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Студенческий документ № 060951 из ГИТИС

Assignment 1

Read, translate and retell these texts:

The Reign of Gloriana. The influence of the Renaissance had made any sovereign almost a sacred person. With Henry VIII, " terrible majesty invested the head of the State." Queen Elizabeth was worshiped by her subjects almost with idolatry. One of her greatest poets, Edmund Spenser, called her " Gloriana." More than any sovereign before or since, she seemed to be identified with England itself. The English people, joyful in welcoming a thoroughly English queen, gave her their love and homage; but for the first twenty years of her reign she had to grapple with, and overcome, a spirit of deep depression in England. Of this period a modern historian has said: If Elizabeth had perished by force of arms or by the assassin's knife at any time within the first twenty years of her reign, her name would have been linked with a time of singular barrenness, and we should perhaps have talked of " Poor Queen Bess's cheerless days."This statement seems extraordinary, when we think of her glorious achievements and of the rich and prosperous heritage she left to her people. In fact her reign falls into three distinct periods.

The first was gloomy and foreboding, for several reasons: (1) The loss of Calais, although eventually good for England, was bitterly resented by the people. (2) The powerful Roman Catholic Church threatened a Counter Reformation. (3) England feared Spain and invasion by a Spanish army under the cruel Duke of Alva, Spanish military dictator of the Netherlands. (4) The claim of Mary Queen of Scots (Catholic) to the English crown was a storm center for all Catholic intrigue. (5) Among the common people a condition of unemployment and pauperism existed caused by the high cost of living, the eviction of men from their land so that their employers might raise sheep, and the plundering of the monasteries at a time when, under Henry VIII, " the richer classes went mad with the lust of gain." The second period was distinguished by extraordinary individual action in sea adventures, voyages, and discoveries, and an outburst of creative energy in the arts. In the third period, England, thoroughly awakened as a nation to the fullness of her new powers, entered upon her Golden Age.

How Elizabeth Met Her Problems. Elizabeth, the young half sister to " Bloody Mary," who had tried to force England back into Catholicism, had been reared a Protestant. Consequently she swung England back into the Protestant faith and to the Church established by Henry VIII. Furthermore she reinstated the English Book of Common Prayer.

Although some persecution and martyrdom of Catholics stained Elizabeth's reign, she was a born diplomat and wisely neglected to enforce rigidly some of the laws against nonconforming clergy. Her policy in general was one of tolerance, though her excommunication by the Pope and the menace to her throne of Mary Queen of Scots drove her to some grim retaliation on the Catholics. Furthermore she waged a war of extermination in Ireland that resulted in the final submission of a mere starving remnant of the people and a " barren victory which has ever since carried with it its own curse."

Then, by adroit action, she broke up an alliance between Scotland and France, dangerous to England. This masterly move made Scotland actually friendly with England for the first time, and led finally to amicable union. As for Spain and the feared Duke of Alva, Elizabeth captured the treasure ship sent him by the King of Spain with pay for his army, and he was too much occupied with revolt in the Netherlands to retaliate.

To stop the rise in prices and restore prosperity, Elizabeth had all the money in England reminted. She also established a Poor Law, which admitted that it was the duty of the State to care for the poor and that all unemployed persons were not necessarily rogues and vagabonds. As for Elizabeth's own expenses, she always strove to be as economical as possible. She has even been called penurious. Finally, she and her minister, Burleigh, managed to accomplish three great gains for England: (i) triumph over foreign foes, (2) her rise as a great industrial and mercantile power, (3) the beginning of a united Great Britain.

№ 2

The Tragic Destiny of Mary Queen of Scots. To the student of literature one of Elizabeth's most interesting problems -was a rival queen. The ruling dynasty of Scotland was the house of Stuart, descended from a daughter of Robert Bruce. James IV of Scotland, of this house, had married Margaret, the daughter of Henry VII of England. Her son, James V of Scotland, married a French princess, Mary of Guise. Their daughter was Mary Stuart, better known as Mary Queen of Scots, one of the most romantic and ill-fated queens of history. When a mere girl, she was married to the Dauphin of France, and soon found herself Queen of France, Queen of Scotland, and potential Queen of England. Through her grandmother she had a perfectly valid claim to the English throne. She was an ardent Roman Catholic.

