Policy Review, adopted in December 2003, is an important development - offering for the fi rst time a clear overview of recent progress in protecting Europe's environment, and identifying what is still to be done to make sustainable development a reality.

5. It goes without saying that in a country which has an unwritten/uncodifi ed constitution the sources of the constitution are many.

6. In theUK, the process for passing legislation to lower the voting age, reform the House of Lords or devolve power to Scotland and Wales is no different from that to enact policy changes concerning rail privatization, raising the school-leaving age or establishing a national lottery.

7. The current state of democracy in some countries does not have promising future.

8. The NATO was formed by the independet states with a common interest in maintaining peace and defending the freedom.

9. CIS is a loose organization of former Soviet republics, excluding the Baltic states, formed in 1991.

Task 7. Put articles where necessary:

(1 ...) pursuit of (2 ...) human rights was (3 ...) central reason for (4 ...) creating (5 ...) UN. (6 ...) World War II atrocities and genocide led to (7 ...) ready consensus that (8 ...) new organization must work to prevent any similar tragedies in (9 ...) future. (10 ...) early objective was creating (11 ...) legal framework for considering and acting on complaints about (12 ...) human rights volations. (13 ...) UN Charter obliges (14 ...) all member nations to promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights" and to take " joint and separate action to that end". (15 ...) Universal Declaration of Human Rights, though not legally binding, was adopted by (16 ...) General Assembly in 1948 as (17 ...) common standard of (18 ...) achievement for all. (19 ...) Assembly regularly takes up (20 ...) human rights issues.

Task 8. Put the verbs in brackets into the Gerund or the Infi nitive. Sometimes, both may be possible. Look carefully at the context you are given:

1. Don't forget ... (to go) to the travel agent's, will you? The plane tickets need ... (to pick up).

2. I shall never forget ... (to see) the Statue of Liberty for the fi rst time.

3. Oh, no! It's starting ... (to rain).

4. I like ... (to play) tennis but I wouldn't like ... (to play) with her. She's such a bad loser.

5. Lucia started ... (to study) English six years ago.

6. I meant ... (to tell) you about the party but I completely forgot.

7. I didn't tell her about the party because it would have meant ... (to invite) her and her boyfriend.

8. Do try ... (to make) less noise. I'm trying ... (to concerntrate).

9. He remembers ... (to drive) up to the crossroads but nothing else after the accident.

10. Have you ever stopped ... (to wonder) why she behaves like that?

11. We really need ... (to do) some shopping, we're running out of everything.

12. I've tried ... (to jog) and aerobics, but I still can't loose weight.

13. I'm terribly sorry but I forgot ... (to post) your letter.

14. Did you remember ...(to do) your homework?

15. I'll stop ... (to lend) you money if you waste it on cigarettes.

16. "I can't get this table through the door".

"Really? Have you tried ... (to take off) the legs?

Part IV

Test 1 OUSTANDING PEOPLE

Task 1. Match the words in A with their defi nitions in B:

A B 1) inherit 2) glorious

3) fame

4) outstanding 5) gifted

6) triumph 7) reign

8) genius 9) skilled

10) prodigy

11) victory a) a person with exceptional ability, esp. of a highly original kind

b) to receive (property, a right, title, etc.) by succession or under a will

c) the period during which a person or thing is dominant, infl uential, or powerful

d) a person, esp. a child, of unusual or marvellous talents

e) superior, excellent, distinguished

f) possessing or demonstrating accomplishment, skill, or special training

g) having or full of glory; illustrious

h) the state of being widely known or recognized; renown; celebrity

i) having or showing natural talent or aptitude

j) the feeling of exultation and happiness derived from a victory or major achievement

k) a success attained in a contest or struggle or over an opponent, obstacle Task 2. For questons 1-11, read the text below. Use the words given in capitals at the end of the text to form a word that fi ts in the space. Write your word in the answer boxes provided:

Tennessee Williams

Tennessee Williams was born in 1914 and spent his (1) ... in (2) ... Mississippi. His real name was Thomas Lanier Williams, but like many people in the (3) ... of fame, he adopted a pen-name. During his (4) ... he worked in various (5) ... including a period as a shoe salesman

However, it was of course as a (6) ... that he became famous. His best work was based on the (7) ... of southern American society with its pretence of well-mannered and (8) ... behaviuor. His most famous (9) ... include " A Street Car Named Desire" and " Cat on a Hot Tin Roof". Both display a (10) ... of social awareness and emotional tension. Many (11) ... fi lms have been made, based on his plays.

CHILD 1 EAST 2 PURSUE 3 YOUNG 4 OCCUPY 5 DRAMA 6 LIVE 7 ELEGANCE 8 ACHIEVE 9 COMBINE 10 SUCCESS 11 Task 3. A. Below are some notes about the Tower of London. They are mixed up. Arrange the notes into three topic areas given below:

1. We are now about to enter the "Bloody Tower".

2. We are now entering the "Jewel House".

3. We are now entering the Chapel of St. John.

4. It is called the Bloody Tower because of the deaths of two young princes.

5. The chapel is one of the most beautiful buildings in England.

6. The princes were the sons of Edward IV, who died in 1483.

7. The royal crowns and other treasures are on display here.

8. They were kept in here by their uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester.

9. Richard later became a king.

10. The chapel dates from 1080.

11. The greatest treasure is the Imperial State Crown.

12. The chapel contains a perfect barrel vault.

13. This is worn by the monarch on major state occasions.

14. He is thought to have murdered the princes.

15. The vault is built of Caen stone.

16. The bodies were never found.

17. The vault is extremely well preserved.

18. The crown is encrusted with 2,800 diamonds.

19. The crown is set with several historic gemstones.

B. Now use the notes to write a guide's commentary for the three areas of the Tower of London.

"The Bloody Tower"

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

The Jewel House _______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

The Chapel of St. John

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Task 4. Insert the prepositions where necessary:

Alfred Nobel Alfred Nobel, who instituted the prizes, was a nineteenth-century Swedish inventor. When Alfred was 9 years old, his family moved 1) ... Russia, where his father was employed to develop and manufacture expolsives. Some years later, Russia became engaged 2) ... the Crimean War 3) ... Britain and France, and explosives were 4) ... high demand, but the end of the war led 5) ... a decline 6) ... the family fortunes and Nobel returned 7) ... Sweden.

There, in 1865, he set 8) ... a factory to manufacture nitrogycerine, a recently discovered, very powerful liquid explosive. It required extremely careful handling to prevent premature detonation, but accidents inevitably happened. Not only did Alfred's customers occasionaly blow themselves 9) ... but his own factory eventually blew 10) ... as well, killing his brother. The Swedish government refused to allow the factory to be rebuilt and Nobel became regarded as a mad scientist who manufactured destruction.

But one day 11) ... 1866 Nobel invented the substance that was perfectly safe to handle. He patented it. The dynamite made a vast fortune 12) ... him.

13) ... Nobel made his fortune 14) ...supplying explosives 15) ... the world's armies, he always expressed the ideal hope that his products would be used only 16) ... peaceful purposes.

When Nobel died 17) ... 1896, he left 18) ... two million pounds 19) ...his will 20) ... the establishment of the annual prizes ( equivalent to over 100 million pounds 21) ... today's money). The will was contested 22) ... members of his family but eventually, 23) ...considerable legal argument, the fi rst prizes were awarded in 1901.

The prepositions to be inserted: to, in, up, against, by, although, about, after.

Task 5. Open the brackets using the right Tense Form in Active or Passive Voice:

Albert Einstien Albert Einstein (1. (to be born) in Ulm, southern Germany, in 1879. Although he (2. to be) one of the most famous physicits who ever (3. to live), it may give you some hope to know that he (4. not to do) very well at school. He only (5. to seem) interested in mathematics and (6. not to work) at anything else. It (7. to reported) that one of his frustrated teachers (8. to remark):

"Einstein, you (9. never to amount) to anything ".

After leaving school prematurely, Einstein (10. to manage) to get into a college in Switzerland - but with diffi culty, because he only (11. to have) the necessary qualifi cations in mathematics. He (12. not to enjoy) the experience and, as at school, he (13. to be interested) only in theoretical physics and vertually (14. to ignore) everything else. With the help of a friend's lecture notes, he (15. to scrape) through his fi nal exams and, with the help of the father of the same friend, he (16. to fi nd) a job as a junior offi cial at the Patent Offi ce in Bern. The job (17. not to require) too much brain power ( for example, I (18. to tell) that while he (19. to be) in Bern, Einstein (20. to sign) the patent for Toblerone chocolate) and (21. to leave) him with suffi cient time to pursue his interest in mathematical physics. Four years later, in 1905, he (22. to have) what (23. may) be called a "purple patch" - a period of great inspiration and productivity. He (24. to publish) papers on three different topics that (25. to be) of major importance and which (26. to change) the face of physics.

Task 6. Complete the text about the basketball player, Michael Jordan, by changing the words in bold at the of each line into a noun:

Michael Jordan's recent (1 ...) to retire from basketball to take up a career in baseball is a (2 ...) for the sport. Considered the best (3 ...) of all the time, Jordan helped win the college (4 ...) in 1983, at the age of 20. His impressive medal (5 ...) includes two Olympic golds. His (6 ...) as a top scorer and arch- (7 ...) is legendary. Taking every (8 ...) that presents itself he has the seeming (9 ...) to fl y and win the ball from opponents 30 cm more in (10 ...). For this he earned his nickname Air Jordan. His personal (11 ...) is immense and his (12 ...) at not winning the league title a thing of the past. Perhaps (13 ...) made him quit after leading the Chicago Bulls to three successive victories. DECIDE

TRAGIC

PLAY CHAMPION COLLECT

SUCCEED COMPETE

OPPORTUNE ABLE

HIGH

WEALTHY DISAPPOINT

BORED TEST ON READING

I. You are going to read a text about the great drivers of Formula One motor racing. Choose from A-H the sentences or paragraph which fi ts each gap (1-6).There is one extra letter which you do not need to use. There is an extra example at the beginning. Translate the fi rst two passages into Russian:

A. This cannot be good for the sport as a whole as it can lead to boredom. In the earlier days races seemed to be as much to do with the driver as the machine.

