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Студенческий документ № 086136 из ЭЭИ

Министерство образования, науки, молодёжи и спорта Украины

Севастопольский национальный технический университет

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

к выполнению контрольных работ № 1,2,3,4

по дисциплине "Английский язык"

для студентов I-II курсов специальности "Электромеханика"

заочной формы обучения

Часть I

Севастополь

2013

УДК 629.123+656.61.052

Методические указания к выполнению контрольных работ № 1,2,3,4 по дисциплине "Английский язык" для студентов I-II курсов специальности "Электромеханика" заочной формы обучения / Сост. С.А.Королёва - Севастополь: Изд-во СевНТУ, 2013. - 48 с.

Целью методических указаний является оказание помощи студентам департамента СПЭМС в изучении английского языка. Варианты заданий включают предложения на различные грамматические явления, которые студент должен изучить самостоятельно. Тексты, данные в заданиях, имеют профессиональную направленность, каждый текст снабжен вокабуляром, который облегчает понимание содержания текста и должен быть усвоен в процессе работы с текстом.

Методические указания утверждены на заседании кафедры Практики романских и германских языков (протокол № от г.)

Допущено учебно-методическим центром и научно-методическим Советом СевНТУ в качестве методических указаний.

Рецензент: Скидан О.Г., кан. фил. наук, доцент кафедры практики романо-германских языков.

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Введение............................................................................ 4

Требования на зачетах и экзаменах...........................................5

1. Контрольная работа №1......................................................7

2. Контрольная работа №2....................................................17

3. Контрольная работа №3.....................................................26

4. Контрольная работа № 4.....................................................37

Библиографический список ....................................................47

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Программа курса английского языка для студентов-заочников специальностей "Электромеханика" СевНТУ ставит целью практическое владение иностранным языком по специальности, следовательно, курс обучения иностранному языку является профессионально ориентированным и овладение английским языков рассматривается как приобретение студентами коммуникативной компетенции, позволяющей использовать получение знания в практической деятельности.

По окончании обязательного курса обучаемый должен уметь:

- справляться с грамматическими трудностями при переводе технических текстов;

- работать с различными видами технических текстов, документов и инструкций;

- принимать участие в беседе в ситуациях официального общения на общие профессиональные темы;

- составить деловые письма, ремонтные ведомости, заявки.

Контроль за работой студента и усвоением необходимого объема учебного материала осуществляется посредством проверки контрольных заданий, определяемых учебным планом, зачетами и экзаменами.

К зачету допускаются студенты, выполнившие все письменные и устные работы, получившие зачет по контрольным работам и сдавшие нормы чтения, установленные для данного курса, а также проработавшие тексты контрольных работ.

К экзамену по английскому языку допускаются студенты, сдавшие зачеты за предшествующие экзамену курсу, получившие зачеты по контрольным работам и сдавшие нормы чтения иностранной литературы за данный учебный период.

Для реализации этих целей за полный курс обучения студент обязан:

1) приобрести словарный запас в 2500 лексических единиц (слов и терминов по специальности).

2) Изучить грамматику английского языка в таком объеме, который позволяет осуществлять коммуникативные потребности;

3) Проработать следующие виды учебной литературы: тексты уроков учебников, специализированных учебных пособий и хрестоматий.

Примечание.

1. За одну страницу принимается 1500 печатных знаков.

2. Весь объем распределяется равномерно на весь цикл обучения.

Проверка дополнительного чтения, осуществляется, как правило, в форме выборочного перевода текстов или документов.

Контроль за работой студентов усвоением объема учебного материала проводится посредством проверки контрольных заданий, определяемых учебным планом, зачетами и экзаменом.

ТРЕБОВАНИЯ НА ЗАЧЕТАХ И ЭКЗАМЕНАХ

Зачет

К зачету допускаются студенты, выполнившие все письменные и устные работы, получившие зачет по контрольным работам и сдавшие нормы чтения, установленные для данного курса, а также проработавшие тексты контрольных работ.

Для получения зачета студент должен:

а) уметь правильно читать и понимать без словаря учебные тексты, изученные в течение данного семестра, а также тексты контрольных работ;

б) уметь прочитать и перевести со словарем с английского языка на русский новый текст. Норма перевода - 800 печатных знаков письменно, 1200 - устно;

в) уметь прочитать и понять без словаря новый текст (на темы, изученные в течении года), в котором встречается не более 8 незнакомых слов на одну страницу, и передать содержание на русском языке;

г) уметь отвечать на вопросы преподавателя в разговоре на бытовые и профессиональные темы или подготовить устное сообщение по изученным темам.

Экзамен

К экзамену по английскому языку допускаются студенты, сдавшие зачеты за предшествующие экзамену курсы, получившие зачеты по контрольным работам и сдавшие нормы чтения иностранной литературы за данный учебный период.

Для сдачи экзамена студент должен:

а) уметь правильно читать и понимать без словаря учебные тексты, изученные в течение данного года обучения, а также тексты контрольных работ;

б) уметь прочитать и перевести с помощью словаря текст средней трудности по специальности широкого профиля (Норма чтения и перевода: 1000 печатных знаков в час для письменного перевода или 1400 печатных знаков для устного перевода);

в) уметь прочитать и понять без словаря новый научно-популярный текст, содержащий не более 8 незнакомых слов на одну страницу текста, и передать смысл прочитанного на русском языке; норма чтения - 1200 печатных знаков в час;

г) уметь вести беседу по пройденному материалу.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №1

1.1. Общие указания к выполнению контрольной работы № 1.

Для того, чтобы выполнить контрольную работу №1, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

1) Имя существительное, артикли, множественное число имен существительных. Выражение падежных отношений в английском языке с помощью предлогов окончаний; порядок слов в предложении. Использование существительного в функции определения.

2) Степени сравнения имен прилагательных и наречий, сравнительные конструкции.

3) Местоимения: личные, указательные, притяжательные, вопросительные, неопределенные.

4) Формы настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времени Indefinite действительного залога изъявительного наклонения. Повелительное наклонение и его отрицательную форму. Выражение приказания и просьбы с помощью глагола let.

5) Оборот there + be .

1.2. Образец выполнения контрольной работы №1

Задание 1.

The main engine operates well . Главный двигатель работает хорошо.

Operates - 3 лицо, единственное число, Present Indefinite от глагола to operate.

Задание 5.

Yesterday the electrical engineers of your Вчера электрики из вашей

company came on board of our vessel. компании приходили на

наше судно.

Past Indefinite Active от глагола - to come.

1.3. Оформление контрольной работы и выбор варианта

1) Студент должен выполнить один из пяти представленных вариантов в соответствии с последними цифрами номера зачетной книжки или студенческого билета: студенты, шифр которых оканчивается на 1 и 2 выполняют вариант №1, на 3 или 4 - №2, на 5 или 6 - №3, на 7 или 8 - №4, на 9 или 0 - №5.

2) Выполнять контрольные работы следует в отдельной тетради. На обложке обязательно указывается № контрольной работы, фамилия, имя, отчество, вариант, номер студенческого билета или зачетки и адрес.

3) Контрольные работы выполняются аккуратно, разборчивым почерком. Для замечаний рецензента следует оставлять поля.

4) При выполнении контрольной работы обязательно переписывайте само задание и предложения, а также текст на английском языке.

5) Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:

левая страница правая страница

Поля Английский текст Русский текст Поля

6) Выполненная контрольная работа должна быть представлена на проверку в установленные сроки.

7) При наличии ошибок не зачтенная работа с замечаниями рецензента возвращается на доработку и исправление ошибок. Эта работа делается в той же тетради после выполненной работы.

8) Правильно выполненная работа рекомендуется рецензентом к защите.

