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Реферат «History of printing» по Английскому языку (Солодкина Е. В.)

Printing is a means of graphic communications. Printing has been transformed almost completely from an art to a science. Man’s earliest known attempt at a visual record of his life and times dates back 30,000 years. These were wall drawings called pictographs, superseded by the more complex ideographs. They, in, turn were succeeded by the Persians cuneiforms and then by Egyptians hieroglyphs. Evidence of the first example of printing from movable type was discovered in 1908 by an Italian archaeologist on the island of Crete. He found a clay disk dated about 1500 B.C. Printing from movable type appeared in China and Korea in the 11th century. Book printing in Russia was first introduced in the middle of the 16th century by Ivan the Terrible. Our common typefaces are either imitation of early handwritten letters. The standard Roman lower case letters and capital letters assumed their current from about 1470 in a face cut by Nicolas Jenson. The first books in Europe were printed in block letter of gothic type. The manuscript hand of the Venetian scribes. Many national styles in writing developed as learning was carried from Rome throughout the rest of the known world. Practically all Roman typefaces in common use today have accompanying italics. Italics were first used to print small, compact books. The first typesetting machine was designed by an American, dr. William Church, in 1822; others soon followed. The first illustrations book were made from woodcuts. Books printed between 1570 and 1770 were usually illustrated by copperplate engravings. Photography for graphic arts involved the photographic processes and techniques used to reproduce illustrations and art subjects. The first commercial halftone screen was produced in 1883 by Max and Louis of Philadelphia. The first halftones were black and white. Today, photography is gradually being replaced by digital imaging. The basic principal of lithography, which means literally “writing on stone”, is actually based on the principle that grease, or oil and water do not mix. An ink made of soap, wax, oil and lampblack, was rolled on the stone. Papermaking was invented in China more than 1800 years ago. Ancient papers were made almost entirely from rags and were produced with hand-operated devices. Most papers currently used in printing are manufactured from wood pulp. Inkmaking became a commercial process in the 17th century. The first ink factory was established in America in 1742.

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