B. Fangio's record of fi ve championship titles were driving for Alfa Romeo, Mercedes and Maserati, Lancia and Ferrari!

C. By contrast, a driver like the young German Michael Schumacher fi ghts the car round the corner.

D. Before his death at 32 he had won three championships and could have looked forward to another, say, six years of competition. E. There are four who deserve special consideration.

F. It was undoubtedly the wise choice.

G. Victory seems less to do with the talents of the driver.

H. There were few second chances.

Even though Formula One motor racing has only existed since 1950, it is diffi cult to make a decision about who is the best driver of all. (0-E) They are the Argentine Juan Fangio who dominated the competition in the 1950s, Britain's Jim Clark who died after winning two world championships, and from the mid 80s France's Alain Prost and the Brazilian Ayrton Senna.

If judgement depended on the number of grand prix wins there would be no contest. Alain Prost scored 51 before his retirement, followed by Ayrton Senna who had 41 to his credit before his tragic death. Even the great Fangio, who won fi ve championships, "only" had 24 victories. Britain's Nigel Mansell won nine times in the 1992 championships. In terms of technical ability too, Prost deserves our admiration. His cool controlled driving and clean lines were the basis of his success. (1- ...)

A factor that does not make our choice harder is the role of the car in all this. There is a feeling that it is the car that is the real star. (2- ...) Over the years the fortunes of different constructors have changed. Ferrari and McLaren have won the constructors' championship nine times. The past fi fteen years or so it seems to have been dominated by the McLaren and Williams teams. (3- ...)

Prost's decision to quit meant he had to forego the opportunity to equal the Argentine master's record. (4- ...) Others have been less wise and Formula One is no stranger to trategy. The Austrian Jochen Rindt was awarded the 1970s title championship posthumously after being killed at Monza. Jim Clark (who some maintain was the greatest of them all) met his end at Hockenheim at the height of his carreer when he was just 32. Niki Lauda survived a horrifying crash yet returned to win a second title.

It is certainly true that the risks drivers took in the old days were much higher. (5- ...) Nowadays drivers are cocooned in special cockpits and encased in fi reproof clothing and sophisticated helmets which mean they can often walk away from the wreckage of a devastated vehicle. Compare this with Fangio who drove in his shirt sleeves with no more than a leather helmet for protection. Englishman Graham Hill - Damon Hill's father - even wore a bow tie. Despite the tragic loss of Senna it is true to say that racing has become a lot safer in recent days.

Yet if we base our fi nal judgement on passion and commitment we must return to Senna. He admired that winning was like a drug. Before a Formula One carreer he already had a collection of trophies beginning with those he won as a boy in his karting carreer. Despite his enormous personal wealth he remained consumed by his thirst for success on the track. Sometimes the risks he took caused great anger among fellow competitors - notably his arch-rival Prost's retirement he had seemed the most likely to break Fangio's long standing record. (6- ...) Fangio had not begun until he was an "old man" of 38 and continued for eight years. In his case we might ask ourselves what he might have achieved had he started earlier.

II. For questions 1-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fi ts each space. Use only one word in each space. Write your word in the answer boxes provided:

Maps

Throughout the history of mankind, people (0) ... explored the world around them. We know that explorers from several ancient civilizations travelled throughout most (1) ... Europe and Africa. These ancient explorers journeyed mainly (2) ... they wanted to trade or to expand their empires; however, as they travelled to unfamiliar areas, they added to (3) ... was known about those places. As a further result, they grew more skilled (4) ... producing maps. Early maps were simply rough drawings that showed distance and direction, (5) ... as travel became more common, maps became (6) ... accurate and detailed. The ancient Greeks were probably (7) ... fi rst people in the western world to study geography in a systematic way. They tried to explain (8) ... the geographic characteristics of a place played a (9) ... in the activities of its inhabitants, and they made maps of their own seacoast, as (10) ... as sailing throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The Romans, too, added to the study of geography during the military campaigns they carried (11) ... all through the known world. Unfortunately, a (12) ... of this knowledge was later lost, and until the 15th century not many Europeans knew very much (13) ... the world around them. Maps of that period showed huge unknown areas decorated with drawings of dragons and other imaginary creatures. After the 15th century, (14) ... , the Spanish, Portugese, Dutch, English and French all began to explore unfamiliar lands. Their voyages resulted (15) ... an explosion of new information and explorers started to map many new parts of the world.

0 Have 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Final Tests

LEXICAL-GRAMMAR TEST 1

Task 1. Give the English equivalents of the following words and phrase:

1. новая история; 2. история древнего мира; 3. средние века; 4. ход событий; 5. надписи на камне; 6. летописи; 7. государственность; 8. убеждение; 9. порабощать; 10. предвидеть; 11. провозглашать; 12. унижение; 13. возрождать; 14. принимать во внимание; 15. пасть, рухнуть; 16. нарушать закон; 17. отступать; 18. с точки зрения; 19. декрет, указ; 20. поклоняться, почитать.

Task 2. Match the words in column A with their defi nitions in column B:

A B 1) to coincide

2) eternity

3) to plunder a) to rob (people) especially during war or civil disaster

b) happen at the same time

c) time without end; the future life; period of time that seems endless Task 3. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fi ts each space:

(1) ____ to tradition, the fi rst American Thanksgiving was (2) _____ in 1621 by the English Pilgrims who had founded the Plymouth Colony. The Pilgrims marked the (3) ____ by (4) ____ with their Native American guests who brought gifts of food as a gesture of goodwill. Although this event was an important part of American colonial history, there is no (5) ____ that any of the (6) ____ thought of the feast as a thanksgiving celebration. Two years later, during a period of drought, a day of fasting and prayer was changed to one of thanksgiving because rains came during the prayers. (7) ____ the custom (8) ____ among. New Englanders to (9) ____ celebrate Thanksgiving after the harvest.

1. A. Accordingly C. According B. Accordance D. Accordant

2. A. celebrating C. celebration B. celebrated D. celebrate

3. A. occasion C. occasionally B. occasional D. occasionalism

4. A. feast C. festivity

B. feasted D. feasting

5. A. evident C. evidence B. evidently D. evidenced

6. A. participate C. participants B. participating D. participated

7. A. Grade C. Graded

B. Gradually D. Gradual

8. A. prevailed C. prevailing B. prevalence D. prevalent

9. A. annual C. annualize

B. annum D. annually

Task 4. Read the text below and decide which word (A, B, C or D) best fi ts each space:

The Seven Wonders of the

Ancient World Only one of the seven wonders of the ancient world (1) ____ exists. This is hardly (2) ____, as it is probably the most dramatic and indestructible. The Egyptian Pyramids were (3) ____ between 2550 BC and 2480 BC as royal burial places. They (4) ____ on the West bank of the Nile. However, the last century of human civilization has had a terrible (5) ____ on them, as pollution is decaying the stone. All of the (6) ____ six wonders have been completely

(7) ____ by war or natural disasters. For example, the Colossus of Rhodes (8) ____ during an earthquake just 200 years after it was put up at the end of the 4th century. The statue was (9) ____ by scrap metal merchants in 654 AD. The Mausoleum in Haricarnassus survived (10) ____. It (11) ____ 19 centuries, but the white marble tomb was broken up and used for building (12) ____ by the crusaders in 1522. The statue of Zeus at Olympia is now (13) ____, but the temple in which it was housed still stands. In recent years people have (14) ____ to compile lists containing the seven wonders of the (15) ____ world. However nobody seems to (16) ____ to agree on what it should include.

1. A. always

B. still C. again D. yet 2. A. amazing B. shocking C. interesting D. surprising 3. A. done B. put C. formed D. built 4. A. stay B. stand C. exist D. situate 5. A. nuisance B. effect C. trouble D. affect 6. A. another

B. left C. other D. rest 7. A. broken B. destroyed C. wasted D. damaged 8. A. pulled down B. fell down C. put down

D. got down 9. A. removed B. disposed C. received D. transferred 10. A. farther B. later C. further D. longer 11. A. lasted B. kept C. held

D. continued 12. A. purpose B. reason C. substance D. material 13. A. missed

B. lost C. disappeared D. away 14. A. engaged

B. worked on C. tried

D. tempted 15. A. fresh

B. latest C. modern D. current 16. A. able B. capable C. possible D. probable Task 5. Sentences are complete, but there is one mistake in A, B, C or D in each sentence. Identify one word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct:

1. The (A) Pyramids of Egypt, built at Giza during the 4th Dynasty are the oldest of (B) Seven Wonders of the World and the only ones (C) remaining intactly (D) today.

2. The city is noted chiefl y by (A) hot mineral springs, which were known (B) in the time of the Roman Empire (C); remains of Roman baths have been discovered (D) here.

3. The Chinese (A) possessed the wealth and the skills that would enable (B) them to explore (C) but they had little (D) interest in the world outside of China.

4. Bacon wrote letters of a sound advice (A) to Elizabeth I, Queen of England, but his suggestions were never implemented (B), and he completely lost favour with (C) the Queen in 1953, when he opposed a bill for a royal subsidy (D).

Task 6. Complete the sentences below using the correct alternative form those marked A, B, C or D:

1. The story of the magnifi cent ____ castle the guide told us about was exciting.

A. fi ve-centuries-old;

B. fi ve-century's old;

C. fi ve-century old; D. fi ve-century old's.

2. By ____ late 18th and ____ Captain Cook's exploration of ____ southern Pacifi c, much of ____ world had been mapped.

A. the, the, the, the;

B. -, -, -, the;

C. the, -, the, the;

D. the, -, -, -.

3. In 1722 several thousand Polynesians inhabited the island, but ____ diseases and raids by slave traders reduced ____ number to fewer than 200 by ____ late 19th century.