9) Помимо выполнения контрольных работ, студент обязан к каждому зачету усваивать активную лексику по специальности из каждого текста всех без исключения вариантов, то есть должен уметь переводить тексты всех вариантов.

1.4. Контрольные задания

Вариант № 1

Задание 1.

Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

- Показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

- Признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

- Показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык

1) The new transformer requires general overhaul.

2) Since electrons are negative charges, they fly to the plate only when the plate is positive.

3) Most of the world's electric power is generated in steam plants driven by coal, oil,

nuclear energy, or gas.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1) College-level physics books describe a less misleading method of measuring electric energy flow.

2) It will be a new energy conservation system.

3) There is a certain amount of the radio-frequency energy.

Задание 3.

Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1) The longer the wire, the greater is its resistance to a current flow.

2) The differences of these two substances are more noticeable than their similarities.

3) The supermagnet creates a magnetic twice as strong as that from a conventional iron-core electromagnet.

Задание 4.

Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1) Our device was in operation for some 10 years.

2) No expansion takes place as the steam flows through the blading.

3) Any current can flow in this circuit.

Задание 5.

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Heat changed water into vapour.

2) Tomorrow the representative of our company will test the ordered device.

3) When does mutual inductance take place?

Задание 6.

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Conductivity

Current may pass through solid conductors, liquids, gases or any combination of these. Some substances like metals, for example, conduct electricity easily. Such substances as copper, silver, aluminum carry an electric current very well. They have very low resistance. Other substances, like rubber, glass, porcelain conduct electricity poorly. They have an extremely high resistance. The ability of a conductor to pass electric charges is called conductance or conductivity.

The opposition which a material offers to the flow of current is known as resistance. If the opposition is small, conductivity is good and the body is classed as a conductor. When resistance is high, conductivity is poor, and the substance is classed as a poor conductor or a good insulator. Thus, the greater conductivity a substance has, the less is its resistance. So we can say that conductivity is inversely proportional to resistance. The best conductor has the least resistance; quite opposite, the poorest conductor has the greatest resistance. Conductance depends upon four things, namely: the material of a conductor, its length, diameter and its temperature.

There is a great difference in conductance of various substances. All metals conduct current easily, but copper carries current more easily than iron, and silver is the best conductor. Therefore, silver has a greater conductance than copper.

The unit used for measuring conductivity is the siemens. Resistance and conductors are related. Conductance is I divided by resistance and vice versa:

Resistance = I / conductance

Задание 7.

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. Do all substances conduct electricity?

2. What materials conduct an electric current well?

3. What is conductance?

4. What property of a substance is the opposition to conductance?

5. What is the relation between resistance and conductance?

6. Which conductor carries current more readily?

Задание 8. Ответьте письменно, правдиво ли следующее утверждение? Если нет, то почему:

Conductance depends upon three things, namely: the material of a conductor, its diameter and its temperature.

Bариант № 2

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

- показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

- признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

- показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык

1) A low-pass filter consists of an inductance coil and a condenser.

2) What factors does conductivity depend upon?

3) The ohmmeter's readings are incorrect.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1) The power station of a power system consists of a prime mover.

2) It has been necessary to find ways of reducing energy losses in power transmission lines.

3) Much of the Engine Department on board a ship concerns the maintenance of the ship.

Задание 3.

Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1) Copper is a better conductor that iron.

2) The specialty of an electrician is as interesting as the specialty of a radio-operator.

3) The more current passes through a resistor the higher is its temperature.

Задание 4.

Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1) No current passes through the circuit.

2) There are some metal plates and insulators in a capacitor.

3) Are there any insulators?

Задание 5.

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Next time the temperature of the resistor will be much higher.

2) The engineers connected cells in parallel.

3) Do the readings on the scale show the value of voltage or resistance?

Задание 6.

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Supermagnet

Scientists have achieved great success in the development of the first super strong superconducting magnet. For its size, weight, energy consumption it is the most powerful magnet ever built. Such magnets are used in dozens of laboratories throughout the world. The supermagnet creates a magnetic twice as strong as that from a conventional iron-core electromagnet. The new magnet runs from an ordinary automobile storage battery. The superconducting magnet produces a magnetic strength, or flux density, of 43000 gausses.

Scientists agree that such magnets can revolutionize almost every aspect of man's use of electricity including the generation, distribution and use of electric power. The new magnet is wound from a wire which is a superconductor. There are materials which have the remarkable property of losing all electrical resistance at temperatures near absolute zero. Once started, supercurrents of electricity flow through superconductors forever without loss in strength.

Until a few years ago superconductors were simply a laboratory curiosity. Scientists believed that strong magnets could not be made from them because the magnetism they create by their supercurrents destroys their superconductivity. But it was demonstrated that certain superconductors retain their properties even in strong magnetic fields.

The superconducting magnet contains a halfmile of very thin wire, about 5000 turns of wire, which are wound into a coil or solenoid. The coil is immersed in a vessel of liquid helium which keeps it at a temperature near 450? F.

The energy required to cool the coil is only a small fraction of that needed to create a comparable magnetic field with a standard electromagnet.

Essentially, therefore, the magnet produces almost all of its super magnetism "for free".

Задание 7.

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is the difference between ordinary magnets and supermagnets?

2. Is the magnetic field created by the supermagnet and the ordinary magnet the same or different?

3. What flux density does the supermagnet create?

4. What is the new magnet wound from?

5. Where is the coil immersed into?

6. How is super magnetism produced by the supermagnet?

Задание 8. Ответьте письменно, правдиво ли следующее утверждение? Если нет, то почему:

Most scientists are not sure that magnets can revolutionize almost every

aspect of man's use of electricity.

Вариант № 3

Задание 1.

Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

- показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

- признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

- показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык

1) The high-pass filter passes currents of high frequencies and opposes the flow of

low frequency current.

2) The insulators are in good condition.

3) The region's main industry is oil production.

Задание 2.

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1) In this case a battery has a large current capacity.

2) The cell connection in parallel increases the current capacity.

3) The supply voltage varies with the load.

Задание 3.

Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1) The shorter the wire, the less is its resistance to the current flow.

2) The ammeter is one of the most common meters.

3) This type of the circuits is more efficient one.

Задание 4.

Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1) Some galvanometers detect and measure currents as small as 10??? of an ampere per 1 mm of the scale.

2) No charges can move in an open circuit.

3) Any motion across the direction of the Faroe lines produces an e.m.f. in the conductor.

Задание 5.

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) The readings on the scale will show the measured value of current.

2) The conductivity increased with heating.

3) A modern ship has a rather complex electrical equipment.

Задание 6.

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Comparison of the A.C. and D.C. Circuits

In a d.c. circuit a current flows always in the same direction. In an a.c. circuit the supply terminals are continually reversing their polarity, so that the current so continual reverses its direction. In a d.c. circuit the voltage and the current being constant, there is no question of phase difference between the current and the voltage. But in a.c. circuits the e.m.f. and current are nut of phase wit each other.

A current setting up a magnetic flux surrounding the conductor in which it flows, important effects are observed in the a.c. The magnetic flux alternates with the current and induces an e.m.f. in the circuit. This e.m.f. gives rise to the phase difference between the current and applied voltage. In a.c. circuits capacitance effects may be important. A capacitor, when used in a d.c. circuit, constitutes after an initial charging an open circuit through which no current flews. But with an a.c. circuit the capacitor, being continually charged and discharged in opposite directions, takes a current and introduces "capacitance" into the circuit.

The a.c magnetic flux set up by а.c. gives the possibility of using a transformer. It changes the voltage of the circuit as required. It is the major advantage of a.c. as compared with d .c. For the efficient transmissions of electric power over long distances, a high voltage is nесеssагу, the efficiency of transmission increasing with the increase of voltage. Since with d.c. it is much more difficult to increase the voltage, therefore the using of d.c. for transmission is limited.

