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Студенческий документ № 091323 из МЭГУ

Unit 3


The life and work of the Foreign Correspondent have a strong appeal for most young men and women in journalism. To cover the world's news from China to Peru, from Moscow to Cape Town; to send back dispatches under date-lines from "faraway places with strange-sounding names" is the secret dream of many a cub-reporter which he spends dull hours in the local police court or council chamber.

The work of the Foreign Correspondent is something much wider than the mere reporting of events. He must give his readers at home a complete background service explaining and interpreting the news, providing eye-witness descriptions of scenes and happenings, conjuring up the atmosphere in which events are taking place, mailing informative articles periodically which will make newspaper readers familiar with the background to men and affairs. The journalist who wishes to make a success as an "Ambassador of the Press" must be a first-rate general reporter - he must have the nose for the news and keenly developed sense of news values, he must be a good listener who can get other people to favour him with their confidences, he must be a good mixer - able to be all things to all men.

The beginner to journalism who is determined to make accreditation as a Foreign Correspondent his aim, must begin by tackling the problem of languages. He should know at least two, apart from his own. Which two will depend, of course, on the part of the world where he is particularly anxious to serve. French and German used to be the minimum equipment of the European correspondent, but it is possible that Russian, rather than German, may be increasingly valuable in the future.

It must be remembered that to know a language, in the sense that a Foreign Correspondent must know it, means a great deal more than a nodding acquaintance with grammar and the ability to pick one's way through a selected text or two. It means to be able to write the language fluently, to be able to take down speeches in shorthand, to follow conversations through the distorting medium of the telephone, and the like.

The would-be foreign representative must study world geography and get a thorough knowledge of modern history and current affairs, besides making a special study of the history, manners, customs, political system etc., of those countries where he hopes to work. If he is to write authoritatively on foreign affairs he must himself be an authority.

But first and foremost he is, and must remain, a reporter, seeking and reporting news.

NOTES appeal n - привлекательность, очарование; to appeal v- привлекать, нравиться

to cover the news - освещать новости

dispatch n - депеша; news dispatch - корреспонденция

a cub-reporter - in the professional jargon of journalists means a beginner - начинающий репортер

to give a complete background service - зд. дать исчерпывающее разъяснение подоплеки событий

to provide eye-witness descriptions - описывать события как очевидец

to conjure up the atmosphere - воссоздавать атмосферу

an informative article - содержательная статья

a first-rate general reporter - первоклассный репортер, выполняющий общие задания

a nose for the news - зд. "нюх" на новости

a keenly developed sense of news values - остро развитое чувство значимости новостей

to favour somebody with one's confidence - оказать кому-либо доверие

a good mixer - общительный человек; a bad mixer - необщительный человек

anxious adj - стремящийся к чему-либо, желающий чего-либо; anxious for success (for peace) - стремящийся к успеху (к миру); to be anxious to do something

equipment - зд. знание языков

a nodding acquaintance with grammar - "шапочное" знакомство с грамматикой

authority - авторитет, специалист, знаток; to be an authority on politics; authoritatively - авторитетно

first and foremost - прежде всего

EXERCISES 1. Read the text consulting the notes.

2. a) Answer the following questions:

1. Why does the work of the foreign correspondent appeal to young men and women in journalism?

2. Why should the foreign correspondent know foreign languages?

3. What other subjects should he know well?

b) Sum up what the text has to say on each of the following points:

1. The job of the foreign correspondent.

2. The qualities and qualifications of the foreign correspondent.

3. Knowledge of foreign languages.

c) Answer some more questions about the text, working in pairs:

Why is it necessary a) to conjure up the atmosphere in which the events are taking place?

b) to give readers at home a complete background service?

c) to explain and interpret the news from faraway places?

d) to write informative articles?

e) to obtain a thorough knowledge of the history, geography and political system of the country?

3. Read the text with the help of the notes which follow:

Mitsuko Shimomura Breaks New Ground for Japanese Women

She joined the Asahi Weekly Magazine 10 years ago. She was the only female writer on the staff.

For eight months she has been a roving correspondent in the United States for Asahi Shimbun, one of Tokyo's leading daily newspapers, with a circulation of 7,5 million. It is a lonely prominence. Shimomura, at the age of 41, is believed to be the only Japanese woman ever to have become a foreign correspondent. "I'm simply working my head off. I keep moving, moving, moving." At the moment, Shimomura is doing the kind of important interviews that have made her famous in Japan. The subject is often economics because that is her field of expertise.