On the death of her husband, the French king, this young, fascinating, and wholly feminine queen returned to rule Scotland. There the sour and violent John Knox, who religiously ruled Scotland with a rod of iron, denounced her because of her religious views. After a long struggle against her equally violent Scotch lords, she married a weakling, Lord Darnley, for certain reasons of state, but fell in love with Bothwell, a leading baron of Scotland, and started on a road that endedat the executioner's block. Throughout it all, Mary remained Queen Elizabeth's greatest and most deadly rival. Civil war in Scotland followed Mary's third marriage, and she was forced to flee to England. There she became Queen Elizabeth's prisoner, and languished in captivity for nineteen years, from 1568 to 1587. Her highly romantic and tragic tale has been told again and again in novels, poems, and histories, and recently in Maxwell Anderson's play, Mary of Scotland.

Elizabeth did not actually wish to execute her, though she feared the Catholic plots that gathered about her. In Spain King Philip bided his time. While Mary lived he had hopes of a turn of fortune, her escape, her enthronement, and a Catholic England. If Queen Elizabeth's death could only be managed too! But Elizabeth also played a waiting game. Finally, however, Mary was accused of participation in a plot against Elizabeth's life, and, at the exact psychological moment, the queen sentenced her to execution. King Philip, of course, immediately set out to avenge her, but Elizabeth was now fully prepared to meet his forces.

The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. The " Invincible Armada " launched by King Philip against England was the greatest fleet of its day. It consisted of one hundred and fifty immense and towering galleons. But their bulk proved more awe-inspiring than efficient in the narrow English Channel. The fleet was intended to cover the landing in England of a huge Spanish army from the Netherlands. But " the unwieldy galleons, spread in a crescent of seven miles from end to end," were met by the easily handled small ships of Lord Howard, Sir Francis Drake, Hawkins, and the English sea dogs. These proved a nest of hornets. Helped by a favorable wind, the English utterly routed the floundering Spanish fleet. The endeavor of the galleons to escape round the north of Scotland completed their disaster. Scarce a third of that magnificent and pompous fleet ever returned to Spain. No greater impetus to English patriotism could be imagined than the winning of so unequal a battle! The destruction of the huge Armada was the foundation of England's sea supremacy, and the victory has gone ringing down the ages in song and story.

Portrait of a Queen. Queen Elizabeth was a dominant and shrewd woman of essentially modern temper. This " Virgin Queen " kept both France and Spain dangling in hope of an alliance. She had many favorites at her court, including the Earl of Leicester, Sir Walter Raleigh, and the Earl of Essex, whom she finally sent to the block. Maxwell Anderson's stirring play, Elizabeth tte Queen, well depicts this part of her personal life. She traveled with great magnificence onher " progresses " through her realm, the expense of these journeys falling largely on the nobles who entertained her. She dressed in satin and jewels, with " cartwheel " ruff and jeweled overdress, and often rode a great white horse, which is said to have inspired the nursery rhyme, " Ride a white horse to Banbury Cross." She was plain of feature, with a high-bridged aquiline nose and a painted complexion. Though she possessed a violent temper and could scold like a fishwife, she had deep worldly wisdom, personal magnetism, and a grandeur of spirit that demand high praise. As she herself declared, " I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England too."

№ 3

THE ENGLISH NOVEL

What is a Novel ? To realize fully why all the works so far mentioned were not novels, we need to have a definition of a novel. We commonly think of a novel as a long fictitious prose narrative. In addition, a novel should picture live men and women in their natural environment. It should emphasize character and the relations of one to another in the story, rather than mere incident. But incidents of some sort there must be. Otherwise the piece of writing would be an essay or a character sketch. The characters must be seen moving about, doing things, talking to one another, living their lives. This series of incidents forms the plot of the novel, which must have some unity of idea and lead to a plausible outcome. The plot may be carefully and closely constructed, so that each episode fits into a pattern; or it may be loosely constructed from occurrences following one another without seeming design, as they do in our lives. This second method is particularly suitable to the biographical novel in which the interest of the story centers around one character, whose life is told from the beginning.