With an a.c. supply a transformer can be used to transform the generated voltage to a high value, other transformers being used to step down this voltage.

Задание 7.

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is the direction of a d.c. (an a.c.)?

2. Why is there a phase difference between the current and voltage in an a.c. circuit?

3. When is an e.m.f. induced in the circuit?

4. What is the main advantage of an a.c.?

5. Which current (d. or a.) changes its voltage more easily?

6. What is the voltage of current changed by?

Задание 8.

Ответьте письменно, правдиво ли следующее утверждение? Если нет, то почему:

Rather low voltage is nесеssагу for the efficient transmissions of electric power over long distances.

Вариант № 4

Задание 1.

Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

- показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

- признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

- показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык

1) A transformer transfers electric energy from one electric circuit to another without a change in frequency.

2) We use different meters for different purposes.

3) Scientists agree that such magnets can revolutionize almost every aspect of man's use of electricity including the generation, distribution and use of electric power.

Задание 2.

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1) Modern electric power systems use transformers to convert electricity into different voltages.

2) The cell connection in parallel increases the current capacity.

3) There are no energy storage facilities here.

Задание 3.

Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1) The best conductor has the least resistance; quite opposite, the poorest conductor has the greatest resistance.

2) That power station is the largest one in Ukraine.

3) The faster the change of current, the greater the e.m.f. that will he induced.

Задание 4.

Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1) No current passes through that circuit.

2) Some resistors have a constant value - these are fixed resistors.

3) Any conductor can conduct current when high enough voltage is applied to it.

Задание 5.

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) This engineer's experiment resulted in the design of new electric device.

2) The engineers will connect some additional elements to the circuit next time.

3) An electric cell consists of an electrolyte and two electrodes.

Задание 6.

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Rectifiers

Most power sources supply a.c. because it is easily generated and transmitted over long lines. But d. currents are necessary for some industrial applications. Therefore it is frequently desirable to convert from a.c. to d.c. The most convenient way to change a.c. to d.c. is by means of a rectifier. A rectifier is capable of changing a.c. into d.c. The current thus changed is called "rectified".

The basic principle of a rectifier is that it permits current to flow in one direction only. A rectifier, a diode tube, is a device consisting of two elements, one being an electron emitter or cathode, the other an electron collector or anode or plate. Since electrons in a diode can flow in one direction only, from the cathode to the anode (plate), the diode provides the unilateral conduction necessary for rectification. Since electrons are negative charges, they fly to the plate only when the plate is positive.

When it becomes negative, it repels the electrons back to the cathode from which they were emitted. Therefore, when a. voltage is applied to the plate, it becomes alternately positive and negative so that plate current flows only during that half of the time when the plate (anode) is positive, and only in one direction. A diode tube operating in this manner cuts off the negative halves of the a.c. cycles and is called a half-wave rectifier. In the half-wave rectifier the current flows only during the positive half-cycle of the applied a.c. voltage.

The efficiency of the half-wave rectifier is low and it is used only for applications requiring a small current.

Задание 7.

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is an a.c. necessary to convert to a d.c. for?

2. What is a current changed by?

3. What is a rectifier?

4. What are the main parts of a rectifier?

5. What direction does a current flow in a rectifier?

6. What is the charge of the cathode (anode)?

Задание 8.

Ответьте письменно, правдиво ли следующее утверждение? Если нет, то почему:

In the half-wave rectifier the current flows both during the positive and negative half-cycle of the applied a.c. voltage.

Вариант № 5

Задание 1.

Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

- показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;

- признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

- показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык

1) Last year we repaired our plant's equipment.

2) What moves the coil and the pointer?

3) Electromagnets have wide application.

Задание 2.

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1) A current flow produces some effects.

2) In that case a battery has a large voltage output.

3) When the current flow is decreased, the magnetic lines of force again cut the wire.

Задание 3.

Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1) The most convenient way to change a.c. to d.c. is by means of a rectifier.

2) The more experiments we carry out, the more data we obtain.

3) This meter is about three times as sharp as that one.

Задание 4.

Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1) Are there any cells connected in series?

2) There are some models of diesel engines in that laboratory.

3) We used no very special devices to measure the value of resistance.

Задание 5.

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) The radio station informed us about bad weather condition in the North Sea.

2) The real training of an electrical engineer begins on board ship.

3) Two parallel conductors forming an electric circuit will have a comparatively small self-inductance.

Задание 6.

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Types of Inductance

An electric circuit, in which an e.m.f. is induced while a current is changing in this circuit, is called an inductive circuit and this circuit has, self-inductance. So the circuit, in which a change of current causes an e.m.f. to be induced within the circuit itself, possesses inductance or self-inductance. Self-inductance is the ability of a circuit to produce an e.m.f. in the same circuit in which the current is changing. Self-inductance is caused by variations in the magnetic field up by the varying current itself. Two parallel conductors forming an electric circuit will have a comparatively small self-inductance. But a solenoid will have a large self-inductance since there will be a considerable magnetic field linked with the solenoid.

When the e.m.f. is induced into a circuit by a change of flux, or in other wоrds when the e.m.f. is produced by a current changing in an adjacent circuit, this property of a circuit is called mutual inductance.

Mutual inductance is the property of a circuit to produce an e.m.f. in a near-by circuit by induction when the current in the first circuit changes. The second circuit can also induce an e.m.f. in the first when the current in the second changes. Mutual inductance is the ability not only of the circuits but of coils as well. Mutual inductance is the common property of two associated electric circuits or two coils and is the same in both directions.

Both self-inductance and mutual inductance occur only when there is a change in current.

Задание 7.

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. When is an e.m.f. induced in a circuit?

2. What is self-induction?

3. What is self-inductance caused by?

4. What is mutual inductance?

5. When do two coils have mutual inductance?

6. Due to what is an e.m.f. induced in one of the two parallel coils?

Задание 8.

Ответьте письменно, правдиво ли следующее утверждение? Если нет, то почему:

Only mutual inductance occurs when there is a change in current.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

2.1. Общие указания к выполнению контрольной работы № 2

Требования к оформлению контрольной работы № 2 остаются такими же, как и при оформлении контрольной работы № 1. Данная работа включает 3 задания на грамматический материал, перевод текста, одно упражнение к тексту.

Для того, чтобы выполнить контрольную работу № 2 необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованным учебникам и методическим пособиям:

1. Видовременные формы глагола:

а) активный залог формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future), формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future), формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future)

б) пассивный залог - формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future).

2. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты can, may, must, to be able to, have to, to be to, should.

3. Простые неличные формы глагола Participle I (Present Participle), Participle II (Past Participle) в функциях определения и обстоятельства.

2.2. Образец выполнения контрольной работы № 2

Задание 1.

When are you planning to finish the Когда вы планируете закончить

repair works. ремонтные работы.

planning = Present Continuous Active to plan - планировать

Задание 2.

If painted the main engine will look better. Если покрасить главный двигатель,

он будет выглядеть лучше.

If painted - Participle II - обстоятельство

when heated - Participle II - обстоятельство

Задание 3.

You will have to do it. Вам придется сделать это.

2.3. Контрольные задания

Вариант № 1

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (b) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

а) 1. The anode is attracting negatively charged ions.

2. The electrician has brought a repair list and some drawings to the dock master.

b) 1. The circuit elements are affected by many factors.

2. The shaft was connected to the motor by means of rigid coupling (муфта).

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle 1 и Participle 2 и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) While sailing in the Atlantic Ocean, the ship ran into a terrible storm.

2) 50 m3 of foam compound is also provided.

3) The state law applies to all tankers including those with double bottoms.

4) The pilot leading our ship through the channel is very experienced.

Задание 3

Перепишите предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Current may pass through solid conductors, liquids, gases or any combination of these.