She majored in economics at Keio University in Tokyo and received a master's degree in economics at New York University in 1964. Her first six months in the United States were a nightmare, she said, because of her faulty English. She would dream that English books were tumbling down on her, she said, and she invariably awoke with a scream. Finally, there was "a kind of melting", and the English came to her.

She thinks her drive comes from her mother, who became a doctor in the days when female physicians were in Japan.

Her mother was the fifth graduate of the Tokyo Women's Medical College. "My father, who's a business executive, wanted me to become a medical doctor, too, but I just wanted to write so much. At that time there was no opportunity - it was just like a dream".

Her break came at 1964 Winter Olympics in Tokyo, where Asahi Shimbun hired her as an English interpreter. She interpreted for the newspaper's reporters and interviewed athletes. In 1965 the newspaper took her on as a staff writer for This Is Japan, its English-language annual publication. In 1971 she was transferred to the Weekly Asahi: "I had to start writing in Japanese again, and it wasn't easy. But I worked up gradually from little things to pieces on social changes among woman in that office. The editors didn't know what was going on."

Although courteously treated by the men in her office, she said she felt "alone and isolated." Of Asahi's 3000 reporters and editors, only seven at the Tokyo headquarters are women, with 20 more women in outlying bureaus. Once a year there is a "women's network" luncheon at Asahi. The group's greatest achievement, she said, was in obtaining equality between men's and women's wages.

Soon after becoming a foreign correspondent, Shimomura went to Copenhagen for the UN conference on women, then covered an OPEC conference in London. But above all she likes to do lengthy, one-person interviews.

Speaking about her interviewing manner she said: "I listen, I am very low-key. I want to let people say what they believe in. I want them to trust me so they will open their hearts."

She does not believe she will ever become Westernized or Americanized. "My instincts and my ways of thinking are deeply Japanese. I want to keep it that way. It makes me a better journalist."


a roving correspondent - разъездной корреспондент

circulation - тираж

to work one's head off - работать, не покладая рук

a master's degree - ученая степень магистра (присуждается университетом лицам, успешно завершившим по крайней мере год учебы и исследовательской работы после окончания университета)

drive и - энергия, напористость; his style has a drive - у него энергичный стиль

headquarters - штаб, главное управление

outlying bureaus [' bjuarouz] - отделы, находящиеся не в главном управлении

"women's network" luncheon - торжественный обед, организованный для женщин, работающих в газете

I am very low-key - я держусь в тени

4. a) Imagine you are interviewing Shimomura. Formulate questions. Work in pairs:

When/join/the Asahi Weekly Magazine;

How long/be/a roving correspondent/United States/Asahi Shimbun;

What kind of newspaper/be/Asahi Shimbun;

What/be/the circulation/Asahi Shimbun;

How many women/work/foreign correspondents/Japan;

What/be/subject/Shimomura's interviews;

What university/graduate;

What subject/receive/master's degree;

What university/receive/a master's degree;

When/hire/English interpreter;

What newspaper/hire/English interpreter;

Whom/interpret for;

When/taken on/staff writer;

What kind of publication/be/This Is Japan;

What language/write in;

When/transferred to/the Weekly Asahi;

How many reporters/editors/be/the Weekly Asahi;

How many women/work/Tokyo headquarters;

What kind of journalistic job/prefer.

b) Quickly look through the alternatives and mark the one which is nearest in meaning to the word or phrase given:

1. the field of expertise - a) the place of experiment

b) the problem researched

c) the province of knowledge

2. faulty English - a) well spoken English

b) English with mistakes

c) easily understood English

3. a break - a) opportunity

b) a nervous stress

c) an end

c) Sum up what the text has to say on each оf the following points:

1. The details of the career of Mitsuko Shimomura.

2. Her educational background,

3. Her family.

4. Women in Japanese journalism.

5. The professional qualities of Mitsuko Shimomura.

d) What do you think is the main idea of the article? Give arguments supporting your viewpoint. Summarise the text.

e) Look through the text "Work of the Foreign Correspondent" at the beginning of Unit 3 and state whether the text about Shimomura (a) illustrates some viewpoints expressed in it; (b) contradicts some of the viewpoints.