These two methods of plot construction can be illustrated from the familiar works of Dickens. A Tale of Two Cities has a closely designed plot into which all the characters fit like parts of a jigsaw puzzle. David Copperfield, on the other hand, gives the experiences and persons encountered by David during the course of his life. Though the main characters run through the book, minor characters drop in and out of the story. Yet even so, there is more unity and continuity than in the old

" rogue novels " in which the rogue hero engaged in a series of enterprises, each interesting in itself, but often with no permanent group of characters to tie one episode to the next. Dickens's Pickwick Papers, though classed among his novels, is really a modified version of this old form, with Mr. Pickwick and his club taking the place of the " rogue." Their scattered adventures around England hardly deserve the term novel in its strict sense. Another type of " near novel " is that in which the characters are mere puppets carrying out an elaborate pattern of incidents, such as in the murder mysteries of today, which are carelessly, but not legitimately, referred to as novels.

In summary, then, a novel is the extended story of a group of individualized characters, who are made to come alive in a normal background, and whose personalities interact on one another toward a specific outcome. The ultimate test of a true novel is in its character drawing. It has been well said that in a good novel the incidents must be not only possible but probable, and in a great novel they must be inevitable. Thus a great novelist needs a rare and mature understanding of human character and motive.

№ 5

The First Novels.

Pamela, the first long, connected story of lifelike people in contemporary England, appeared in 1740. The origin of this first novel is curious. When Samuel Richardson, a middle-aged printer, was asked by a publisher to prepare a volume of letters as a model for the uneducated, he sought to add interest to the work by centering his plot on the life of a poor, virtuous serving-girl. So clearly and convincingly did this moralist set forth his searchings into woman's heart that his work became as popular on the Continent as in England. Surprised by his success, Richardson produced a second story, Clarissa Harloive, with a heroine from the middle class instead of the lower class. As the men in- both books were far from admirable, the author's friends protested, and he completed the series with Sir Charles Grandison, a picture of the

" perfect gentleman " of aristocratic life. All three of these tremendously long stories were told by means of letters, and show Richardson's rare gift of penetrating the human heart.

However, while most readers wept copiously over Richardson's tales of virtue distressed and rewarded, some scoffed at his long, grandiloquent, and wearisome portrayals of sentiment. Among these critics was one whom Thackeray afterward called " the manly, English Harry Fielding." This satiric playwright began in a spirit of mockery a skit about Pamela's brother, Joseph, whom he depicted as virtuous as his sister. But Fielding went further than he had expected. Joseph Andrews developed into a novel containing, in Parson Adams, one of the famous characters of fiction. A shrewd observer of people, Fielding became the equal and eventually the superior of Richardson. He wrote for men rather than women. Turning from Richardson's analysis of a woman's heart, he maintained his bluff good humor, fidelity to life, and hatred of sham. His masterpiece is Tom Jones, a remarkable panorama of the people of his time. It stands as the first great English realistic novel of character and manners. In the next few decades many writers attempted the novel with some success, but without Fielding's power. Among the more prominent novelists of the mid-century was Tobias Smollett, a Scotch surgeon, coarse but zestful, who drew pictures of the life of Scotchmen and " sea dogs," and is remembered as the first of a notable line of writers of sea tales. His best-known novels are his first, Roderick Random, a swinging adventure story, largely autobiographical, and his last, Humphrey Clinker, a humorous tale of a country squire's travels about England. Dickens was later greatly influenced by the robust humor and the caricatures of Smollett's novels. Paired with Smollett in time, but opposite in spirit, is Laurence Sterne, a brilliant, eccentric parson, who drew a memorable portrait of " my Uncle Toby " in his nine-volume, autobiographical novel Tristram Shandy.

Of all the novels of the eighteenth century, the one most read today is Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield, the first to give dignity to fatherhood and enduring romantic interest to home life. The author drew several of its portraits from members of his own family.

№ 6

Scott Develops the Historical Romance.

Widely read though the earlier novelists had been, Sir Walter Scott with the publication of Waverley anonymously in 1814 was the first to popularize the novel above all other forms of literature. While other novelists had gained hundreds of readers, the " wizard of the North " won and still keeps his tens of thousands. Through his long series of more than thirty romances and historical works of fiction, he made great events and personages of history come alive. Sweeping over the centuries and many countries, Scott was the first novelist to make history live. He also made the scene an essential element in the action of the story, and he established the historical novel as one of the favorite types in our literature. His range is astonishing. All his tales are rich in movement and in graphic power. The freshness of native speech, the vigor of abounding life, the inherent nobility of many of his characters, and his strong romantic spirit are markedly revealed in such novels of native Scottish life as Guy Mannering, The Heart of Midlothian, and Rob Roy. Ivanhoe and Kenilworth are favorites among the group with an English setting; while Quentin Durward, laid in France, and The Talisman, picturing the Crusades in the Holy Land, carry the reader convincingly to foreign lands. To this master storyteller, a lover of simple people and of men of action, the English novel is indebted for a long line of notable romantic characters, and the popularizing of the spirit of romanticism, still a leading quality of our literature'.