2) The magnitude of current can be measured.

3) Our company electricians should always take an active part in prevention of any electricity problems.

4) Then they will have to buy switches, batteries, bulbs, tubes, LEDs.

5) Heat losses were to be reduced constantly and effectively.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 3 абзаца текста.

The Induced E.M.F.

A current flowing in a wire sets up a series of magnetic lines of force that surrounds the wire. When the current starts to flow, these lines of force jump out from the wire, cutting across the wire as they go out. A momentary e.m.f. is set up which is in opposition to the applied e.m.f. When the current flow is decreased, the magnetic lines of force again cut the wire. While the force lines are cutting the wire in the opposite direction, the induced e.m.f. is in the same direction as the applied e.m.f. If the current increases, the induced e.m.f. is directed opposite to it. If the current falls, it acts in the same direction as the current.

This e.m.f. will still be induced if the conductor is stationary and the magnetic field is moved so that the lines of force still out the conductor. It doesn't make any difference whether the magnetic field is stationary and the conductor moves or whether the conductor is stationary and the field moves. An e.m.f. is not induced in case a conductor moves parallel the force lines but only when it moves at an angle to these lines and outs them.

However, any motion across the direction of the Faroe lines produces an e.m.f. in the conductor. If this e.m.f acts in a closed circuit, current flows, if the circuit is open, the e.m.f. is still induced, but no current can flow since there is no closed circuit.

The induced e.m.f. depends upon the rate of flux change. The faster the change of current, the greater the e.m.f. that will he induced. The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. depends also upon the size and the shape of the wire and the strength of the magnetic field.

The induced e.m.f. and the current do not move along together, that is, in phase. When the current lags behind the induced e.m.f., this is called phase lag.

Задание 5

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is set up around a current carrying wire?

2. When do the force lines Jump out from the wire?

3. What does the induced e.m.f. depend upon?

Вариант № 2

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (b) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

a) 1. We have improved one of the high-speed diesel engines.

2. Electromechanics is still solving a great number of problems.

b) 1. These wires are acted upon great overloads.

2. This scientist's discovery was followed by an intensive research work of others.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle 1 и Participle 2 и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Being on board the training vessel, we practiced hard in seamanship.

2) The two new ships proposed will have the same dimensions.

3) The systems are intended for tankers and barges working between the West Coast and Alaska.

4) After leaving the condenser the liquid refrigerant (хладагент) passes back to the regulator.

Задание 3

Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) We had to substitute the bulb with the new one.

2) This cable is to be used for testing of the transmission line.

3) Scientists agree that such magnets can revolutionize almost every aspect of man's use of electricity including the generation, distribution and use of electric power.

4) One electric device may be larger than another one, but it may be less suitable.

5) These installations should be interconnected completing a single network.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Electrical Measurements

Electrical measurements are known to be used to measure both electrical quantities and non-electrical quantities by electrical methods. We know electrical measurements to be made by means of electric instruments. The measuring instruments are divided into indicating instruments and comparison ones. The accuracy and sensitivity of the latter are considered to be greater, but the actual comparison takes more time. The measuring with indicating instruments is stated to be faster and cheaper and so most measurements are performed by indicating instruments.

The electric measuring Instruments are calibrated in units of the quantity which they measure. The principles of operation of these instruments to measure various quantities vary widely, as do their forms of construction.

We say the measuring Instruments to be grouped into three main divisions. In the first category are rectifier instruments. The second category is known to include instruments whose indication depends on the square of the operating current.

The third category includes those instruments which are suitable for a.c. only. This class is considered to include the instrument operating on the induction principle, which are most commonly used as energy meters.

We find the use of electric measuring instruments to permit a whole series of important problems in modern technology to be solved by relatively simple means.

The USSR is known to produce all types of measuring instruments of the most modern construction.

Задание 5

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What are electrical measurements used for?

2. What are electrical measurements made by?

3. What types are the measuring instruments divided into?

4. Which instruments (comparison or indicating) are used more often?

5. Are the principles of operation of all measuring instruments the same or different?

6. What instruments are there in the first category?

7. Why is the use of measuring instruments of great importance?

Вариант № 3

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

a) 1. The engineers have chosen the step-down transformer for this purpose.

2) While the machinery is operating air gradually collects in the condenser.

b) 1. The testing of these indoor lines was followed by its wide employment.

2. Fire pumps are driven from the main engines.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Approaching the port of London, we saw many various ships in the mouth of the Thames.

2) The methods used were found fruitful.

3) The vessel was towed into Cape Town.

4) When completed they will replace two of the existing tractor tugs at Tees.

Задание 3

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Man-made satellites had to use solar cells as a source of power.

2) The elements of the circuits should be isolated by certain kind of fibres.

3) Power consumption can also be defined as a measure of comparison.

4) The electric field may be thought of as consisting of a number of lines of force.

5) You are to know the main principles of energy production.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

The Principles of Meter Operation

It is important to have instruments by means of which we measure directly the quantity of certain factors such as: current, voltage, resistance.

Ammeters, voltmeters, ohmmeters are found to constitute the largest group of measuring Instruments These instruments are known to be called meters and they operate by measuring the various effects produced by the electric current.

They operate on the principle that a coil may be so placed in a magnetic field that it will tend to turn when a current flows in it. This turning action is known to be the principle of the electric motor. A meter is known to be a small electric motor. For everyday measurements indicating instruments are considered to be most convenient. They are known to have three essential parts: an operating mechanism, a controlling mechanism and a damping mechanism.

Types in common use for different purposes are: moving iron, moving coil, thermal, electrostatic and induction.

The moving coil instrument is found to be the most useful instrument. The principle on which it operates is that the force on a conductor in a magnetic field depends upоn the current in the conductor. The magnetic field is provided by a small permanent magnet. A current-carrying coil has a magnetic field around it. If such a coil free to move is placed in another magnetic field, it will move due to the interaction between the two fields. When a current passes through the coil, an electromagnet is produced. The poles of the electromagnet are attracted by the poles of the permanent magnet and this moves the coil and the pointer.

Задание 5

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What instruments constitute the largest group of the meters?

2. What principle do they operate on?

3. What is the main principle of a meter?

4. What are the main parts of an indicating instrument?

5. Which instrument is the most useful?

6. What is the principle of operation of a moving-coil instrument?

7. What does the permanent magnet provide?

Вариант № 4

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

a) 1. The engineers have developed new type of DC generators.

2. The problem of the structure of matter is constantly occupying the minds of many scientists.

b) 1. The same kind of protection will be provided for auxiliary engines too.

2. The introduction of new fuses was followed by improving of operation of transmission power lines.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) When sailing in thick fog, ships are obliged to give sound signals at regular intervals.

2) The main material used is castiron.

3) Fire pumps are driven from the main engines, giving a total Capacity of 6500 m3.

4) Approaching the vessel, we saw the flag of an English merchant ship on it.

Задание 3

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) The motor is to be connected to the pump by means of a bracket.

2) You should take into consideration safety precaution.

3) Every boiler must convert the chemical energy contained in the fuel in steam.

4) If the device is faulty you can not rely on its readings.

5) The heat from the nuclear chain reactor may be removed by the coolant.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Ohmmeters Just as ammeters measure current and voltmeters measure voltage, ohmmeters are known to measure resistance. All ohmmeters have an internal source of power (usually a battery) which supplies a known voltage. The meter pointer deflection measures current and the scale is calibrated to read current in relation to voltage or resistance in ohms.

The basic principle of an ohmmeter is: a known voltage, supplied by a battery, is applied to an unknown resistance and the current is measured. It is evident from Ohm's law that when voltage and current are known, we can easily find resistance. As batteries age, their internal resistance increases, and their effective voltage output decreases. To compensate for the aging of batteries, a rheostat is placed in series with the meter. The rheostat is called zero-ohm control. An ohmmeter indicates zero when there is no resistance, but when the meter indicates infinity, there is maximum resistance.