5. Check your memory.

Text What Makes a Good Journalist (Unit 1)

предпочитать, качество, искренний интерес, знаменитый, скромный, пытливый ум, квалификация, развитой ум, скромность, ясный стиль, выскочка, суждение, хорошо информированный журналист, быть способным к языкам, быть уравновешенным человеком, человек с практическим складом ума, рассеянный человек, человек, интересующийся международными проблемами, журналист с широким кругозором, хорошо образованный учитель, проявлять блестящие способности ко многим предметам, опытный журналист

Text Journalism Is a Hard Life (Unit 2)

надоедать, возбуждать, волновать, требующий большого внимания и заботы, pасстраивать, нарушать, обманывать чьи-л. надежды, вознаграждать, принимать решения, брать на себя ответственность

Text What Does It Take to Be a Journalist? (Unit 2, Ex. 6)

обычный, средний; ответственный; надежный; заслуживающий доверия; искренний, неподдельный; преданный, посвятивший свою жизнь делу...; зависимый; зависящий; любознательный; восторженный, полный энтузиазма; склонный создавать себе идеалы

Text Journalism as a Career (Unit 2, Ex. 10a)

редактор отдела, заместитель редактора; редактор; рукопись, материал; мальчик, который носит рукописи; выпускать газету; журналистское задание; выполнять задание; телетайп; наборный цех; пробный оттиск страницы; редакция газеты (аи.); работа в редакции; комната в редакции, в которой проходит отбор, анализ и обработка новостей; печатный станок; выпуск газеты

Text The News Editor (Unit 2, Ex. 13e)

редактор отдела информации; любой газетный материал; отдел городских новостей; отдел новостей по данному штату; отдел новостей по стране; отдел новостей телеграфных агентств; отдел иностранных новостей; отводить большую (незначительную) площадь...; редактор отдела верстки; делать макет страницы; освещать событие; репортер широкого профиля; сотрудник редакции, обрабатывающий материалы репортера; личное досье

Text Work of the Foreign Correspondent (Unit 3)

освещать новости; депеша, корреспонденция; начинающий репортер; давать исчерпывающее разъяснение подоплеки событий; описывать событие как очевидец; воссоздавать обстановку; содержательная статья; первоклассный репортер широкого профиля; иностранный корреспондент; чувство новости; остро развитое чувство значимости новости

6. Here are some quotations to think over and discuss. Write short essays giving your arguments for and against.

It is the delight in telling somebody something, it seems to me, that makes a man go into journalism and thereafter constitutes his personal reward.

* * *

You cannot know too much or have too many useful qualities to be a good journalist.

* * * The TV men are certainly more important than the newspapermen, which is undoubtedly true but they are certainly more noisy.

* * * I cannot imagine any more rewarding way of life than journalism. I must admit i am in no position to speak of the advantages and disadvantages of other professions, since I have never worked outside journalism; but after 34 years in journalism I am still fascinated by the birth of the daily newspaper. Every day is a new day. Yesterday's news is history.

* * *

When he retired in 1977 after 33 years with the New York Times, including posts as a foreign correspondent, managing editor, and chief of the Washington bureau, Clifton Daniel said, "There's no profession that offers you more variety in life or more excitement."

* * * As much as any other field, modern journalism offers the stimulation of action, the challenge of discovery, the sense of creativity.

* * * There are two great characteristics that make news work worthwhile. First, journalists are forced to keep learning, to enter new worlds, to see life from yet another perspective. Second, they are supposed to say what things really are.

* * *

The Nineteenth Century was the era of the novelist, the Twentieth is the era of the journalist.

* * * One of the editors sums up what he considers the minimum requirements for a journalist: a thorough education, sound training, and discipline; familiarity with basic skills of the journalist; a deep respect for one's personal and professional integrity.

* * * Most journalists find their work interesting and rewarding on the whole. They face new situations every day. They have chances to meet important and interesting people and deal with vital social and political issues. They get pleasure from doing a public service, however small their contribution. While they work constantly under deadline pressures, they consider this to be part of "being in the action". Most journalists develop a feeling of camaraderie toward their colleagues, of belonging to the news fraternity.