A. the, the, -; B. the, a, the;

C. -, the, -;

D. -, the, the. 4. ____ Magna Carta was signed in 1512 by ____ King John of England.

A. -, a; B. the, an;

C. the, -; D. the, the.

5. It refers to the ways ancient Greeks spoke, worshipped, understood the nature of the physical world ____, organized their governments, made ____ livings, entertained ____, and related to ____ who were not Greek.

A. themselves, them, themselves, the others;

B. itself, their, itself, others;

C. itself, their, themselves, others;D. themselves, -, themselves, the other.

6. The task of drafting the declaration fell to Jefferson, who was known for his ____ style. A. powerfully written;

B. powerfull written;

C. powerful writing;D. powerfully writing.

7. According to the legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. ____ the mountain is ____ than the legend asserts.

A. From a geological point of view, far more old;

B. Geologically, a lot elder;

C. From a geological point of view, quite more older;

D. Geollogically, much older.

8. The Greeks seem ____ papyrus as early as the beginning of the 5th century BC.

A. to know;

B. to have known;C. to have been knowing;

D. to have been known.

9. These islands are said ____ by ____. The Netherlands, their motherland, ____ a sea-loving nation.

A. to be discovered, Danes, was used to be;

B. to have discovered, the Danish, used to being;

C. to discover, Hollanders, was used to being;D. to have been discovered, the Dutch, used to be.

10. An important agreement was reached ____ the United Kingdom and its former colonies, which were known as dominions. These self-governing portions of ____ British Commonwealth included Australia, Ireland, ____ South Africa, and Canada.

A. among, the, the;

B. between, -, -;

C. between, the, -;

D. among, -, the.

11. Despite ____ this new assessment, however, many scholars still agree that Schliemann ____ invaluable contributions ____ the fi eld of archaeology.

A. of, made, in;

B. -, did, into;

C. -, made, to; D. of, did, to.

12. The term Middle Ages ____ by scholars in the 15th century to designate the interval between the downfall of the classical world of Greece and Rome and its rediscovery at the beginning of their own century, a revival in which they ____ they ____. Indeed, the notion of a long period of cultural darkness ____ by Petrarch even earlier.

A. coined, had felt, participated, had expressed;

B. is coined, feel, are participating, has been expressed;

C. has coined, have felt, had participated, was expressed;D. was coined, felt, were participating, had been expressed.

13. If the people who ____ Stonehenge ____ considerable engineering skills they ____ raise the enormous stones to make up the monument. Stonehenge is structurally unique among European prehistoric monuments and ____ a large number of visitors every year.

A. were building, hadn't possessed, wouldn't have been able, attracts;

B. had been built, didn't possess, weren't able, is attracted;

C. were built, were not possessing wouldn't be able, was attracting;

D. have been building, were not possessed, hadn't been able, has been attracted.

Task 7. Supply the missing prepositions in the following sentences:

1. Kievskaya Rus appeared ____ the beginning ____ the 9th century.

2. Duke Nickolay Radzivill was fl uent ____ the Belarusian, Polish and other European languages.

3. ____ a serious talk ____ Predslava the Mother Superior decided to admit ____ the girl ____ monastic vows.

4. Simeon of Polotsk didn't agree ____ the Jesuits' principle that the pupils were parted ____ their parents and were deprived ____ their infl uence.

LEXICAL-GRAMMAR TEST 2

Task 1. Give the English equivalents of the following words and phrases:

1. всеобщая история; 2. новейшая история; 3. заняться изучением истории; 4. научный работник; 5. обзоры; 6. мировоззрение; 7. рабство; 8. завоевывать, покорять; 9. угнетать; 10. свергать; 11. подписывать, ратифицировать; 12. залежь; 13. быть в рабстве; 14. как гласит старая легенда; 15. предки; 16. под руководством; 17. угроза; 18. гробница; 19. проследить, след; 20. отменять, упразднять.

Task 2. Match the words in column A with their defi nitions in column B:

A B 1) a constitution

2) to submit 3) to defeat a) to overcome; to win a victory over

b) laws and principles according to which a state is governed

c) to put (oneself) under the control of another Task 3. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fi ts each space:

During an (1) ____ 700 years ago, the England's King Edward I took the 181 kg Stone of Destiny from central Scotland. According to ancient prophecy, whoever had (2) ____ the stone would have (3) ____ over Scotland. According to legend, during coronations, the stone would make a (4) ____ noise if the person sitting on it was of royal (5) ____, and it would remain (6) ____ if the person was not of royal family. (7) ____ for a brief period of time, the stone has remained under the coronation (8) ____ at Westminster Abbey in London, England, for the last 700 years. (9) ____ English and British monarch has been crowned on the stone of Destiny since Edward brought it to Westminster Abbey in 1296.

1. A. invade B. invasive C. invaded

D. invasion 2. A. owning B. owned C. ownership D. own 3. A. powerfully B. powerful C. power

D. powered 4. A. groaning B. groan C. groaningly D. groaned 5. A. blooded B. bloodily C. bloody D. blood 6. A. silently B. silence C. silent

D. silencing 7. A. Exception B. Excepting C. Except

D. Excepted 8. A. seat B. seated C. seater

D. seating 9. A. Everyone B. Each C. Everywhere D. Every Task 4. Read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fi ts each space:

Tattooing: an ancient tradition

Tattooing is an (1) ____ art. In ancient Greece, people who had tattoos were (2) ____ as members of the (3) ____ classes. On the other hand, tattooing was (4) ____ in Europe by the early Christians, (5) ____ thought that it was a sinful thing to (6) ____.

It was not (7) ____ the late 18th century, when Captain Cook saw South Sea Islanders decorating their bodies with tattoos, that attitudes began to (8) ____. Sailors came back from these islands with pictures of Christ on their backs and from then on, tattooing (9) ____ in popularity. A survey by the French army in 1881 (10) ____ that among the 378 men (11) ____ there were I, 333 designs.

Nowadays, not (12) ____ fi nds tattoos acceptable. Some people think that getting one is silly because tattoos are more or less permanent. There is also some (13) _____ about (14) ____ a blood disease from unsterilized needles. Even for those who do want a tattoo, the (15) ____ of getting one is not painless, but the fi nal result, in their eyes, is (16) ____ the pain.

1. A. elderly

B. old C. original

D. outdated 2. A. supposed

B. realised C. regarded

D. held 3. A. greater

B. upper C. high

D. extreme 4. A. banned

B. exported C. blamed

D. fi nished 5. A. whose

B. that C. they D. who 6. A. be

B. create C. make

D. do 7. A. by B. until C. for

D. since 8. A. vary

B. convert C. change

D. move 9. A. gained

B. won C. earned

D. made 10. A. declared

B. said C. explained

D. showed 11. A. inquired B. questioned C. demanded

D. spoken 12. A. everybody

B. every C. each

D. nobody 13. A. danger

B. trouble C. concern

D. threat 14. A. gaining B. catching C. having

D. infecting 15. A. progress

B. system C. pace

D. process 16. A. due B. worth C. owed

D. deserved Task 5. Sentences are complete, but there is one mistake in A, B, C or D in each sentence. Identify one word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct:

1. In 1973 the duke of Beaufort had introduced (A) the game to royalty (B) at (C) his country estate, Badminton House, and the sport became known as badminton (D).

2. The last continent to be discovered (A), Antarctica remained hiddened (B) behind barriers of fog, storm, and sea ice until (C) it was fi rst sighted in the (D) early 19th century.

3. When Lake Victoria (A) was discovered (B) by John Speke in 1858, he was believed (C) to be the source (D) of the Nile.

4. The most (A) famous library was based (B) by Alexander the Great over 2.300 years ago, in Alexandria. It was situated at the crossroads (С) of Europe, Africa and Asia and was a perfect location (D) for a centre of learning.

Task 6. Complete the sentences below using the correct alternative from those marked A, B, C or D:

1. The ____ history goes back to 1808.

A. state's newspaper's

B. state's newspaper

C. state newspapers'

D. state newspaper's

2. Stonehenge is ____ ancient megalithic monument located on the Salisbury plain in ____ southern England, about two miles west of ____ River Avon ____ biggest question that still remains concerning Stonehenge is why it was built.

A. an; -; the; the

B. a; the; the; -C. an; the; -; the

D. the; the; -; -

3. ____ stone picked up by ____ child on the banks of ____ Orange River in ____ South Africa in 1866 was a big diamond.

A. -, a, the, the

B. A, a, -, -C. -, the, -, the

D. A, a, the, - 4. The island was named by ____ Dutch explorer who landed here on ____ Easter Day in 1722.

A. the, - B. a, -C. the, the

D. the, an 5. Colonies were ____ used as sources of raw materials ____ as markets for products of the home country.

A. either, and

B. neither, orC. either, or

D. either, nor 6. During the French and Indian War, several colonies had refused to cooper-ate ____ in the war effort when their own borders were not ____ at risk.

A. in full, immediate

B. fully, immediately

C. in fully, immediate

D. full, immediately

7. The colonies stayed ____ to the coastline, never penetrating far inland, and in fact each was linked ____to England than to the other colonies.

A. close, more closely

B. closely, closely

C. closely, more closely

D. close, more closer

8. ____ of the Cape Colony from the Dutch during the Napoleonic Wars al-lowed the British ____ a strong presence in southern Africa.

A. Acquiring, establishing

B. The acquisition, to establish

C. Having acquired, establishing

D. Acquired, to establish

9. For the ____ ____ man has tried to map his world ____.

A. millennium, -, exact

B. millenniums, a, exact

C. millennia, -, exactly

D. millennias, a, exactly

10. These original inhabitants, or ____ Aborigines, claim ____ in Australia since time immemorial.

A. the, have being

B. -, to have been

C. the, to be

D. -, being 11. Collective responsibility means that the Cabinet acts ____, even when Cabinet ministers do not all agree ____ a subject.