There are three basic types of ohmmeters:

1. Simple series-type ohmmeter;

2. Shunt-type ohmmeter;

3. Voltage-divider ohmmeter.

In a series-type ohmmeter, as resistance increases, current decreases. Another type of ohmmeter is called a shunt-type ohmmeter because the resistor, being measured, is placed in shunt with the meter. The third type of meter is the voltage divider ohmmeter. The unknown resistance and the shunt-resistor form a voltage divider. When different values are inserted for unknown resistance, the voltage across the shunt-resistor will change, and in turn, the current through the meter will change. The series-type ohmmeter is known to be good for high ranges but the voltage divider is considered to be suitable for low ranges.

Задание 5

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is an ohmmeter used for?

2. What is the source of power in an ohmmeter?

3. What is the basic principle of an ohmmeter?

4. What types of ohmmeters are there?

5. What is a shunt-type ohmmeter?

Вариант № 5

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

а) 1) The engineers have refused from using these poor quality fuses.

2) Electricity is giving mankind efficient means for meeting the modern society requirements in energy.

b) 1) Today many highly conducting materials are produced on a massive scale.

2) This electric phenomenon was greatly influenced by these sets of external forces.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т. е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) The chief engineer must give scantlings and drawings if required.

2) The amount of heat generated is very small.

3) The building of the first atomic power station was followed by the research work.

4) The pilot stood on the bridge giving orders to the helmsman.

Задание 3

Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Repairs can be executed without special shop equipment.

2) Nowadays power stations should be connected into power grids.

3) The current must be as small as possible not to melt the wires.

4) A fast reactor has to be designed to produce more fuel than it consumes.

5) Considerable development may be done in the energy industry.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

The Principle of Transformer Action

A transformer is a simple device used in a.c. circuits for the purpose of changing voltage from one value to another. A transformer transfers electric energy from one electric circuit to another without a change in frequency. This energy transfer usually takes place with a voltage change. So transformers have to be generally used only with a.c.

A transformer may be defined аs an apparatus without moving parts. It means that mechanical losses are entirely absent. The action of a transformer is based on electromagnetic induction. What does it mean? Each transformer has а core on which the primary and the secondary are wound. The windings are linked magnetically.

The coil on which the a.c. is impressed on the input side of the transformer is called the primary, the one from which the induced e.m.f. is obtained on the output being known as the secondary. The coils may have air cores or they may be wound upon a laminated iron core. In the case of iron core transformers, the secondary voltage is very nearly equal to the primary voltage multiplied by the ratio of the number of the secondary to the number of the primary turns.

There is a limit to the frequencies that can be efficiently used in transformers with metallic cores. In case a very high frequency a.c. is used, air core transformers have to be used to eliminate core losses.

An a.voltage being applied to the terminals of the primary, the secondary is open-circuited. An a. magnetic flux is set up around the primary and this induces a back e.m.f. in the primary. A varying magnetic field is established between the two coils. The varying magnetic field will cut across the turns of the secondary and as the result of it an induced e.m.f. is produced across the secondary. This is the principle of a transformer action.

Задание 5

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is the function of a transformer?

2. When does the energy transfer take place between two coils?

3. What current is used in a transformer?

4. Why are mechanical losses absent in transformers?

5. What are the main parts of a transformer?

6. What types of transformer cores are there?

4. КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 3

3.1. Общие указания к выполнению контрольной работы № 3

Для выполнения контрольной работы №3 студенту необходимо изучить следующие грамматические разделы курса английского языка:

1. Пассивный залог видовременных форм Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.

2. Грамматические функции и значения слов one, that, it.

3. Простые неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив в функции:

а) подлежащего;

б) обстоятельства цели;

в) составной части сказуемого;

г) определения.

4. Бессоюзное подчинение в определительных и дополнительных придаточных предложения.

Требования к выполнению и оформлению контрольной работы№3 остаются такие же, как и к контрольной работе №2.

3.2. Контрольные задания

Вариант № 1

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видовременную форму и залог глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) At present the nature of electrification is being explained by the electron theory.

2) These synchronous motors have been made to operate from a single-phase power source.

3) In some newer machines this reversal will be accomplished using power electronic devices, for example, diode rectifiers.

4) The first source of continuous current was produced by Volta.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов that, one, it.

1) One should take into consideration that the energy sources of the world are decreased.

2) It is possible to carry out the repairs within the time.

3) This pull-push amplifier was introduced last year, and that one will be employed next four months.

4) One method of detecting the presence of a current in a wire is to measure the temperature rise in the wire.

Задание 3

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1) There is some force of attraction acting between the molecules of matter.

2) A two-winding transformer has two coils which have to be arranged so that the magnetic lines of force of one coil pass through the other one.

3) Both terminals of a generator are to be connected to the same pole of the current.

4) This material does not possess desired properties.

Задание 4

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1) Everybody knows this generator must operate continuously throughout the twenty four hours.

2) Solar power the scientists and engineers suggest to use is inexhaustible.

Задание 5

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

1) To transmit a given amount of energy, less current is required at a high voltage than at a low voltage.

2) The circuit to be described will operate at high frequencies.

3) The magnetic flux is considered to be the result or effect due to the action of a magnetic force on a magnetizable body.

4) To simplify and make power generation cheaper the engineers will develop new type of energy generated installations.

Задание 6

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

The Main Types of Transformers

Transformers may be classed according to the use they are designed for. Sometimes the transformer is used for operating a.c. ammeters, wattmeters and other measuring devices. Transformers may be used to make two electrical circuits electrically independent. But nearly all transformers come under one of the following classes: step-up and step-down transformers varying the ratio of turns between the primary and the secondary we can step up or step down the voltage. Some transformers are designed to raise the primary voltage to a higher value, such being known as step-up transformers. Others are constructed to reduce the primary voltage to a lower value, they are called step-down transformers.

A step-up transformer has more turns in the secondary than in its primary. In this type of transformer the current on the secondary side is lowered in the same ratio as the voltage is raised. In a step-down transformer there are fewer turns in the secondary than in its primary, the output voltage being smaller. In step-down transformers the current on the secondary side is raised in the same ratio as the voltage is lowered.

Transformers have many applications in a.c. circuits that require both the raising and lowering of the primary voltage аз well as the lowering and raising of the primary current.

There are transformers in which the number of turns in the secondary is the same as the number of turns in the primary. The secondary voltage is the same as the primary and this type of transformer is said to be a "one-to-one" transformer.

Transformers are widely applied in long-distance power transmission as well as in telephone, radio transmitters and receivers, television, electronic equipment. Transformers have a wide application on ships with different purposes. So as we have seen transformers are widely used in electrical engineering and they are of great importance.

Задание 7

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1) What are transformers used for?

2) What are the main types of transformers?

3) According to what are transformers classed into step- up and step-down ones?

4) What is the main property of a step-down transformer?

5) What is а "one-to-one" transformer?

Вариант № 2

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видовременную форму и залог глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Transformers are being used to make two electrical circuits electrically independent.

2) The phenomenon which was discovered by Petrov was of the greatest importance.

3) Radioactive isotopes have been made in nuclear reactor.

4) The scientific researches will be followed by experimental work.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов that, one, it.

1) It is proved that the electricity transporting can't be without any power losses.

2) The specialists find out that all the harmful affects of it can be easily eliminated.

3) One has to choose the insulating material that will be the most efficient and cheapest one.

4) It is the movement of electrons which constitutes an electric current.

Задание 3

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1) The heat of the Sun has been found to be the primary source of energy.

2) Current transformers are used whenever high voltage current has to be metered.