* * *

Editors and other experts have cited many qualities that go to make a good journalist. Some say curiosity, a "nose for news". Others say integrity and courage, or vitality, or diligence. Still others say an ability to write with style and a disciplined mind to understand and relate the complex issues of modern times.

I shouldn't worry too much whether you have this or that quality, let alone a couple of dozen of them. The chief question is. whether the idea of being a reporter attracts you.

* * * It is fairly safe to say that the journalist who is most likely to get to the top is he who is a good, all-round man and at the same time has made himself something of an expert in one or two special directions. He must know a little about a lot, and a lot about a little.

* * *

I can testify, however, that it is not essential to be an aggressive, fire- breathing extrovert to become a reporter. I myself was and still am the shy type, uneasy in the presence of the loud, the muscular, and the menacing. Even so I got a job as a reporter too. Such a meek fellow takes on new stature and prestige when he can say, "I'm from the News." For now a powerful organization stands behind him.

* * * Compared to men, then, women in journalism are few, and the road is harder for them. But there is no doubt about it. Some of the best newspapermen in the business are women.

* * * A journalist has a choice of three basic roles to play in the news business. He or she can be a reporter; an editor who edits and otherwise processes the news gathered by the reporter; or a supervising editor who manages the overall editorial operation.

* * *

What you do every day is use your intellect and your talents to create something that is new and unique to you.


What is journalism? Journalism is information. It is communication. It is the events of the day distilled into a few words, sounds or pictures, processed by the mechanics of communication to satisfy the human curiosity of the world that is always eager to know what's new.

Journalism is basically news. The word derives from "journal"; its best contents are "du jour", of the day itself. But journalism may also be entertainment and reassurance, to satisfy the human frailty of a world that is always eager to be comforted with the knowledge that out there are millions of human beings just like us.

Journalism is the television picture beamed by satellite direct from the Vietnam war, showing men dying in agony. It is the television picture of a man stepping on to the surface of the moon, seen in millions of homes as it happens.

Journalism can communicate with as few people as a classroom news-sheet or a parish magazine, or as with many people as there are in the world.

The cave-man drawing a buffalo on the wall of his home did so to give other hunters the news that buffaloes were nearby. The town-crier reciting the news in the market-place provided a convenient way in which a number of people could simultaneously learn facts affecting all their lives.

Today the news media are swamped by the very availability of news. There is simply more of it than ever before - unimaginably more, available to many more people. This is a transformation that has been achieved in a little over 100 years.

When admiral Lord Nelson died aboard the Victory after the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, it took two weeks for the news to reach the Admiralty in London (a young lieutenant of the Royal Navy brought the dispatches personally, sailing in the sloop Pickle to Plymouth and then riding to London). It was some hours before important people in London heard the news, some days before it reached the other cities of Britain. There must have been outlying villages that the news took even longer to reach.

When President John Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, in November 1963, the news of his death was known around the whole world in a matter of seconds. The political leaders of Russia and China, the financial manipulators in Geneva, the obscure tribesmen of Borneo all heard the news simultaneously.

This profound change in the pattern of human communication has taken place in hardly more than one man's lifetime.

Even forty years ago, most people in the developed world obtained their news from the newspapers. The newspapers had changed little from the days of Caxton. The process of printing had hardly changed at all, and the only modernization had been in machinery to produce and distribute a greater number of copies of each issue. Then radio arrived.

At first newspapers regarded it as a passing technical fad. One director of the Press Association returned from America in 1923 and said that "broadcasting is on the wane... People are getting so tired of it that it reminds one of the almost forgotten skating-rink craze". He was, of course, profoundly wrong. In America, the effects of radio were more rapid in appearing, due to the springing up of hundreds of small town radio stations. In Britain, radio was put under the control of a non-profit- making body financed by government-collected licence fees and charged with the duty of providing a nationwide broadcasting service.

The war reports of the BBC radio from 1939 to 1945 should have warned newspapers that radio could rival them in the presentation of news. But it was not until television was introduced in Britain in 1956 (with the commercially backed Independent Television Authority rivaling the BBC's television service) that the television set entered 80 per cent of British homes and the way in which most people learnt their news changed radically.

Journalism is about people. It is produced for people. So how has the ordinary man's receptivity to journalism changed in twenty years?