A. unanimous, with

B. unanimously, at

C. unanimously, upon

D. unanimous, to

12. Why Stonehenge ____ is still a mystery. There was a theory which stated that it ____ a type of astronomical clock or calendar, by which the people of that time____ the seasons, hours of the day and the phrases of the moon.

A. was built, had been, had calculated

B. had built, had been, were being calculated

C. was building, was being, had been calculated

D. has built, was, were calculated

13. China ____ the technology of silk production secret; the ancient Greeks speculated that silk ____ on a special tree in China.

A. had kept, would grow

B. kept, grew C. would keep, had grown

D. was keeping, grow

Task 7. Supply the missing prepositions in the following sentences:

1. ____ 1586 Nesvizh was granted the right ____ an autonomous municipal administration (the so-called Magdeburg right), which added a lot ____ the grandeur and power ____ Nesvizh.

2. Belarus is situated ____ the eastern part ____ Europe.

3. Our native land is remarkably beautiful ____ its blue lakes and ribbons ____ rivers edged ____ thick forests.

4. Ignat Dameika made a great contribution ____ different branches ____ human knowledge.

5. People worshipped ____ Prometheus as a fi ghter ____ people's happiness ____ evil gods.

LEXICAL-GRAMMAR TEST 3

Task 1. Give the English equivalents of the following words and phrases:

1. грабить, воровать; 2. сопротивление; 3. святой; 4. осаждать; 5. сдаваться; 6. царствовать, господствовать; 7. забастовка; 8. клясться; 9. просвещение; 10. повстанец; 11. под предлогом; 12. подавить восстание; 13. ремесленник; 14. вторжение; 15. набеги; 16. дань; 17. крепостное право; 18. непобедимый; 19. человечество; 20. с незапамятных времен.

Task 2. Match the words in column A with their defi nitions in column B:

A B

1. a tribe a) to suppress by force or authority 2. to put down b) to make a solemn promise or undertaking or declare solemnly 3. to vow c) a racial group especially one united by language and customs living as a community under one or more chiefs Task 3. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fi ts each space:

The fi rst globes were built by ancient Greeks. The earliest known globe was said to have been (1) ____ by the (2) ____ Crates about 150 BC. An ancient celestial globe that still (3)____ was made about 150 AD as part of a (4)____, called the Farnese Atlas, in the Naples Museum, Italy. The oldest (5) ____ terrestrial globe was built in Germany, in 1492. This globe does not show the Americas. As new (6) ____ were discovered in the 16th and 17th centuries, globes became more (7) ____. The world's largest globe is the Unisphere, which was built for the 1964 New York World's Fair. This (8) ____ steel globe is 37 m (9) ____ and weight 408,000 kg, including its base.

1. A. construct B. constructive C. constructing D. constructed 2. A. scholarship B. scholarly C. scholar

D. scholastic 3. A. existing B. exists C. existence D. existed 4. A. sculptor

B. sculpture C. sculpt

D. sculptural 5. A. existing B. existed C. exists

D. existence 6. A. land B. landless C. lands

D. landed 7. A. accuracy B. accurate C. accurately

D. accuracies 8. A. stain

B. stained C. staining

D. stainless 9. A. cross

B. crossed C. crossing D. across Task 4. Read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fi ts each space:

Peter the Great

Peter the Great was Russia's fourth Romanov Tzar and (1) ____ 6 foot 7 inches, probably the tallest, he also had an enormous (2) ____ for food and drink. Another "great" (3) _____ of his personality was his (4) ____, which was fearsome. But it was his thirst for knowledge combined with his (5) ____ of a new Russia that made him a great leader. In 1697, motivated by his desire to break (6) ____ from the constructions of Old Russian customs, Peter travelled around Europe learning valuable military and industrial (7) ____.

When he returned to Russia, Peter was (8) ____ to throw off the remnants of the past. He dramatically (9) ____ the powers of the Russian aristocracy and abolished age-old (10) ____. In order to (11) ____ his dream of a modernized Russia, he (12) ____ universities, established the country's fi rst newspaper and encouraged the development of industry. He also pushed back the empire's boundaries by (13) ____ the armed forces. Before his death in 1725, Peter had had a new capital built and (14) ____ it St. Petersburg. It was (15) ____ on the Western cities he most admired, like Paris and London, and (16) ____ the capital until the First World War.

1. A. high B. with C. standing D. at 2. A. aptitude

B. applause C. taste

D. appetite 3. A. banned B. exported C. blamed

D. fi nished 4. A. whose

B. that C. they D. who 5. A. be

B. create C. make D. do 6. A. by

B. until C. for D. since 7. A. vary

B. convert C. change D. move 8. A. gained B. won C. earned D. made 9. A. declared B. said C. explained D. showed 10. A. injured B. questioned C. demanded D. spoken 11. A. everybody B. every C. each

D. nobody 12. A. danger B. trouble C. concern D. threat 13. A. gaining B. catching C. having

D. infecting 14. A. progress B. system C. pace

D. process 15. A. due B. worth C. owed

D. deserved Task 5. Sentences are complete, but there is one mistake in A, B, C or D in each sentence. Identify one word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct:

1. Seven Wonders of the World are works of art (A) and architecture regarded (B) by ancient Greek and Roman observers to be (C) the most extraordinary (D) structures of antiquity.

2. Alexander the Great (A) captured the city in 330 BC and planned to rebuild it and make it the (C) capital of his vast empire, but he was died (C) before he could carry out (D) his plans.

3. Babylon is one of the most important cities (A) of the ancient world, who is location (B) today is marked by a broad area (C) of ruins just east of the Euphrates River (D).

4. Belarus gave (A) the statues of the founder of the United Nations Organisation for (B) the great contribution of the Belarusian people (C) into victory (D) over fascism.

Task 6. Complete the sentences below using the correct alternative from those marked A, B, C or D:

1. At its height in the early 1900s, the British Empire included over 20 ____ of the ____ land area and more than 400 ____ people.

A. percents, world, million

B. percent, world's, millions

C. percent, world's, million

D. percents, worlds', million

2. During ____ Renaissance, people thought that their own age and ____ time of ____ ancient Greece and Rome were advanced and civilized.

A. the, the, the

B. -, -, -C. the, the, -

D. -, the, - 3. ____ dinosaur is a reptile that was ____ dominant land animal during ____ most of ____ Mezoic Era, but became ____ extinct at its close.

A. The, the the, the, the

B. The, the, -, the, -

C. A, a, -, -, -

D. A, the, the, the, the

4. ____ wealth acquired from ____ trade enabled ____ upper classes to live in ____ luxury.

A. The, the the, the

B. -, -, the, the

C. -, -, the, - D. The, the, -, -

5. The offi cial ____ is a table containing the holy days, ____ and festivals of the church.

A. Christian church calendar, saints' days

B. Christian's church calendar, saint days

C. Christian church's calendar, saint's days

D. Christian's church's calendar, saints' days

6. Although the British considered the act to be ____, many American colonies saw it as a violation of their rights.

A. perfect fair

B. perfectly fairly

C. perfect fairly

D. perfectly fair

7. It used to be said that oil-exporting countries depended on the oil-importing countries just as ____ as the ____ depended on the ____.

A. much, latter, former

B. much, last, fi rst

C. the same, fi rst, former

D. great, latter, fi rst

8. The prime minister is appointed by the president ____ nomination by the lower house. The government is responsible ____ the lower house of the national legislature.

A. after, to

B. with, for C. on, for

D. before, before

9. The rise and spread of Christianity increased the demand ____ permanent ____ religious documents.

A. on, writing

B. for, written C. for, writing

D. on, written 10. Alaska ____ to the United States since 1867, when it ____ from Russia by Secretary of State William H. Seward.

A. has belonged, was bought

B. belonged, has been bought

C. had belonged, has been bought

D. has been belonged, was bought

11. The prime minister presides ____ the Cabinet and selects the other Cabinet members, who join ____ him or her to form the government.

A. in, in

B. at, at C. over, -D. on, with

12. The fi rst English colony in North America ____ by the Pilgrims, who ____ from the English city of Plymouth in the "Mayfl ower" and ____ in Massachusetts Bay in 1620.

A. was founded, had sailed, had landed

B. was found, sailed, landed

C. had been found, sailed, landed

D. was founded, sailed, landed

13. It ____ that as a result of emigration and other factors, such as war losses and temporary decline in fertility, the population ____ by about 5 per cent between mid-1974 and 1977/ The years since 1974 also ____ by an increase in persons leaving the island in search of work, especially in the Middle East.

A. has been estimated, decreased, have been marked

B. estimated, had decreased, mark

C. has estimated, has decreased, have marked

D. was estimated, was decreased, was marked

Task 7. Supply the missing prepositions in the following sentence:

1. Tadeush Kostiushko took part ____ the uprising ____ Russia and Prussia ____ 1794.

2. Belarus borders ____ Latvia and Lithuania ____ the north-west, ____ Russia ____ the north and east, ____ the Ukraine ____ the south and south-east and ____ Poland ____ the west.

3. Professor Wilson is a specialist ____ the fi eld ____ antiquity.

4. According ____ the Greeks, daylight came because the God ____ the Sun ___ the heavens ____ a chariot driven ____ four snow-white horses.

5. Wars were waged ____ the purpose ____ conquering other lands.

6. There are traces ____ primordial sites ____ the territory ____ Belarus dating 26 thousand years ago.

TEST ON READING 1

I. Прочитайте текст. Выберите единственный правильный ответ на вопросы, следующие за текстом.

Seneca Falls

The early American feminist, Cady Stanton, found an ally in Lucretia Mott, an ardent abolitionist, when the two met in 1840 at an anti-slavery conference in London. Once the conference began, it was apparent to the two women that female delegates were not welcome. Barred from speaking and appearing on the convention fl oor, Cady protested by taking other female delegates with them. It was then that Cady Stanton proposed to Mott a women's rights convention that would address the social, civil and religious rights of women. The convention had to wait for eight years, when the two organized the fi rst women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848.