3) Specialists do not use solar cells in industry as they are too expensive.

4) Our plant is to increase the output of the electronic meters.

Задание 4

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1) Electrical energy having escaped into free space exists in the form of electromagnetic waves.

2) You are to know the resistance passing through the conductor results in heat.

Задание 5

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

1) The Instrument to be described here was designed some years ago.

2) To understand the operation of an ammeter is not difficult.

3) If the inductance in a circuit causes the rise and fall of current to produce a voltage in the same circuit, it is called self-inductance.

4) The function of a transformer is to convert eleсtrical energy from one сondition to another.

Задание 6

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Transporting electric Energy

As soon аs the electric energy is produced at the power station, it has to be transmitted over wires to the consumer. However, the longer the wire, the greater is its resistance to a current flow. On the other hand, the higher resistance, the greater are the heating losses in electric wires. It has been necessary to find ways of reducing energy losses in power transmission lines. The only solution to the problem of transmitting electric energy is to use high-voltage for long distances and low voltage for short ones. The transmission voltage being increased, the current required to carry the same power is correspondingly lower. The drop in voltage in the power lines is, thus, reduced.

The successful long-distance distribution of electric energy without great losses on the transmission line was made possible only due to the transformer and a.c. Let us see how it is made. As we know, one of the great advantages of a.c. is the ease and efficiency with which power at low voltage may be transformed into an almost similar amount of power at high voltage, and vice versa.

Since active power = volts x ampere x power factor, it will be evident that a large amount of power can be transmitted by over bend lines at high voltage with a small current. A small current requires a small size of conductor.

In a large power station, power may be generated at a voltage, say, 10,000 v. This voltage is raised by means of a transformer to 110,000 v. It is then transmitted to any place at which the power is required for use. At the place where power is needed, another transformer is employed to 3tep the voltage down to a value suitable for use in consuming devices, such аs 127 or 220 or 380 v.

So, as we see, in the transmission of electric energy over wires for long distances transformers are practically indispensable.

Задание 7

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1) What is the relation between the length of wire and resistance?

2) What does high resistance result in?

3) Thanks to what can we transmit an electric energy without great losses?

4) What is the great advantage of a.c.?

5) What is the voltage of a current changed by?

Вариант № 3

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видовременную форму и залог глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) The first electric lamp was invented by Lodygin.

2) DC generators are commonly classified according to the method used to provide field current for energizing the field magnet.

3) Two basic types of motors have been designed to operate on polyphase a.c.

4) The research of that d. c. generator will be developed by two groups of specialists.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов that, one, it.

1) It is necessary to obtain accurate data on power losses on this electricity transmission line.

2) One can see that a "one-to-one" transformer has the same number of turns in both windings.

3) It is the number of electrons within atom that determines the properties of a substance.

4) It was Einstein who came to conclusion that e.m.f. is influenced by the gravitation field.

Задание 3

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1) While working with electricity transmission lines the engineers have to be careful.

2) The e.m.f. is at any instant proportional to the rate at which the magnetic flux is being changed.

3) Do we have to consider many quantities in the magnetic circuit?

4) A coil with many turns will have more inductance than that with few turns.

Задание 4

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1) All the electrical equipment on board an electrician comes in contact with is to be familiar to him.

2) The current flowing in the circuit has a steady value.

Задание 5

Перепишите следующие предложения, и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

1) The purpose of this chapter is to explain the difference between AC generators and DC ones.

2) No additional components were used since they were not needed to actuate the relay.

3) The distance to be covered was equal to ten miles.

4) To transform electric power into mechanical, heat and chemical power various installations were used.

Задание 6

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Generators

One of the main methods of producing electricity is electromagnetic method. Machines for the generation of electricity called generators require the use of some form of magnetism. A generator is a device which produces a current flow by electromagnetic induction. If a conductor moves through a steady field at angles to the lines of the magnetic flux, the conductor is out by them. This results in an e.m.f. to be induced in the conductor.

This is the fundamental arrangement for generation of electricity and is termed "electromagnetic induction". In this way electrical generators convert mechanical energy of rotation into electricity. Electrical generators operate on such a principle: a field is generated by a passing current through a field coil which is placed on the stator, or frame structure of the machine. A number of turns of wire are wound on the rotor, which is revolved within the field created by the stator, and an e.m.f. is induced in the wires.

If two connections are brought out through slip rings fastened to the rotor armature, and on which brushes are riding, an e.m.f. will be led to the brushes. When the brushes are attached to an electrical load, the current will flow, so electric energy is obtained from a generator.

The simple generator consists of one-turn coil or armature, moved by some mechanical device within the magnetic field, and in which an induced e.m.f. is produced; two magnetic poles producing the magnetic field; two slip rings and two brushes for leading off the e.m.f. induced.

Задание 7

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What principle is used in operation of generators?

2. What is a generator?

3. When is an e.m.f. induced in a conductor?

4. What transformation does a generator perform?

5. What are the principal parts of the simple generator?

Вариант № 4

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видовременную форму и залог глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) The field magnets mounted on the rotor are being excited by direct current.

2) When much had been done in the study of lasers by our university, it became an important scientific center.

3) The given material will be unaffected by any overload.

4) The experiments were repeated many times.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на разные значения слов that, one, it.

1) The successes in the carried out experiments with this new opticoelectronic device made it possible to obtain a new reliable amplifier.

2) It is the energy of the falling water that is used to drive turbines.

3) One will have to develop new solar energy converter because the older ones are unsatisfactory.

4) It is necessary to find new sources of cheap energy.

Задание 3

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1) In lifting the weight we have to do work against the force of gravity.

2) All molecules of a substance are to have the same average energy at any given temperature.

3) A current will pass through a resistor which is in parallel with a condenser, but the condenser will have no effect upon the circuit.

4) Did scientists have to create solar cells.

Задание 4

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1) The facts you have been given above illustrate the wide use of transformers.

2) The transmission system we selected for everyday use is based on the combined activity of telecommunication and computers.

Задание 5

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

1) The information they gave you helped to avoid the overload of motor.

2) When a condenser is connected to a source of a continuous e.m.f., the condenser takes sufficient charge to bring its plates to a difference of potential

3) To magnetize a body requires some energy.

4) The new engine is expected to meet the market needs for high efficiency, compactness and environmental requirements.

Задание 6

Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Power Quality

In recent years electricity has been used to power more sophisticated and technically complex manufacturing processes, computers and computer networks, and a variety of other high-technology consumer goods. These products and processes are sensitive not only to the continuity of power supply but also to the constancy of electrical frequency and voltage. Consequently, utilities are taking new measures to provide the necessary reliability and quality of electrical power, such as by providing additional electrical equipment to assure that the voltage and other characteristics of electrical power are constant.

Voltage Regulation. Long transmission lines have considerable inductance and capacitance. When current flows through the line, inductance and capacitance have the effect of varying the voltage on the line as the current varies. Thus the supply voltage varies with the load. Several kinds of devices are used to overcome this undesirable variation in an operation called regulation of the voltage. The devices include induction regulators and three-phase synchronous motors (called synchronous condensers), both of which vary the effective amount of inductance and capacitance in the transmission circuit.

Задание 7

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is electricity used for?

2. What devices are used to regulate the voltage?

Вариант № 5

Задание 1

Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видовременную форму и залог глагола сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) When a condenser is connected to a source of a continuous e.m.f., the

condenser takes sufficient charge to bring its plates to a difference of potential.

2) The subject of magnetism will be discussed in the next chapter.

3) The two halves of a commutator are being insulated from each other.

4) Both conductors and insulators have been widely employed in electrical engineering.

Задание 2

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов that, one, it.

1) The efficiency of this electricity transmission line is larger than of that one.

2) In atomic power station one must get used to different detecting devices and sensors.