Fifty years ago, a family might listen to a news bulletin on the living- room radio over breakfast. Father would read his morning paper over breakfast or on the bus or train going to work. After work, he would buy an evening paper and read it on the way home, handing it over to his wife who would read it when she had washed up after the evening meal. Then they might listen to the BBC nine o'clock radio news.

What happens now? The bedside transistor radio switches itself on with the alarm. Mother has her radio on in the kitchen as she cooks, breakfast. The kids have their radios switched to Radio One with its mixture of pop music and news flashes. Father glances at the morning paper over breakfast, then gets into the car and turns on "Today" as he drives to work. Mother carries the radio around the house as she dusts and makes the beds to the voice of Jimmy Young. Father buys an evening paper as he leaves work, glances at the headlines, then turns on the six o'clock radio news as he drives home. After eating, they turn on the telly and sit down to an evening's viewing. Mother may read the evening paper if there is a sports programme on TV which she finds boring. They watch the BBC's television nine o'clock or ITN's "News at Ten".

It is an immense change. These are the people for whom journalists are working. They have to take account of these social changes, which have occurred in most countries of the world.

The newspaperman has to be aware of the changes in the lives of his readers. It is not enough for him to print the "hard news" of the evening before (most national newspapers start printing their major editions around 10 pm, with further editions for the city in which they are produced coming up until 4 am), since his readers who look at the paper over breakfast will have heard most of that and seen many of the public figures and significant events on television the night before. Or they will hear on the early morning radio news items which have become news three hours later than the latest possible edition of the morning paper.

The press has been slow to catch on to this change and to revise its methods of operation so that the newspaper still has a function. That it has a function, there can be no doubt: for the television or radio news bulletin is tightly encapsulated, containing only a few of the main facts in a highly abbreviated form.

Newspapers are archives, objects of record. They can be referred to, checked back on, in a way that the television or radio news cannot. They can describe events at greater length, add more relevant detail, give authoritative comment from people in a position to detect trends and the likely lines in which a news story will develop.

But the old concept of a newspaper "scoop", the presentation of a startling hard news story a day before its rivals, is virtually dead-killed by radio and television.


du jour - фр. ежедневный

parish magazine - a local magazine

medium [' mi:djam] n (pl media) - средство, способ; путь; communication media, media of communication - средства массовой информации (газеты, радио и т.п.)

Caxton, William (14227-1491) - the first English printer; established a press at Westminster from which he issued about 80 books, many of them translations by himself from French romances

BBC = British Broadcasting Corporation - Британская радиовещательная корпорация

news flash - вставка-молния, экстренное сообщение

telly informal - (a) television

ITN = Independent Television News

"hard news" - all news that recounts precise, immediate happenings, as distinct from background information or commentaries of the news. Hard news consists of the basic news facts which most editors feel must be included. The implication behind this phrase is that much other news is a matter of little importance

item n - сообщение, новость; небольшая заметка в газете

scoop - a news story, usually of special interest, which is discovered and published only by one paper


to entertain развлекать, забавлять; entertainment развлечение; entertainment programme развлекательная программа

television picture телевизионное изображение

a matter of seconds дело нескольких секунд

small-town radio station радиостанция в маленьком городке

to present [pri'zent] news подавать, преподносить новости

channel канал

service служба; broadcasting service служба вещания; national service национальная служба; nation-wide service общенациональная служба; news service служба новостей; regional service региональная служба; television service телевизионная служба; to establish television service/to launch television service организовать телевизионную службу; to take service принимать передачи

broadcast v передавать по радио, телевидению; n широковещание, передача, вещание; educational broadcast образовательная передача; outside broadcast внестудийная передача; political broadcast политическая передача; produce television (radio) broadcast подготовить, выпустить телевизионную (радио) передачу; live news broadcast "живая" передача новостей, эфирная передача новостей, прямой эфир (remember the pronunciation of the word live adj живой)

broadcasting вещание, широковещание; direct satellite broadcasting непосредственное вещание через спутник Земли; domestic broadcasting внутреннее вещание; radio broadcasting радиовещание; television broadcasting телевизионное вещание

bulletin бюллетень, сводка; news bulletin сводка новостей

headline заголовок

to produce and distribute newspapers выпускать и распространять газеты

Remember the Prepositions

to communicate with the listeners, the viewers, the audience - общаться, устанавливать контакт со слушателями (зрителями, аудиторией)

the news was known around the world; the news of Gagarin's flight was known around the whole world in a matter of seconds

to listen to a news bulletin on the radio over breakfast - слушать передачу новостей по радио за завтраком

around 10 o'clock - около 10 часов

to glance at the paper - мельком взглянуть на газету, просмотреть газету

to switch a transistor (a television set, a radio set) to a programme

Remember the Use of Articles

No article is used in:

1. by radio, by television, by bus (tube, taxi, car, plane, train, bicycle, boat)

2. When we talk about radio and television in general, we do not use articles. Ex. It is easier to write plays for television than for radio.

