Шпаргалка «Fundamentals of graphic arts production» по Английскому языку (Солодкина Е. В.)

Кирилл Николоев вс, 12.03.2017 18:11

History of printing. Printing is a means of graphic communication. It is the reproduction of quantities of images mostly on paper which can be seen or perceived visually. Modern printing has become highly sophisticated. As new digital

workflows with new pre-media systems, lasers, plates, presses, inks, papers, electronic control, nd digital imaging and printing systems have been developed, printing has been transformed almost completely from an art

to a science. Printing from movable type appeared in China and Korea in the 11th century. In 1440 Johannes Gutenberg introduced to the Western world his invention of printing with ink on paper, using movable cast

metal type mounted on a converted wine press. The invention of printing by Gutenberg has been declared the most important invention of the second millennium (101-2000). To Gutenberg we credit the invention of

combining movable cast metal type, ink, paper, and press to produce printing that changed the world in the middle of the last mlliennium. Book printing in Rusian was first introduced in the middle of the 16-th

century by Ivan the Terrible. In 1563 Ivan Fedorov printed Apostle- the first book in Russian. The first books in Europe were printed in block letter or gothic type. Formore than 400 years after the invention of

printing, all type was set by hand. in the 19th centure, men began to consider the possibility of creating typesetting machines. The first of these was designed by an American, Dr. William Church, in 1822. The

first illustrations in books weremade from woodcuts. The earliest known book using woodcuts was printed by Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg, Germany about 1460. Paper making was inrented in China mare than, 1800 yeara ago.

Ancient papers were made almost entirely from rags and were produced with hand-operated devices. Most papers currently used in printing are manufactured from wood pulp. The machine for producing continuous web of paper

using a wire mash screen to form the paper was inventad by a Frenchman, Louis Robert, in 1798. Early inks consisted of lampblack mixed with animal glue or vegetable oils. The first ink factory was established in

America in 1742. The digital revolution in typesetting occurred in 1985 with the introduction of the plain paper typesetter and the film image setter. in 1985 the image setter and Raster Image Processor(RIP) fostered

the development of device-independent prepress systems known as Desktope Publishing which displaced the device-dependent CEPS and eventually replaced conventional prepress system. Digital printers are like copiers

and use the dynamic image carriers. Each cycle of the printer transfers a fresh image to the substrate. Digital printing started in 1970 with the intriduction of ink-jet printing. Screen printing. Formerly known as silk screen, this method employs a porous screen of fine silk, nylon, dacron or stainless steel

mounted on a frame. A stencil is produced, either manually or photomechanically, in which the non-printing areas are protected by the stencil. Printing is made on paper or other substrate under the screen by applying ink

with a paint-like consistency, spreading and forcing it through the fine mesh openings with a rubber squeegee. Rotary screen presses speed up production considerably because they allow continuous operation.

Screen prining usually can be recognized by the thick layer of ink and sometimes by the texture of the screen on the printing. Screen printing is used for apparel, signage and specialty materials. Screen printing is a unique shor-run process that prints on almost any surface, and both line and halftone work

can be printed. It is used for art prints, posters, greeting cards, labels, menus, program covers, wallpaper and textiles such as tablecloths, shower curtains and draperies. Letterpress. This is method of printing Gutenberg invented in 1440 and has been used for job and commercial printing.

It is a relief method of printing that can print from cast matal type, molded duplicate plates or photopolymer plates on which the image or printing areas are raised above the nonprinting areas. There are two types of

printing processes in general use: (1)plate, impact or pressure printing, and (2)plateless, non-impact or pressureless printing. Plate systems are the major printing processes: letterpress, flexography etc.,

which are used to print quantities of reproductions for the newspaper, commercial, magazine, catalog, book, packaging, label and other large printing markets.In general the major plate processes (lithography, letterpress,

UV flexography and gravure) have higher resolution and print quality than the plateless printing processes. Viscous oil-base andUV inks are used. The ink rollers come in contact with the raised areas only, and the

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