At the meeting, Cady Stanton presented a "Declaration of Sentiments", based on the Declaration of Independence, and listing 18 grievances against male suppression of women. First, married women had no right to their children if they left an abusive husband or sought a divorce. Second, if a woman was granted a divorce, there was no way for her to make a professional living unless she chose to write or teach. Third, women could not testify against her husband in court. Then, married women who worked in factories were not entitled to keep their earnings, but had to turn them over to their husbands. When a woman married, any property that she had held as a single woman automatically became part of her husband's estate. In addition, single women who owned property were taxed without the right to vote for the lawmakers who imposed those taxes - one of the very reasons why the American colonies had broken away from Great Britain.

Convention attendees passed the resolutions unanimously with the exception of the one for women's suffrage (the right to vote). Only after an impassioned speech in favour of women's right to vote by Frederick Douglass, the black abolitionist, did the resolution pass. Still, the majority of those in attendance could not accept the thought of women voting.

At Seneca Falls, Cady Stanton gained national prominence as an eloquent writer and speaker for women's rights. Years later, she declared that she had early realized that without the right to vote, women would never achieve their goal of becoming equal with men. Taking the abolitionist reformer William Lloyd Garrison as her model, she saw that the key to success in any endeavour lay in changing public opinion, and not in party action. By awakening women to the injustices under which they laboured, Seneca Falls became that catalyst for future change. Soon other women's rights conventions were held, and other women would come to the forefront of the movement for political and social equality.

1. According to the text the agenda of the fi rst women's rights convention wasn't supposed to include___.

A) civil rights

B) the right to self-defence

C) social rights

D) religious right

2. It follows from the text that the American colonies broke away from Great Britain because___.

A) lawmakers levied taxes in the US

B) property was under taxation

C) they paid heavy taxes without a right to vote

D) they owned property without taxation

3. The text states that among existing women's rights the "Declaration of Sentiments" mentioned the right___.

A) to grant a divorce

B) to become a professional teacher

C) to leave their children

D) to keep their earnings

4. It is clear from the text that in Seneca Falls the Convention attendees were___. A) unanimous

B) against women's right to vote

C) in majority male

D) all abolitionists

5. According to the text Cady Staton followed the example of___.

A) her own B) Lucretia Mott

C) Frederick Douglas

D) William Lloyd Harrison

II. Прочитайте текст. Заполните пропуски одним из предложенных текстовых фрагментов.

Aborigines are the native peoples of Australia. They were wandering hunters and food gatherers, without settled communities or knowledge of agriculture. Today these travelling tribes make up just over 1.5 per cent of the country's population of 18 million. Aboriginal people have been present in Australia for thousands of years, but a lack of defi nitive archaeological evidence means that accounts vary as to exactly how long. Some estimate that Aborigines have been in the country as far back as 60,000 years ago.

... (1) Vital to the task of piecing together the history of the Aborigines are the tools that have survived from the earliest periods. The stone tools that have been found indicate little change throughout the Pleistocene periods (from 1.65 million years ago until 10,000 years ago), and it is now known that it was not until around 6,000 years ago that there was a radical development in the tools themselves, with small, delicately-worked points and blades being produced.

(2) ... Aboriginal painters used charcoal for black and pipe clay for white. Blues and greens have been added to the palette only in recent times. Painting techniques involve various methods of applying the paint, including spraying it from the mouth, painting it on with a brush formed from the chewed end of a twig, or a fi nger, or splashing it on with grass. Much of the work, which is sold for large sums of money today, contains colourful images of the varied wildlife of the country.

(3) ... Identifying the species, however, is rarely possible because of problems in scale. Hunters may be shown with bundles of pointed spears, or spears may be travelling through the air, or stuck in the prey with a spurt of blood. Boomerangs and nets may also be shown in use, and scenes may include a group of people driving animals towards a trap or stalking them from hides. ... (4)

Other aspects of Aboriginal life revealed in art include information relating to normal everyday items such as knives and dishes, plants that were gathered, clothing, together with some features of ceremonial life like costumes and dancing fi gures. In some scenes, there is clear evidence of their tribal customs. ... (5)

Aborigines are a particularly moral race and the laws are strictly enforced, especially those governing family and marriage. Life for women was by no means easy among these tribes. Besides having to deal with the family, they were responsible for carrying heavy loads of household equipment, spare weapons and so on, whenever they moved from one place to another. ... (6)

Заполните пропуски (1-6) одним из предложенных текстовых фрагментов (A, B, C, D). Два фрагмента являются лишними:

A. Many of their myths and legendary tales are as imaginative as those of much more technologically-advanced peoples.

B. During this time, there has been a great change in the geography of Australia, as it has evolved from being mostly green and lush to its present state of mainly desert, and this has brought about the decline in the native population. C. Another crucial form of archeological evidence is Aboriginal art.

D. Hunting scenes depicted in their art usually involve kangaroos and wallabies or emus.

E. In the past, breaches of certain laws were sometimes punishable by death.

F. As well as fi gures depicted with weapons, actual weapons such as boomerangs and axes were also stencilled on to rocks, giving an exact outline of the implement concerned.

G. The male's main task was to provide the food for his family.

H. One of the many of these strange rules rigidly observed by the Aborigine is the avoidance of the mother-in-law.

TEST ON READING 2

You are going to read a magazine article about an ancient city called Great Zimbabwe. Eight paragarphs have been removed from the article. Choose from paragraphs (A-I) the one which fi ts each gap (1-7). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The Golden Heart of Africa

When news of an amazing discovery in Africa was reported in the 1870's, fantasic rumours were heard everywhere. Here was the Queen of Sheba's capital or may be King Solomon's treasury.

(0-E)

Looking at great Zimbabwe, it is easy to describe: a hilltop fort below which is royal enclosure and a collection of ruined houses. (1-...)

The fi rst thought amongst Europeans was that no African people could have built it as building with stone was not known among the African peoples. Also, the inhabitants of the region were nomadic. They spent only a few years in one place and then moved on.

(2- ...) The second mistake was assuming that cows and cattle had been the most important part of Zimbabwe's economy. In fact, Zimbabwe had been a trading center long before the fi rst white man arrived. Traders visited Africa from the Middle east, India and China.

(3- ...)

With the rise of Islam in the Middle East, trade grew. Gold was needed in the Islamic cities. But gold was in short supply. Soon explorers were searching the east coast of Africa looking for gold.

(4- ...) But Zimbabwe was not an easy place to get to. Lying between 600 and 1200 metres above sea level, it could only be areas where mosquitos, which cause malaria, and tsetse fl ies, which cause sleeping sickness, were found.

(5- ...) The local Africans decided to settle down and started putting up more permanent building and walls. The settlements grew and terraces and forts were built. Most surprising is the fact that not only were the building enormous, but they were found all over Zimbabwe.

(6- ...)

But trade wasn't everything in Great Zimbabwe's economy. Agriculture was also important, with cattle moving over great distances. The power of the rulers was supported by religion. Carvings of the sacred fi sh-eagle, to which all Zimbabweans looked for advice, were found on the walls of the royal palace.

(7- ...) All we know is that for hundreds of years Great Zimbabwe dominated Southern Africa. Suddenly, for some unknown reason, the civilization came to an end. Possibly it was destroyed by an enemy, possibly by fi re and drought. Today Great Zimbabwe remains an archaelogical puzzle.

A Merchants traded manufactured goods for raw materials. Africans received mainly beads and cloth; the visitors left with minerals, slaves and ivory. They came from across the ocean long routes which had been known for thousands of years.

B However, the only reason few African stone buildings had been dis-covered was that Africans had no suitable stone to build with. Instead they used mud. But the area of Great Zimbabwe was covered with stone and it would have been natural to use it for buiilding.

C Little is known about the people who lived in these buildings - the inhabitants of Great Zimbabwe - although they did leave records of the people they traded with. A painting in a Southern African cave shows four Persian merchants with beards, trousers and pointed hats.

D But Great Zimbabwe shows no regularity of shape. It wanders over the land with neither a square or a circle to be seen. The fort is heavily protected where it overlooks the valley but is unprotected on the other side. Walls start and stop for no reason. Passages lead nowhere. In short, it is an archaelogist's nightmare.

E The reports told of a ruined palace with massive walls, stone towers, statues and tombs, and above all unlimited supplies of gold. For a while the area was the center of a mini gold rush. It was only years later that archaeologists fi nally realised they had discovered the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe.

F The news they brought back was encouraging. Inland in Africa was a region where all that man could desire was freely available. More ships set sail and soon Great Zimbabwe was born.

G Modern Zimbabwe also boasts many thousands of cattle which graze on the plains around the ancient city. This modern industry provides the Zimbabwean economy with a large amount of income.

H The traders, however, found the journey worthwhile. The area had thou-sands of cattle and enormous supply of minerals. There was iron, copper and tin.

I But what was the Zimbabwean religion? No one can say for sure.Who were the rulers, the chiefs, the kings and queens of these people? We simply don't know and may never know.

TEST ON READING 3

Read the text and complete the exercises that follow:

The history of modern tourism began on 5 July 1841, when a train carrying 500 factory workers travelled from Leicester to Loughborough, twelve miles away, to attend a meeting about the dangers of alcohol.

The modest excursion was organized by Thomas Cook, a young man with neither money nor formal education. His motive was not profi t, but social reform. Cook believed that the social problems of Britain were caused by widespread alcoholism. Travel, he believed, would broaden the mind and distract people from drinking.