3. to watch television, on television, on TV


to listen to the radio, on the radio

Practise the Pronunciation of Words




abbreviate archive

virtually EXERCISES

1. Read the text and translate it into Russian consulting the notes and the essential vocabulary.

2. Read and translate the following international words:

manipulation, communication, information, television, human, mechanic, satellite, comfort, media, formation, modernization, effect, introduction, capsule

3. Select the related words and translate them with the help of a dictionary:

productivity, informant, communication, information, entertainment, journalist, achievement, transformation, distribution, recitation, presentation, production, communicate, inform, entertain, journalism, achieve, transform, recite, present, distribute, produce, communicative, informer, entertaining, journal, achievable, transformable, recitative, presentable, distributor, producer, communicable, informal, entertainer, journalese, transformer, recital, presently, distributive, product, communicant, informative, entertainingly, journalistic, presence, productive

4. Translate the following compound nouns into Russian:

almost forgotten skating-rink craze; small-town radio stations; nonprofit-making body; government-collected licence fee; nationwide broadcasting service; the BBC nine o'clock radio news; the early morning radio news items

5. Study the following expressions and make up sentences using some of them:

1) to achieve success, fame, glory; one's purpose, one's ambition, one's aim, one's end; the realization of one's dream; an understanding; a good reputation

2) to produce a film, a programme, a play, a book; a sensation, an impression; food, goods

6. Answer the following questions:

1) What is the name of your favourite famous journalist?

2) How has he achieved an outstanding success in journalism? (For example, by hard work, by experience, by brilliant reporting, by good training, by chance.)

3) Do you believe it is possible to achieve the good reputation of a professional without working hard?

4) What television programme do you like best?

5) What impact did it have on you?

6) Did it produce a sensation among televiewers?

7. Comment on the following: "Failure is the only thing that can be achieved without effort."

8. a) Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the word develop and related words:

1) The plot of the new novel gradually developed in the author's mind.

2) He developed his mind by study.

3) The development of photographic films requires a dark room.

4) This magazine regularly covers the latest developments in foreign affairs.

5) Only by hard work can he develop his skills as a journalist.

6) He developed an interest in taking pictures at an early age.

7) The rest of the book merely developed the ideas of the first chapter. \

8) He developed into a brilliant journalist.

9) Recent political developments were covered by all the national dailies.

10) In the book the editor of a large city newspaper tells the readers how to prepare for and develop a career in journalism.

b) Translate the following sentences into English using the words to develop and development:

1. Изложите, пожалуйста, свои аргументы.

2. Интерес к чтению у него развился в раннем возрасте.

3. Из него получился блестящий журналист.

4. Он развил свое мастерство усердной работой.

5. Я еще не проявил пленки, так как был занят.

6. Доклад был посвящен экономическому развитию страны.

7. Автору не удалось развить сюжет пьесы.

8. Я надеюсь, автор разовьет свою мысль в следующей главе.

9. Последние политические события были освещены всеми центральными газетами.

9. Ask and answer questions. Work in pairs. Make use of the following phrases in your answers:

by studying hard; by discussing...; by watching TV; by training...; by exchanging ideas (opinions) with...; by writing...; by contributing to... regularly

How can a person develop his/her mind?

a journalist skill?

a sportsman health?

a dancer talent?

a singer

a scholar

a writer

10. Find the following phrases in the text and decide which of the given alternatives explain them best:

1. the pattern of human communication a) the mechanics used by people for communication

b) mass media of communication

c) the way people communicate 2. the presentation of news a) the way news is gathered

b) the way news is obtained

c) the way news is written

d) the way news is processed 3. a profound change a) a small change

b) an immense change

c) a change of no importance

d) a significant change 4. a startling story a) a surprising story

b) an exciting story

c) a frightening story

d) a boring story 5. a relevant detail a) a detail which is not worth mentioning

b) a detail which has nothing to do with the story

c) a detail which has something to do with the problem 6. a radio news bulletin is tightly-encapsulated a) it contains very many short words

b) it is a pretty packed

c) it is rather expressive

d) it is very emotional

e) it is contains many facts 11. Rearrange the sentences given below in the correct order according to the text.