3) It is a problem to construct a coil which for a given voltage across the terminals will produce a given number of ampere turns.

4) We have already seen that a condenser consists of two insulated plates.

Задание 3

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1) We have to connect the ammeter in series with the circuit when measuring current.

2) Having made all the necessary calculations, the engineer began to design a new machine.

3) Some substances do not conduct electricity.

4) Our laboratory is to carry out some experiments with laser beam.

Задание 4

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1) We know the length of transmitting power lines varies from area to area.

2) The light-water reactor types we consider the most promising can replace the atomic power ones.

Задание 5

Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

1) This method of voltage control was the first to be used in connection with synchronous converters.

2) The pumps to be driven by the magneto-heat engine will give electricity to this district.

3) To achieve these aims only well-qualified electricians are good enough.

4) To meet industrial needs a.c. can be decreased or increased.

Задание 6

Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Electric Power Systems

Electric Power Systems are components that transform other types of energy into electrical energy and transmit this energy to a consumer. The production and transmission of electricity is relatively efficient and inexpensive, although unlike other forms of energy, electricity is not easily stored and thus must generally be used as it is being produced. A modern electric power system consists of six main components: 1) the power station, 2) a set of transformers to raise the generated power to the high voltages used on the transmission lines, 3) the transmission lines, 4) the substations at which the power is stepped down to the voltage on the distribution lines, 5) the distribution lines, and 6) the transformers that lower the distribution voltage to the level used by the consumer's equipment.

The power station of a power system consists of a prime mover, such as a turbine driven by water, steam, or combustion gases that operate a system of electric motors and generators. Most of the world's electric power is generated in steam plants driven by coal, oil, nuclear energy, or gas. A smaller percentage of the world's electric power is generated by hydroelectric (waterpower), diesel, and internal-combustion plants.

Задание 7

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What are electric power systems?

2. What does a modern electric power system consist of?

2. КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 4

4.1. Общие указания к выполнению контрольной работы.

Для выполнения контрольной работы №4 студенту необходимо изучить следующие грамматические разделы курса английского языка:

1) Субъектный и объектный инфинитивный оборот. Способы перевода.

2) Независимый причастный оборот.

Следует обратить внимание на особенности перевода указанной конструкции в начале предложений и в конце предложений.

3) Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Способы перевода.

4) Условные предложения.

Необходимо чётко различать 3 типа условных предложений в английском языке.

Требования к оформлению контрольной работы №4 так же, как и в предыдущих работах.

4.2. Контрольное задание.

Вариант № 1

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) Current is known to be carried by electrons.

2) The electrical energy is likely to be transformed into mechanical energy by a motor.

3) This discovery was obvious to be made by a well-known scientist.

4) We know the electrical devices to be widely used in every house.

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) A diode tube is a device consisting of two elements, one being an electron emitter or cathode, the other an electron collector or anode or plate.

2) The metals being electrical conductors will make very suitable electrodes.

3) The problem of using this substance in our experiment being solved, many difficulties will be overcome.

4) Hydroelectric power is electric energy obtained from water power, the latter being used to drive a dynamo.

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) We usually can reduce electric power at the point where it has to be used.

2) This electromagnetic field may pass through nearby circuits and will cause an e.m.f. to appear in them.

3) The material we should employ in transistors is germanium.

4) One must pay much attention to oil pollution prevention measures.

5) The speed of electrons could almost be the same as that of light.

6) The work of the engineer at the power station is to check its operation.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) If a minor damage occurred, it could be treated without special shop equipment and appliances.

2) If much had been done in the study of lasers by our university, it would have become an important scientific center.

3) If the wire were of a smaller diameter, its resistance would be increased.

Задание 5

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Conservation

Much of the world's electricity is produced from the use of nonrenewable resources, such as natural gas, coal, oil, and uranium. Coal, oil, and natural gas contain carbon, and burning these fossil fuels contributes to global emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. Scientists believe that carbon dioxide is the principal gas responsible for global warming, a steady rise in Earth's surface temperature.

Consumers of electricity can save money and help protect the environment by eliminating unnecessary use of electricity, such as turning off lights when leaving a room. Other conservation methods include buying and using energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs, and using appliances, such as washing machines and dryers, at off-peak production hours when rates are lower.

Consumers may also consider environmental measures such as purchasing "green power" when it is offered by a local utility. "Green power" is usually more expensive but relies on renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources, such as wind turbines and geothermal power plants.

Задание 6

Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения:

- The text deals with

The main idea of the text is that...

- The paper is devoted to the problem of...

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that...

Вариант № 2

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении.

1) New laboratories are unlikely to be provided with modern equipment.

2) The properties of this substance were urgent to be carefully analyzed.

3) We assume a particle to be charged negatively is called an electron.

4) Elements seem to be characterized by some properties.

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) The electric field between the plates being altered, particles of a different velocity may be selected for study.

2) Silver being very expensive, we only rarely use it as a conductor.

3) In mechanics we are interested in two kinds of energy, namely, kinetic energy and potential energy, the latter being the energy of position while the former being the energy of motion.

4) The properties of the phosphides of heavy metals being like those of alloys, they can easily be mixed with other metals or alloys.

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) Man had to learn to obtain electric power directly from the Sun.

2) According to the ship list the deck department must keep the marine electrical equipment of the engine department in good condition, overhauling it from time to time.

3) Modern workshop machinery must be provided on board, which can enable a wider spectrum of repair work to be undertaken.

4) Before an area can be repainted, proper preparation is essential.

5) At present most of the industrial enterprises need have their own electric power stations.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) Unless the current were steady, and the magnetic flux would be constant.

2) They would have had more accurate data, if the experiments with this transmitting antenna had not been carried out under poor conditions.

3) Provided a current passes through the coil, an electromagnet will be produced.

Задание 5

Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2,3,4-й абзацы.

More true statements about electricity

In a DC circuit, the electricity within the wires flows exceedingly slowly; at speeds around inches per minute. At the same time, the electrical energy flows at nearly the speed of light.

If we know the precise amount of electricity flowing per second through a wire (the Amperes,) this tells us nothing about the amount of energy being delivered per second into a light bulb (the Watts.) Amperes are not Watts, an electric current is not a flow of energy; they are two different things.

In an electric circuit, the flow of the electricity is measured in Coulombs per second (Amperes.) The flow of energy is measured in Joules per second (Watts.) A Coulomb is not a Joule, and there is no way to convert from Coulombs of charge into Joules of energy, or from Amperes to Watts. A quantity of electricity is not a quantity of energy.

Electrical energy is electromagnetism; it is composed of an electromagnetic field. On the other hand, the particles of electricity (electrons) flowing within a wire have little resemblance to an electromagnetic field. They are matter. Electricity is not energy; instead, it is a major component of everyday matter.

Задание 6

Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения:

- The text deals with

The main idea of the text is that...

- The paper is devoted to the problem of...

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that...

Вариант № 3

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) The apparatus to be designed is expected to be used at the power station.

2) Older engines are allowed to be overhauled using hand-held heavy hammers and spanners.

3) The first six-cylinder unit is expected to run shop trials early this year.

4) The shipyard representatives suppose all the details of the plan to have been worked out long ago.

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) Part of the energy being changed into heat, not all the chemical energy of the battery is transformed into electric energy.

2) The first incandescent lamp was invented in Russia, it's inventor being Lodygin.

3) Some new devices having been installed, the researchers could make more complex experiments.

4) Having given an indication of the methods used in this type of analysis we must now mention some of the earlier results.

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) Welding work must be approached with much caution by well-qualified specialists.

2) The task of the test was to name all the known perfect insulators.

3) Special valve grinding equipment can be very useful on board.

4) To convert chemical energy into electrical energy you should use an electrical cell.