The success of Cook's fi rst excursion led to others, and the success of the business was phenomenal. In 1851, Cook launched his own monthly newsletter, Cook's Exhibition Herald and Excursion Advertiser, the world's fi rst travel magazine; by 1872, the newsletter was selling 100,000 copies a month and its founder was treated as a hero of the modern industrial age.

When Thomas Cook reached the age of sixty-three, there was still one challenge ahead of him: to travel round the globe. The idea of travelling "to Egypt via China" seemed impossible to most Victorians. Cook knew otherwise. In 1869 two things happened that would make an overland journey possible: the opening of the Suez Canal and the completion of a railroad network that linked the continent of America from coast to coast.

He set off from Liverpool on the steamship Oceanic, bound for New York. Throughout his travels, his traditional views affected most of what he saw, including the American railroad system. Although impressed by its open carriages, sleeping cars, on-board toilets and effi cient baggage handling, he was shocked that men and women were not required to sleep in separate carriages.

Japan delighted him. It was a land "of great beauty and rich fertility", where the hotels served "the best roast beef we have tasted since we left England". Cook and his party toured the city of Yokohama in a caravan of rickshaws. "We created quite a sensation", he wrote.

Cook's love of Japan was equalled only by his hatred of China. Shanghai, the next port of call, offered "narrow and fi lthy streets" which were full of "pestering and festering beggars'. After twenty-four hours there, Cook had seen enough.

He travelled to Singapore and as he set off across the Bay of Bengal, Cook was full of confi dence, feeling that he understood "this business of pleasure". But hothing he had seen in Shanghai could have prepared him for the culture shock of India.

"At the holy city of Benares we were conducted through centers of fi lth and obscenity", he wrote. From the deck of a boat on the Ganges he saw the people washing dead bodies, before burning them on funeral piles beside the river. He found these scenes "revolting in the extreme".

By the time Cook left Bombay for Egypt, he was showing signs of tiredness. On 15 February 1873, while crossing the Red Sea, he wrote to The Times that he would not travel round the world again. "After thirty-two years of travelling, with the view of making travelling easy, cheap, and safe for others, I ought to rest". In Cairo, he fell seriously ill for the fi rst time.

Cook arrived home in England after 222 days abroad. Although he never attempted another world tour, he continued to escort parties of tourists to continental Europe throughout the 1870s, and did not cease his seasonal visits to Egypt until the late 1880s. He died in July 1892 at the age of eighty-three.

I. Idenify the following senteces as True or False:

1. Cook organized his fi rst tour in order to make some money.

2. He launched the world's fi rst travel magazine in 1872.

3. The Suez Canal was opened in1869.

4. He thought some aspects of the American railroad system were excellent.

5. He preferred China to Japan.

6. He fell ill towards the end of his round-the world tour.

7. He handed the business over to his son when he was sixty-fi ve.

II. The following place names are mixed up. Reorder the letters to fi nd the words and write the place names in order that Cook visited them:

Bya fo Baglne Sapierogn Lerolovpi Crioa Egdnaln Rde Sae Ber sean Bmoyab Shaiagnh Nwe Ykro

1. ______________ 6. ______________ 11. ______________ 2. ______________ 7. ______________ 3. ______________ 8. ______________ 4. ______________ 9. ______________ 5. ______________ 10. ______________ TEST ON READING 4

I. Read the text and list the key events mentioned for each of these periods:

a) ancient Greece b) the Romans c) early Christianity d) 17th and 18th centuries e) 19th century f) post-World War Two:

Footprints In the Sand of Time

I do it, you do it, even the ancient Greeks did it. Travelling for pleasure, travelling to experience new places and events, travelling to relax and get away from it all - in other words, tourism.

Ever since man fi rst emerged from his cave-dwelling, it seems he felt the urge to travel. But tourism had to wait for the civilization of ancient Greece before it really got moving. The Olympic Games of 776 BC were the fi rst international tourist event, with people travelling from many countries to watch and take part.

Of course, if you want to travel from A to B, a good road is always an advantage, and we have a lot to thank the Romans for here. During the heyday of the Roman Empire they built thousands of roads. Some of the fi rst people to take advantage of these roads were religious travellers visiting cathedrals, shrines, or holy sites - the word "holiday", after all, originally comes from "holy day". Pilgrims like Geoffrey Chauser would tell each other stories to entertain themselves on the road. Nowadays we have the in-fl ight movie - in medieval times they had the Canterbury Tales!

Gradually, more and more people caught the travel bug. At fi rst it was the nobility who set out in the 17th and 18th centuries on their Grand Tours - an essential part of every young gentleman's education. At the same time the upper classes were fl ocking to spa towns like Bath and Cheltenham. They also enjoyed the healthy pleasures of sea-bathing at Brighton and other resorts.

But it was development in transport that really opened up the tourist industry. First there were stagecoaches and coaching inns. Then came steam, and suddenly the world was a smaller place. Steamboats crossed the English Channel, and raiways stretched their iron webs across the civilized world. No sooner had the fi rst railways been built in the 1830s than enterprising men like Thomas Cook in England began to exploit their potential by selling organized tours.

With excursion across continental Europe, the building of hotels and resorts to cater for the tastes of the pleasure-seekers, and the introduction of hotel vouchers and traveller's cheques, the tourist industry in its modern form was born. By the end of the 19th century the middle classes, and mass tourism was a reality.

If the 19th century saw the birth of mass tourism, then the post-war years have witnessed its coming of age. Soon after the end of the Second World War, paid holidays became normal in Britain and many other countries. People now have more disposable income to spend on leisure time, and travel and tourism were available to the many rather than the elite few. Holiday camps sprang up, offering the masses an affordable accommodation-and-entertainment package. Television sets were appearing in more and more homes, bringing the attractions of distant lands into people's living rooms. Package holidays abroad began to appear in the 1950s. But it wasn't until the introduction of the fi rst commercial jet airlines that the idea of foreign holidays really took off.

In recent decades things have only got better for the tourist: faster and cheaper travel options, a wider range of suitable accommodation, more time and money to spend on their holidays. Tourism has come a long way from its distant, humble beginnings. So when you are next wandering along a sun-kissed foreign beach, sipping your cocktail, gazing at the sunset, and trying to forget your wordly cares, remember - you may be treading in the footprints of a 19th-century adventurer, a gentleman on his Grand Tour, a pilgrim or a crusader, or even a Roman soldier or an ancient Greek.

II. Read the text again and answer these questions:

1. What reasons are given to people wanting to travel? 2. Find four examples of improvements in transport

3. What were the Canterbury Tales?

4. What did Thomas Cook do?

5. Why was the introduction of hotel vouchers and traveller's cheques so im-portant?

6. Why were holiday camps so popular?

7. What technical development helped the expansion of package holidays abroad?

III. Explain these expressions:

a) travelling to relax and get away from it all

b) more and more people caught the travel bug

c) the idea of foreign holidays really took off

d) trying to forget your wordly cares

TEST ON WORD FORMATION

I. Look at the following words. They are all verbs and nouns. Change them into adjectives and put into columns below:

Beauty fame noise type wonder friend panorama enjoy comfort help romance nation dirt hospitality delicacy energy luxury tradition

1. Words ending in -y: ____________________________________________

2. Words ending in -ic: ___________________________________________

3. Words ending in -ful: __________________________________________

4. Words ending in -able: _________________________________________

5. Words ending in -ous: __________________________________________6. Words ending in -al: ___________________________________________

II. a) Add each negative prefi x to the adjectives given below:

il- im- in- un- ir- dis-

Comfortable; pleasant; acceptable; legal; legible; literate; courteous; honest; organised; practical; polite; patient; rational; regular; relevant; accurate; competent; capable.

b) Read the following sentences. Fill in the blanks with one of the negative adjectives from a). Sometimes more than one answer may be possible:

1. Passengers are reminded that it is ... to bring pets or other animals into theUK, and that the punishment for anyone doing so is severe.

2. The whole tour was completely ... . The rep was not there to meet us, the hotel was overbooked, and nobody knew what was happening.

3. Could you change the bed in my room? It was so ... that I didn't get any sleep last night.

4. The description of the facilities in your motorhomes is totally ... , and I suggest you get the errors corrected as soon as possible.

5. I'm not complaining about the colour of the car - that is ... . What I am complaining about is the fact it is not safe to drive.

6. You cannot seriously expect my wife and I and four children to sleep in a single room. That is a completely ... suggestion.

KEYS

Part I Test 1

Task 1. accomplishment; to go after animals; tool; to settle down; to bring about; crude; to record; to adjust to.

Task 2. Earth quark; to obey; extensive; to alter; architecture.

Task 3. To refl ect in the artwork; rules of behaviour; pottery making and weaving; the rise of the cities; more extensive systems of government; to record the thoughts and discoveries; to alter the landscape; to spread from one area of the world to another.

Task 4. 1-c; 2-b; 3-c; 4-d; 5-a.

Task 5. 1-b; 2-a; 3-c; 4-a; 5-a; 6-c; 7-b; 8-a; 9-c; 10-b; 11-a; 12- c; 14-d; 15-a; 16-b; 17-c; 18-d; 19-a; 20-c.

Task 6. 1-any; 2-a; 3-a; 4-some; 5-any; 6-some; 7-any; 8-some; 9-some, any; 10-any, some.

Task 7. 1-much; 2-many; 3-much; 4-a little; 5-a few (many); 6-many; 7-much; 8-a few; 9-a little; 10-a little.

Test 2

Task 1. to put fi nishing touches on; to come from; to modify; to improve on; to take over; to spell a word.

Task 2. alphabet, a letter, a consonant, a vowel, a sign.

Task 3. the series of letters; to come from; the fi rst two letters of the Greek alphabet; to put fi nishing touches on a system; they borrowed Phoenician symbols; modifi ed the shapes of the letters; both consonants and vowels; Greeks improved; to spell a word.

Task 4.

1 - b; 2 - b; 3 - c; 4 - b; 5 - c.