№ 7

Soviet cinema

The year 1980 saw the appearance of still another remarkable film, Autumn Marathon by Georgi Danelia, closer to Garage in spirit and style than to Moscow. Danelia made his debut in the 1960s with the delightful film A Summer to Remember (1960), co-directed with Igor Talankin. He then proceeded alone with a steady flow of good movies, among them Afonia (1975) and Mimino (1977). Autumn Marathon is a sympathetic but ironic portrait of a gentle universityprofessor in his mid-forties, entering the "autumnal" phase of his life. Incapable of turning down anyone's requests, professor Andrei Buzykin (interpreted with extreme sensibility by Oleg Basilashvili) has spread himself so thin that he can no longer cope with the increasing demands of his professional and private life. Although meaning well and trying to please everyone, he ends up causing great unhappi- ness to both his wife and his mistress and disappointing his greedy colleagues as well as his concerned friends and neighbors. At one point Andrei seems to have found a way out of the impasse. But it is only a brief delusion; life then returns to the normal routine. He is trapped in a vicious circle which he has helped to create. In fact, his positive qualities - intelligence, sensitivity, kindness of soul - are offset by one dominant trait: total passivity. He does not act in life: he simply reacts to people and events as best he can, without any protest and with a resigned smile. This is what he does every morning when his foreign colleague, a Danish professor and a physical fitness devotee, rings his doorbell and drags him out to go jogging.

The structure of the film is circular. It starts and ends with a jogging session in the dark morning hours. In the northern city of Leningrad, where the action takes place, darkness is a sign of autumn and the oncoming winter. The visual metaphor does not suggest the possibility of a new spring in Andrei's life. In the final sequence the jogging path is punctuated by a row of street lamps leading to infinity. This comedy of manners - whose elegiac tone is enlivened by a measured sense of humor - seems to find its inspiration in the cultural tradition of the past century by proposing an updated version of a literary figure, the "superfluous man." Certainly, it is not by accident that Danelia chose to set the story in Leningrad, the city that since Pushkin's time has bred a vast fictional progeny of gifted and inept anti-heros.

Assignment 2 Translate these sentences into English:

1. present participle active;

2. prefer to do/prefer doing

1. Братья Оливер (1871-1948) и Уилбер (1867- 1912) Райт, изобретя машину своей собственной конструкции - самолет, претворили (to realize) в жизнь (1903) самые смелые мечты человечества: совершили первые полеты с двигателем тяжелее воздуха на самолете.( heavier-than-air craft летательный аппарат тяжелее воздуха)

2. Не имея возможности присутствовать в зале суда, свидетель направил письмо с показаниями в суд.

3. Вынув ключ, Гриша с удивлением увидел, что на ключе появилась трещина.

4. Сделав замечание подросткам, полицейский предложил им уйти с проезжей части дороги.

5. Настя, сев в самолет, вдруг обнаружила, что ее сумочка потерялась.

6. Будучи библиоманом (bibliomaniac [?b?bl??u'me?n??k]), граф (count) Румянцев стал основателем крупнейшей библиотеки России.

7. Маша задумчиво закрыла книгу, прочтя последнюю страницу романа Э. М. Ремарка "Три товарища".

8. Мы выполняли интересную работу играя и не заметили, как окончился рабочий день.

9. Разбушевавшись (to rage), стихия (element) успокоилась только к утру в воскресенье.

10. Будучи усталыми, мы выбрали самый медленный темп в музыке для танца.

11. Римский император Гай Юлий Цезарь, читая важные депеши, одновременно мог слушать советников и отдавать приказы помощникам.

12. Получив несправедливо малые дивиденды (unfair share), один из вкладчиков (depositor) подал протест на руководство банка.

13. Ворона, слушая лисицу, выпустила сыр, и с ним была плутовка (cheat) такова.

14. Великие шахматисты, даже проигрывая важные турниры, умели сохранять невозмутимость. Таким был русский шахматист Михаил Чигорин.

15. Будучи профессором консерватории, Д. Кабалевский написал оперу "Кола Брюньон".