1. Nowadays the news may be known all over the world in a matter of seconds.

2. Journalism is about people. It is produced for people.

3. Twenty years ago a family usually listened to a news bulletin on the living-room radio over breakfast.

4. In America the effects of radio were more rapid.

5. The ordinary man's receptivity to journalism has greatly changed in twenty years.

6. In the evening they watch the television news programme.

7. Then radio arrived.

8. Journalism is communication.

9. Journalists have to take account of social changes.

10. The readers of newspapers who look at them over breakfast will have heard most of the news and seen many of the significant events on television the night before.

11. Journalism may also be entertainment.

12. The cave-man drew a buffalo to give other hunters the news that buffaloes were nearby.

13. Journalism satisfies the human curiosity of the world.

14. Later it became clear that radio could rival newspapers.

15. At first radio was regarded as a passing technical fad.

16. Journalism can communicate with few people as well as with many.

17. A century ago it took a very long time for the news to reach distant parts of the world.

18. Hundreds of small-town radio stations appeared in America.

19. The newspaper still has a function because the television or radio news bulletin is very compressed.

20. Father would read his morning newspaper over breakfast or on the bus or train going to work.

21. Newspapers are archives, objects of record.

22. Nowadays practically each member of the family prefers listening to his own radio.

23. Today news is available to many more people.

24. "Today the concept of a newspaper "scoop" has been killed by radio and television.

25. The BBC radio provided a nationwide broadcasting in Britain.

12. Answer the following questions about the text:

1. How does the author define journalism? Find all the statements on journalism.

2. What word does the word journalism come from?

3. How did people begin to communicate with each other: by means of signs, sounds, pictures, or words?

4. How have the various types of news media changed in a little over 100 years?

5. What has brought a profound change in the pattern of human communication?

6. What changes had taken place in the process of printing before radio arrived?

7. How did the development of radio broadcasting in the USA differ from that in Britain?

8. How did newspapers regard radio at first?

9. When did the way of learning news change radically in Great Britain?

10. How did a family get news in Great Britain about 50 years ago?

11. How does a family get news nowadays?

12. Why is it necessary for a journalist to be aware of social changes?

13. What is the main function of the newspaper today according to the author? What is your opinion?

13. Give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases. Consult the text and a dictionary:

the events distilled into a few words; to satisfy the human frailty of a world; today the news media are swamped by the very availability of news; the pattern of human communication; a passing technical fad; the ordinary man's receptivity to journalism; an evening's viewing; to take account of social changes; to catch on to this change; is tightly encapsulated; a highly abbreviated form; newspapers can be referred to; at greater length

14. Prepare to talk about the following topics:

1. Journalism is information.

2. Journalism is communication.

3. Journalism is the television picture.

4. Journalism is about people.

5. Journalism is basically about news.

6. Newspapers are archives, objects of record.

15. Check your memory.

Text: Journalism Is Information (Unit 4)

средства массовой информации; сообщение, новость; небольшая заметка (в газете); забавлять, развлекать; развлекательная программа; телевизионное изображение; радиостанция в маленьком городе; канал; служба вещания; служба новостей; национальная служба; региональная служба; телевизионная служба; организовать телевизионную службу; принимать передачи; передавать по радио, телевидению; образовательная передача; внестудийная передача; политическая передача; подготовить телевизионную передачу; "живая" передача новостей; непосредственное вещание через спутник Земли; бюллетень, сводка; радиовещание; сводка новостей; заголовок; выпускать и распространять газеты; общаться (устанавливать контакт) со слушателями, зрителями, аудиторией; слушать сводку новостей по радио; мельком взглянуть на газету; по радио, по телевидению; достичь успеха; выпустить программу; проявлять пленку; развить сюжет

Показать полностью… https://vk.com/doc-23993159_41018607
139 Кб, 8 января 2012 в 13:23 - Россия, Москва, МЭГУ, 2012 г., doc
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