5) Modern workshop machinery must be provided on board, which can enable a wider spectrum of repair work to be undertaken.

6) Atomic power plant is to be located away from urban areas.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) If it were not for the a.c at least 90% of electricity would not be generated.

2) Provided all the forces acting upon the body balance each other there will be no resultant force.

3) If the starting air pressure had not been too low, the engine would not have failed to start.

Задание 5

Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Transmission lines

The lines of high-voltage transmission systems are usually composed of wires of copper, aluminum, or copper-clad or aluminum-clad steel, which are suspended from tall latticework towers of steel by strings of porcelain insulators. By the use of clad steel wires and high towers, the distance between towers can be increased, and the cost of the transmission line thus reduced. In modern installations with essentially straight paths, high-voltage lines may be built with as few as six towers to the kilometer. In some areas high-voltage lines are suspended from tall wooden poles spaced more closely together.

For lower voltage distribution lines, wooden poles are generally used rather than steel towers. In cities and other areas where open lines create a safety hazard or are considered unattractive, insulated underground cables are used for distribution. Some of these cables have a hollow core through which oil circulates under low pressure. The oil provides temporary protection from water damage to the enclosed wires should the cable develop a leak. Pipe-type cables in which three cables are enclosed in a pipe filled with oil under high pressure (14 kg per sq cm/200 psi) are frequently used. These cables are used for transmission of current at voltages as high as 345,000 V (or 345 kV).

Задание 6

Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения:

- The text deals with

The main idea of the text is that...

- The paper is devoted to the problem of...

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that...

Вариант № 4

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) Hydraulic tightening gear is advisory to be used when overhauling modern engines.

2) The series-wound generator was allowed to be used that time to supply a constant current at variable voltage.

3) We believe electricity to be used both in industry and in everyday life.

4) In older machines this reversal is said to be accomplished by means of a commutator - a split metal ring mounted on the shaft of the armature.

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) The modern equipment being installed, we could increase the rate of production.

2) Lasers being employed in the metal-working industries, in medicine are of various sizes.

3) Water is the most efficient agent, having a high heat transfer coefficient and a high heat capacity.

4) The substance being a dielectric, no current can flow through it.

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) The engineers are to study the problems of using solar and wind energy.

2) The equipment is to be delivered within 12 months of being ordered.

3) There will be exactly as many current cycles as there are voltage cycles, but they may start at different times.

4) We have an arrangement whereby an e.m.f. can be generated in a coil due to the change of current in another cell situated close to it.

5) Due attention is to be given to correct rigging.

6) To understand this phenomenon, we have to carry out the experiment.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) The efficiency of the apparatus would not be increased, unless all the requirements were met.

2) But for the sparkling DC generators will not be operated at fairly low voltages.

3) If the molecules of water had been divided into smaller parts, it would not have been water any longer but some other substance.

Задание 5

Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Supplementary Equipment

Any electric-distribution system involves a large amount of supplementary equipment to protect the generators, transformers, and the transmission lines themselves. The system often includes devices designed to regulate the voltage or other characteristics of power delivered to consumers.

To protect all elements of a power system from short circuits and overloads, and for normal switching operations, circuit breakers are employed. These breakers are large switches that are activated automatically in the event of a short circuit or other condition that produces a sudden rise of current. Because a current forms across the terminals of the circuit breaker at the moment when the current is interrupted, some large breakers (such as those used to protect a generator or a section of primary transmission line) are immersed in a liquid that is a poor conductor of electricity, such as oil, to quench the current (see dielectric). In large air-type circuit breakers, as well as in oil breakers, magnetic fields are used to break up the current. Small air-circuit breakers are used for protection in shops, factories, and in modern home installations. In residential electric wiring, fuses were once commonly employed for the same purpose. A fuse consists of a piece of alloy with a low melting point, inserted in the circuit, which melts, breaking the circuit if the current rises above a certain value. Most residences now use air-circuit breakers.

Задание 6

Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения:

- The text deals with

The main idea of the text is that...

- The paper is devoted to the problem of...

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that...

Вариант № 5

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении.

1) We know these electrical devices to work properly in favorable weather conditions.

2) Older engines are allowed to be overhauled using hand-held heavy hammers and spanners.

3) They expected the testing of new device to be successful.

4) Fields of modern generators are equipped with four or more electromagnetic poles to increase the size and strength of the magnetic field.

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) These semiconductor devices are made both of germanium and silicon, the former being in a more advanced state of development.

2) The machine-tool was modernized, its capacity having increased greatly.

3) Silver being very expensive, we only rarely use it as a conductor.

4) The current flow having been changed, the direction of the magnetic lines of force also changed.

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) To reduce the power losses thick wires should be used.

2) The e.m.f. has to be continually applied to maintain the current.

3) This investigation is to be carried this year.

4) The engineers must study the problem of using solar energy.

5) There can be considerable sparkling at relay contacts, particularly when they are attached to the loads which are Inductive.

6) Soon our industry will be able to have new and cheap sources of energy.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) In case electrons are negative charges, they will fly to the plate only when the plate is positive.

2) If a body at rest had been caused to move, a force would have acted upon it.

3) Provided certain initial conditions were fulfilled, the h.p. compressor rotor would be accelerated by a hydraulic starter to 2000 rev/min.

Задание 5

Перепишите и письменно переведите 2й и 3й абзацы текста.

More true statements about electricity

In an electric circuit containing coils, if we reverse the polarity of voltage while the direction o the flowing electricity remains the same, then the direction of the flowing energy will be reversed. Current same; energy flow reversed? Yes. A flow of energy does not follow the direction of the flowing electricity. You can know everything about the direction of the electricity within a wire, but this tells you nothing about the direction of the flowing electrical energy.

In any electric circuit, the smallest particle of electrical energy is NOT the electron. The smallest particle of energy is the "unit quantum" of electromagnetic energy: it is the photon. Electrons are not particles of EM energy, neither do they carry the energy as they travel in the circuit. Electricity is 'made' of electrons and protons, while electrical energy is electromagnetism and is 'made' of photons.

In the electric power grid, a certain amount of energy is lost because it flys off into space. This is well understood: electrical energy is electromagnetic waves travelling in the air, and unless the power lines are twisted or somehow shielded, they will act as 60Hz antennas. Waves of 60Hz electrical energy can spread outwards into space rather than following the wires. The power lines can even receive extra 60Hz energy from space, from magnetic storms in Earth's magnetosphere. Electric energy is gained and lost to empty space while the charges of electricity just sit inside the wires and wiggle. Energy is not electricity.

Задание 6

Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения:

- The text deals with

The main idea of the text is that...

- The paper is devoted to the problem of...

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that...

БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

1. Агабекян И.П., Коваленко П.И. Английский для технических вузов. Серия "Высшее образование"/ И.П. Агабекян, П.И. Коваленко. - Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2004. - 352.

2. Луговая А.Л. Английский язык для студентов энергетических специальностей: Учебное пособие/А.Л. Луговая. - М: Высшая школа, 2002. - 150с.

3. Англо-русский словарь/ Под ред. В.К. Мюллера. - К.: Каннон, 2000. - 688с.

4. Иванов А.О. Русско-английский справочник по деловой переписке / А.О.Иванов. - СПб.: Макет, 1996. -181 с.

5. Кущ Т. Ю., Воловник М. С. Английский язык для судовых электромехаников: Учебное пособие / Под ред. О. С. Богомолова. - М.: В/О "Мортехинформреклама", 1986. - 132 с.

6. Новицкая Т.М. Практическая грамматика английского языка / Т.М.Новицкая, Н.Д.Кучин. - М.: Вища шк., 1961. - 200 с.

7. Фурсова М.А., Марцелли Е.А. Английский язык для судовых механиков и электромехаников: Учебное пособие. - Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2002. - 192.

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