16. В. Набоков, начиная писать первые свои рассказы, увлекся (to be carried away) собиранием бабочек и со временем стал не только великим писателем, но и коллекционером.

17. Спора (spore), попадая в почву, зарождает грибницу (a mushroom spawn).

18. Драматург А. Островский, написав пьесу "Гроза", почувствовал себя опустошенным (spiritually bankrupt).

19. Александр Пушкин, находясь под сильным впечатлением личности Петра I, написал поэму "Полтава".

20. Не имея времени на рассмотрение чертежей, главный конструктор отложил совещание.

1. Я бы предпочел компенсировать ущерб, чем заниматься рассмотрением рекламаций (claim).

2. Руководитель фирмы попросил меня сделать анализ рынка компьютеров. Я ответил: "Я бы предпочел, чтобы эту работу вы поручили (to entrust) не только мне, но и эксперту Хиггинсу".

3. Нобелевский лауреат Петр Капица предпочитал сам изготавливать многие приборы для проведения физических опытов, чем покупать их. У него была не только золотая голова, но и прекрасные (crafty), все умеющие делать руки.

4. Медведь - всеядное (omnivorous) животное, но предпочитает есть сладости - мед и малину.

5. А. С. Пушкин признавался, что он предпочитает осень любым другим временам года.

6. И. С. Тургенев очень любил Россию, но предпочитал жить во Франции, тому была причиной его привязанность к (affection for) актрисе П. Виардо.

7. Иван Грозный не любил находиться в своей московской резиденции и предпочитал жить в подмосковных усадьбах (homestead).

8. Иван Грозный предпочитал дворян (the gentry) (он учредил это сословие (estate)) боярам (the boyar's).

9. M. И. Кутузов предпочел сдать (to surrender) Москву, чем проиграть всю войну.

10. Мой друг Ваня так закалил (to become healthy) себя, что предпочитал даже зимой ходить в легкой одежде.

11. Он предпочитает слушать народные песни по радио, чем присутствовать на концерте исполнителей "Heavy Metal".

12. Мои родители не могут понять психологию людей, предпочитающих творчество художников-импрессионистов творчеству художников реалистического направления (realist painter).

13. Мой знакомый художник предпочитает писать портреты, нежели пейзажи.

14. Польский писатель Станислав Лем предпочитал творить в области научной фантастики, чем писать романы.

15. Александр Македонский, великий завоеватель, предпочитал стремительную атаку (a swift thrust), нежели длительную осаду (siege).

16. Мой отец предпочитает электронные часы механическим. На его взгляд, они более надежные.

17. На участке мы предпочли посадить яблони и сливы, чем разводить (to grow) огород.

18. Мы предпочли затратить большие средства на изготовление изделия, пользующегося большим спросом, чем продолжать изготавливать старое изделие, не требующее никаких дополнительных денег.

19. После Второй мировой войны народ США предпочел избрать на пост президента генерала Эйзенхауэра (Dwight David Eisenhower) (1953-1961), чем гражданского человека.

20. В самые тяжелые годы депрессии избиратели США предпочли избрать своим президентом Ф. Д. Рузвельта (Franklin Delano Rooseveit) (1933-1945) любому другому кандидату. Он был президентом рекордный период и был избран на четвертый срок, но умер в 1945 году.

Assignment 3

Learn the poem by heart:

SIR WALTER RALEIGH (1552-1618)

THE NYMPH'S REPLY TO THE SHEPHERD

If all the world and love were young,

And truth in every shepherd's tongue,

These pretty pleasures might me move

To live with thee and be thy love.

Time drives the flocks from field to fold, 5

When rivers rage, and rocks grow cold;

And Philomel becometh dumb;

The rest complains of cares to come.

The flowers do fade, and wanton fields

To wayward Winter reckoning yields; 10

A honey tongue, a heart of gall,

Is fancy's spring, but sorrow's fall.

Thy gowns, thy shoes, thy beds of roses,

Thy cap, thy kirtle, and thy posies,

Soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten,

In folly ripe, in reason rotten.

Thy belt of straw and ivy buds,

Thy coral clasps and amber studs,

All these in me no means can move

To come to thee and be thy love. 20

But could youth last, and love still breed,

Had joys no date, nor age no need,

Then these delights my mind might move

To live with thee and be thy love.

1

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227 Кб, 18 июня 2014 в 6:33 - Россия, Москва, ГИТИС, 2014 г., docx
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