Task 5. 1 - entered; 2 - was covered; 3 - was shocking; 4 - was asked; 5 - declared; 6 - had been fi ghting; 7 - had been burned; 8 - had been devastated; 9 - had been driven; 10 - was exacted; 11 - was driven; 12 - had deprived; 13 - had been dragged.

Task 6. 1 - greatest; 2 - the largest; 3 - the most noticeable; 4 - shorter; 5 - the greatest; 6 - the greatest; 7 - the most popular; 8 - beautiful; 9 - the greatest, further; 10 - less refi ned, lower; 11 - a more direct; 12 - more effective and effi cient, stable.

Test 3

Task 1. to gain; to perfect; to honour; to simplify; to erase; to carte.

Task 2. capital letters - small letters to perfect - to begin to honour - to dishonour to simplify - to complicate thick - thin top - bottom ugly - beautiful

diffi cult - easy strength - weakness

Task 3.

A sculptor, uncials, a scribe, a chisel, inscriptions, a stonecutter, serifs, a carver.

Task 4. Gave it much the same form we use today; capital letters; the alphabet to have been perfected by A.D. 114; the style of lettering; a stonecutter; rounded or squared; they developed thick-and-thin strokes; ugly blunt lines; a chisel; to erase the mistake; a small letter, a scribe; lower-case letters; to save space.

Task 5. 1 - b; 2 - a; 3 - b; 4 - b; 5 - c; 6 - d; 7 - c.

Task 6.

1 - a; 2 - d; 3 - b; 4 - a; 5 - c; 6 - a; 7 - b; 8 - d; 9 - c.

Task 7. 1 - a 5 - a 9 - a 13 - b 2 - b 6 - b 10 - b 14 - a

3 - c 7 - b 11 - a 15 - b

4 - a 8 - b 12 - a 16 - a

Test 4 Task 1. 1 - benefi ts; 2 - independent under the law; 3 - to be responsible for; 4 - rhetoric; 5 - thriving; 6 - to enter law or polities; 7 - available; 8 -to entertain; 9 - intermissions; 10 - to appeal to; 11 - a guardian; 12 - a craftworker.

Task 2. political and economic benefi ts; were independent under the law; responsible for all subjects; to enter law or politics; a thriving place; water available; to entertain people; did not appeal to all Romans; Jupiter; Juno; Minerva; Vesta; Lares, Penates; Pantheon.

Task 3. 1 - plebeian; 2 - a patrician; 3 - a political fi gure; 4 - a temple; 5 - siege; 6 - the Senate; 7 - a legion; 8 - a slave; 9 - ruling classes; 10 - a republic.

Task 5.

1 - a; 2 - a; 3 - a; 4 - b; 5 - b; 6 - b; 7 - a; 8 - b; 9 - a; 10 - a; 11 - c; 12 - b.

Task 6. Zeus asked Prometheus why he was ...

He wanted to know what Prometheus found on earth that was were beautiful He said there was nothing more beautiful, but there was something sweeter to him...

Prometheus asked the king to remember that he had been born where he ruled Then he said that he was a son of Earth and that the green meadows were dearer ...

When Hermes returned he told the king of the gods not to be afraid that

Prometheus would plot ... Prometheus loved the race ... and he did ...

Hermes said that Prometheus had taught ...

He added that the people there called him ... and they had spoken ... he had promised ...

Zeus asked what that was.

Hermes answered that they did not know but Prometheus had told them that it would be ...

Zeus thought that he would teach them ... they would become ... . He would make them ...

Test 5 Task 1. 1 - c; 2 - e; 3 - b; 4 - f; 5 - i; 6 - a; 7 - h; 8 - j; 9 - g; 10 - d.

Task 2.

prisoners; frequently, to depict, medium, a frontier; disastrous, rapid, rigid, to occur; to refl ect, authority; to conclude, fascinating, manifestation.

Task 3. war; frequently, to begin; strength, success; victory, enemy, rapid, to complete.

Task 4. prisoners of war, Roman coins, an effective medium for propagandizing, beyond the pointers of the empire, fi rst came to be used; rigid stratifi cation, the complete authority of the state over the individual, fascinating transformation, the triumph of Christianity over paganism, the message of Roman strength and success.

Task 5.

1 -a; 2 - b; 3 - b; 4 - b; 5 - a; 6 - a; 7 - a.

Task 6. a) a; a; -; the; a; the; the; the; a; -; -; the; the; the.

b) -; -; -; -; -; -; a; -; -; the; -; the; the; a; -; the; the; the; the; the; -; -; the; -; -; -; -; -; -; a.

c) the; a; the; the; a; the; the; the; -; a; the.

Task 7. after, of, to, by, to, of, at, in, off, of, after, of, about, back, to, in, at, by, by, -, -, -.

Task 8. uncountable nouns counta ble nouns polis, age, knowledge, democracy, wealth (a, the), power, pathos, bondage, treason, epic, heritage (a), Christianity, failure, courage, faith, freedom, peace, determination, progress. civilizations a citizen a letter ages leaderships monarchies oligarchies tyrants a city-state an invader Spartans senators helot

powers authorities coins festivals a tragedy hierarchies a massacre laws a barbarian a standstill conquests patricians plebeians assemblies tribunes rivals allies a captive dictators losses emergencies trouble-makers economies a martyr slave-owners a dictatorship Part II

Test 1

Task 1. Spirit; scholar; to share smth.; medieval; tragedy; to draw on smth.; to take part; particularly.

Task 2. Admiration; true; quiet; playwright; to recognize; to explore.

Task 3. to reach the height; to share the humanists' interest; descendants; made of wood; sword fi ght; to be recognized in his lifetime; to explore human behaviour and feelings with smth insight.

Task 4. 1 - b; 2 - c; 3 - b; 4 - d; 5 - a.

Task 5. 1 - D; 2 - P; 3 - D; 4 - P; 5 - D; 6 - D.

Task 6. 1 - c; 2 - a; 3 - b; 4 - a; 5 - c; 6 - c; 7 - a; 8 - b; 9 - b.

Task 7. 1 - a; 2 - c; 3 - d; 4 - d; 5 - a; 6 - e.

Task 8. 1 - in order to; 2 - for; 3 - to make sure; 4 - to make; 5 - so that; 6 - in order to; 7 - to make; 8 - for; 9 - to make sure; 10 - so that.

Test 2

Task 1 1. c 2. e 3. a 4. f 5. b 6. d 7. g.

Task 2. 1. inhabited; travelled 2. discovered; sailing 3. called 4. established

5. cleaned; built; founded 6. make; obey.

Task 3.

1. the ancestors 2. a voyage 3. the newcomers 4. discoverer 5. slavery

6. an assassin's.

Task 4. 1. inhabited 2. sailing 3. founded 4. including 5. having landed 6. held.

Task 5.

1. would be given 2. should help 3. went; would see 4. had taken 5. should be banned 6. should study 7. had; would do 8. were; would have learnt 9. had seen.

Task 6. 1. was adopted; has been celebrated 2. became; was elected 3. were joining 4. are 5. are; have worked; have been; remain 6. was adopted; was being built 7. was formulated 8. had been written 9. added; had been added.

Task 8. 1. thinks 2. as 3. the western world 4. met 5. in 6. a large amount

7. ought 8. few 9. were preferring 10. in spite of 11. until 12. the President to be elected 13. the other 14. there should 15. would like 16. whose 17. looking 18. stand 19. careful enough 20. would behave.

Task 9.

1. in 2. at 3. of 4. with 5. against 6. in 7. of 8. for 9. of 10. of 11. in 12. as 13. with 14. against 15. in 16. from 17. to 18. for 19. about.

Task 10. 1. States of America; called 2. United; in search for 3. apply for 4. control 5. visas 6. are; as a tourist 7. permanently; an immigrant visa 8. Green Card

9. American; business 10. probably 11. means; you meet; it might be long.

Test on Reading

I. The Melting Pot.

0-I; 1-H; 2-G; 3-A; 4-C; 5-F; 6-D; 7-B.

II. 1. emigrating 2. to let 3. entering 4. to allow 5. to deport 6. cross-ing 7. to hide 8. showing 9. fi lling 10. to understand 11. to be.

Part III

Test 1 Task 1. 1. d 2. a 3. e 4. f 5. b 6.g 7. c.

Task 2. 1. service 2. stated 3. safeguard 4. operate 5. intergration 6. cooperate.

Task 3. 1. the 2. v 3. v 4. of 5. be 6. it 7. it 8. more 9. body 10. v

11. with 12. they 13. at 14. v 15. of 16. which 17. the.

Task 4. 1. awarded 2. fi led 3. promoting 4. elected 5. assissted 6. coexisting 7. managed.

Task 5. 1. be taken 2. be numbered 3. be called 4. be chosen 5. will not be damaged 6. be made.

Task 7. 1. the 2. - 3.a 4. - 5. the 6. - 7. a 8. the 9. the 10. an 11. a 12 -

13. the 14. - 15. the 16. the 17. a 18. - 19. the 20. - .

Task 8. 1. to go; picking up 2. seeing 3. to rain 4. playing; to play 5. to study 6. to tell 7. inviting 8. to make 9. driving 10. to wonder 11. to do 12. jogging 13. to post 14. to do 15. lending 16. taking.

Part IV Test 1 Task 1.

1.b 2.g 3. h 4. e 5. i 6. j 7. c 8. a 9. f 10. d 11. k.

Task 2.

1. childhood 2. eastern 3. pursuit 4. youth 5.occupations 6. dramatist 7. life 8. elegant 9. achievements 10. combination 11. successful.

Task 3. The Bloody Tower: 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 14, 16.

The Jewel House: 2, 7, 11, 13, 18, 19.

The Chapel of St. John: 3, 5, 10, 12, 15, 17.

Task 4. 1. to 2.in 3. against 4. in 5. to 6. in 7. to 8. up 9. up 10. up 11. in 12. for 13. although 14. by 15. to 16. for 17. in 18. about

19. in 20. for 21. in 22. by 23. after.

Task 5. 1. was born 2. is 3. has ever lived 4. didn't do 5. seemed 6. didn't work 7. is reported 8. remarked 9. will never amount 10. managed

11. had 12. didn't enjoy 13. was interested 14. ignored 15. scraped 16. found 17. did not require 18. was told 19. was 20. signed 21. left

22. had 23. might 24. published 25. were 26. changed.

Task 6. 1. decision 2. tradegy 3. player 4. championship 5. collection 6. success 7. competitior 8. opportunity 9. ability 10. height 11. wealth 12. disappointment 13. boredom.

Test on Reading

I. 0-E; 1-C; 2-G; 3-A; 4-F; 5-H; 6-D.

II. 1. of 2. because 3. what 4. at 5. but 6. more/increasingly 7. the8. how 9. role/part 10. well 11. out 12. lot 13. about 14. however 15. in.

Final Tests

Lexical-Grammar Test 1

I. 1. Modern History; 2. Ancient History; 3. the Middle Ages; 4. a course of events; 5. stone inscriptions; 6. chronicles; 7. statehood; 8. conviction; 9. to enslave; 10. to foresee; 11. to proclaim, to pronounce; 12. humiliation; 13. to revive; 14. to take into consideration; 15. to come to a downfall; 16. to break the law; 17. to retreat; 18. from the point of view; 19. decree; 20. to worship.

II. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a.

III. 1. C; 2. B; 3. A; 4. D; 5. C; 6. C; 7. B; 8. A; 9. D.

IV. 1. B; 2. D; 3. D; 4. B; 5. B; 6. C; 7. B; 8. B; 9. A; 10. D; 11. A; 12. D; 13. B; 14. C; 15. C; 16. A.

V. 1. D intact; 2. A for; 3. B would have enabled; 4. A sound advice.

VI. 1. C; 2. C; 3. D; 4. C; 5. C; 6. C; 7. D; 8. B; 9. D; 10. C; 11. C; 12. D; 13. A.

VII. 1. at, of; 2. in; 3. After, with, -, to; 4. with, from, of; 5. in, for, of; 6. of, with.

Lexical-Grammar Test 2

I. 1. World History; 2. Contemporary History; 3. to take up history; 4. a re-search worker; 5. reviews; 6. world outlook; 7. slavery; 8. to conquer; 9. to oppress; 10. to overthrow; 11. to ratify; 12. a deposit; 13. to be in bondage to smth., smb.; 14. as the old legend says; 15. forefathers; 16. under the leadership; 17. threat; 18. shrine; 19. trace; 20. to abolish.

II. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a.

III. 1. D; 2. B; 3. C; 4. A; 5. D; 6. C; 7. C; 8. A; 9. D.

IV. 1. D; 2. D; 3. B; 4. B; 5. A; 6. A; 7. D; 8. C; 9. C; 10. D; 11. C; 12. B; 13. D; 14. C; 15. A; 16. A.

V. 1. A introduced; 2. B remained hidden; 3. C It was believed; 4. B was founded.

VI. 1. B; 2. A; 3. D; 4. B; 5. C; 6. B; 7. A; 8. B; 9. C; 10. B; 11. C; 12. A; 13. B.

VII. 1. In, to, to, of; 2. in, of; 3. with, of, with; 4. to, of; 5. -, for, against; 6. of.

Lexical-Grammar Test 3

I. 1. to plunder; 2. resistance; 3. sacred; 4. to besiege; 5. to surrender; 6. to reign; 7. a strike; 8. to vow; 9. enlightment; 10. a rebel; 11. under the pretext; 12. to put down a rebellion; 13. a craftsman; 14. invasion; 15. raids; 16. a tribute; 17. a serfdom; 18. invincible; 19. humanity; 20. from time immemorial.

II. 1. c; 2. a; 3. b.

III. 1. D; 2. C; 3. B; 4. B; 5. A; 6. C; 7. B; 8. D; 9. D.

IV. 1. B; 2. C; 3. B; 4. A; 5. D; 6. D; 7. B; 8. C; 9. A; 10. D; 11. B; 12. A;

13. C; 14. B; 15. D; 16. B.

V. 1. C as; 2. C but he died; 3. B whose location; 4. A was given.

VI. 1. C; 2. C; 3. B; 4. C; 5. A; 6. D; 7. A; 8. A; 9. B; 10. A; 11. C; 12. D; 13. A.

VII. 1. in, against, in; 2. on, in, on, in, on, in, on, in; 3. in, of; 4. to, of, in, in, by; 5. for, of.

Final Test on Reading 1

I. 1. D; 2. C; 3. D; 4. A; 5. B.

II. 1. B; 2. C; 3. D; 4. B; 5. D; 6. C.

Final Test on Reading 2

0-E; 1-D; 2-B; 3-A; 4-F; 5-H; 6-C; 7-I.

Final Test on Reading 3

I. 1. False 2. False 3. True 4. True 5. True 6. True 7. True 8. False.

II. 1. Liverpool 2. New York 3. Japan 4. Shanghai 5. Singapore 6. Bay of Bengal 7. Benares 8. Bombay 9. Red Sea 10. Cairo 11. England.

Final Test on Reading 4

I. a) Olympic Games 776 BC, fi rst international tourist event b) built fi rst road c) pigrimages and visits to holy places d) nobility went on Grand Tour; trips for health reasons to spa towns and seaside resorts; stagecoaches and coaching inns developed e) steam transport (boats and trains); First organized tours and excuesions (Thomas Cook); growth of hotels and resorts in Europe; introduction of traveller's cheques and hotel vouchers; birth of mass tourism f) paid holidays; more disposable income; growth of holiday camps (accommodation and entertainment); package holidays; invention of jet engine.

II. 1. for pleasure, to visit new places, to relax, to visit religious sites, for education, for health.

2. Roman roads, stagecoaches, steam (railways), jets.

3. a collection of stories told by pilgrims as they travelled along the road to Canterbury, written down by Geoffrey Chaucer.

4. He organized tours using the railways.

5. It meant that tourists didn't have to carry large amounts of cash and they were therefore safer.

6. They offered a fairly cheap (affordable) holiday which included accom-modation.

7. Commercial jet planes.

III. a) escape completely from pressures of normal life b) found travelling enjoyable and wanted to do it again and again c) became very successful d) not worry about your normal problems.

Test on Word-Formation

I. 1. dirty; friendly; noisy 2. energetic; panoramic; romantic 3. beautiful; wonderful; helpful 4. comfortable; hospitable; enjoyable 5. famous; luxurious; delicious 6. national; traditional; typical.

II. a) uncomfortable; unpleasant; unacceptable; illegal; illegible; illiterate; discourteous; dishonest; disorganized; impractical; impolite; impolite; impatient; irrational; irregular; irrelevant; inaccurate; incompetent; incapable.

b) 1. illegal 2. disorganized 3. uncomfortable 4. inaccurate 5. irrelevant

6. impractical.

REFERENCES 1. Evans,V. Round up. English Grammar Book 6. / V. Evans. Ediburgh Gate; Harlow, 2003.

2. Evans, V. Practice Exam Papers For the Revised Cambridge FCE Examination. Part 1-2 / V. Evans. Express Publishing, 2008.

3. Duckworth, M. Going International. English for Tourism / M. Duckworth. Oxford University Press, 2003.

4. Marvin, P. The History of the World / P. Marvin. Longman, 2001.

5. Бонди, Е. А. Учебник английского языка для студентов-историков / Е. А. Бонди.

М.: Изд-во Моск. ун-та, 1977.

6. Романова Л. И. Английская грамматика в тестах / Л. И. Романова. М.: Айрис пресс, 2004.

7. Федорова, Г. Н. Пособие по подготовке к ЕГЭ и централизованному тестированию по английскому языку / Г. Н. Федорова. Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2003.

8. Английский язык: сб. тестов. Минск: Аверсэв, 2008.

CONTENTS ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ .................................................................................................................3

PART I. First Steps Toward Civilization ...........................................................................5

Test 1. A Culture. The Earliest Cultures ..............................................................................5 Test 2. Alphabet. The Greek Alphabet ...................................................................................9 Test 3. The Roman Alphabet ................................................................................................12 Test 4. Daily Life in Ancient Rome ....................................................................................15 Test 5. Prisoners of War on Roman Coins ..........................................................................20

PART II ..............................................................................................................................25

Test 1. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) .........................................................................25 Test 2 Аmerican Continent ..................................................................................................28 Test on Reading ....................................................................................................................33

PART III .............................................................................................................................36 Test 1. International Organizations ......................................................................................36

PART IV .............................................................................................................................41

Test 1. Oustanding People ....................................................................................................41

Test on Reading ....................................................................................................................45

FINAL TESTS .....................................................................................................................48

Lexical-Grammar Test 1 .......................................................................................................48

Lexical-Grammar Test 2 .......................................................................................................53

Lexical-Grammar Test 3 .......................................................................................................59

Test on Reading 1 .................................................................................................................65

Test on Reading 2 .................................................................................................................68

Test on Reading 3 .................................................................................................................70

Test on Reading 4 .................................................................................................................72 Test on Word Formation .....................................................................................................74

KEYS ....................................................................................................................................75

REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................86

Учебное издание

Абрамчик Екатерина Федоровна

Козел Людмила Александровна

Поваляева Валентина Николаевна Турляй Лилия Петровна

ENGLISH

FOR HISTORY STUDENTS. ACHIEVEMENT TESTS

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

ИТОГОВЫЕ ТЕСТЫ

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ

ИСТОРИЧЕСКОГО

ФАКУЛЬТЕТА БГУ

На английском языке

В авторской редакции

Художник обложки Т. Ю. Таран

Технический редактор Г. М. Романчук Компьютерная верстка Т. А. Малько

Ответственный за выпуск Т. М. Турчиняк

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